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September 02, 2016 23:00

Overview of types of solar collectors for heating and hot water at home

collector Now a lot of talk is about the environment, saving resources.But perhaps the main reason that most people try to find every opportunity to minimize power consumption - rising cost of living, which greatly contributes to the constant increase in tariffs.Our utilities like specifically pushing for it.One option to save - on heating and DHW.How this can be done using a solar collector, which is used for hot water and heating systems, and will be discussed in the article on our website better-house.ru.

The idea is that instead of the traditional use of solar energy sources, which, as you know, totally free.To do this, use a device called geliokollektorom (solar).It may be part of a hot water supply systems and heating circuits.

Do not confuse it with the product having a conformable name - solar battery (read about them here).The principal difference is that the consumer receives from the battery electric power, and from the collector - heat.Without going into the intricacies of the physical proc

esses shortly I may say so - solar radiation is transformed into heat, which is used to increase the temperature of the coolant.

scheme is quite simple: Solar collector - storage tank.Between them continuously circulates the coolant.The installation of additional devices and various, mainly, electronics, which makes operation more convenient.About all the features of a particular product can be found in the accompanying documentation.

types of solar collectors

them, there are several.We are interested in only those that can be used without difficulty in everyday life to ensure their thermal energy at home.

Models "vacuum»

absorber (an element that absorbs and stores solar energy - "black" panel) is in a vacuum.He surrounds it on all sides, thus reliably isolating from the environment.In addition, it contributes to the selective absorber coating, for which he received his second name.This engineering solution allows to reduce heat loss to a minimum.




structurally separate element is a 2 tubes (one to another).It resembles an ordinary thermos.In the space between the vacuum and stored.cylinder shape provides good absorption of solar energy in any of its location in the sky, whether it is early in the morning, noon and sunset.Its rays always fall perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the element, which helps to maximize the absorption of radiation.

Vakoumé

Direct heat

All the elements are connected to the storage tank system.The liquid from the tube enters it (they are arranged with a slope), heated and returned to the tank.In some designs, it may not be (continuous circulation).The advantage of such a solution - no "middleman" in the process of heat exchange.With

exchanger

difference is that in the storage tank is a heat exchanger (usually copper).can be mounted on its base a second circuit - hot water, if the first works on heating.It is possible to use different coolants.For hot water, natural water for the heating system, except for her, and anti-freeze or other antifreezes.This allows you to operate the unit in cold weather (at the "minus" on the street).

call

With tubes (heat)

most efficient models, but are expensive.Structurally, the panel consists of a sealed tube (copper) filled with low-boiling liquid.When heated, the formation of steam, which condenses at the top and flows down.Continuously repeating the process.vaporization temperature is known, so there is no need to explain how such an original solution.

Even with a minimum illumination panel can get enough heat.In the absence of coolant analysis (DHW) heating temperature can reach 300 ° C.

All elements connected to a common pipe (receiver), which forms the coolant.

solar collector

Pros

  1. Possibility of reliable operation at temperatures below zero.
  2. By efficiency superior "flat" counterparts by 45 - 50%.
  3. versatility as are available in several versions.
  4. good maintainability.
  5. Some models operate perfectly at temperatures down to -45 0C (with metal pipes).
  6. Out of one element of the system significantly affects the work of the collector.

Cons

  1. high cost.

«flat» solar collector model

They operate on the basis of the greenhouse effect.This Solar collector consists of 3 main parts - absorbing solar rays member (absorber), a heat insulator and a transparent cover.The emission of light by free device penetrates and accumulates there.The coolant that circulates through the system and passes through the collector is heated by the accumulated heat.In the static mode (no draw-off) panel can heat the liquid to 200 0C.

Pln

Pros

  • Simple design.
  • Cheaper vacuum models.

Cons

  • On efficiency it is much inferior.
  • Large depending on the lighting.
  • efficiency drops dramatically at low temperatures.
  • Restriction of use.More suited to the southern regions, and in the mid-latitudes and north - are ineffective.

The price range is so great that it makes sense to dwell on specific examples.

  • collector 1.84 m2 (Czech Republic) will cost 5150 rubles .This is taking into account the cost of all the components to be installed.The same model 3.6 m2 - 8250 rubles.
  • German «Logasol» vertical mounting - 29 340 rubles (2026 x 1032) .Product with dimensions of 2070 x 1145 is for 43 000 rubles.

remains to add that the return of such devices - no more than 5 years.And when you consider a guaranteed operational period (up to 30 years), it becomes clear how much can be used absolutely free of thermal energy.

Conclusions

  1. higher cost of everything collector designs - Apparent.According to experts, the cost of all relevant events are comparable to the cost of installation of autonomous systems operating on traditional fuels, such as gas boilers.
  2. effectiveness of the scheme is provided not least the quality of thermal insulation line and it must be borne in mind.
  3. Considering the prices of basic energy resources (gas, solid or liquid fuels, the same electricity), the savings will be very significant, especially for a private house, in the garden is located a few buildings.You have to understand that Solar collector can operate year-round, as long as the sun was not covered by clouds.And he accumulates radiation not only in the spectrum, which is visible to us.So this construction, installation expediency is obvious.Of course, much is determined and the needs of the particular home.But even if the panel (or assembly) and not completely replace conventional systems, the savings will give significant.In addition, it is also a good option emergency (reserve energy source).
  4. Solar collectors can be used anywhere in the world, regardless of the climate characteristics.The main thing - to choose the optimal model and design the circuit correctly.In our country, it is advisable to mount vacuum solar collectors.The flat is recommended to use only in the southern regions.