Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

Erect the ground floor with their hands

Basement - is partially or completely buried below the ground level floor of the building.In the basement is usually equipped utility room or garage, but some projects include the device in the basement bath, sauna or even a gym with a swimming pool.For houses built on small plots or on the slopes, the ground floor is simply irreplaceable - it allows you to significantly increase the useful area of ​​the building without expanding the area of ​​development.

Ground floor with their hands

Ground floor with their hands

Basement operate after the construction of the foundation, or simultaneously with it.The main requirements to the size of the cap is its width, providing sufficient strength for the erection of walls of the house on top of it, as well as the height of the interior space.According to the norms, the ceiling height of the ground floor should be at least 2.5 meters.Deepening of the cap is limited to the level of ground water: the high occurrence of vadose and in wet areas the underground part of it is usually small.In

areas with deep-seated groundwater base bury almost completely, it reduces the cost of its heating.

device basement

Cap is a continuation of the foundation, so it can be made of the same material as the foundation itself or using sten.Obychno material for the construction of the ground floor is used in-situ concrete, ready-made blocks or bricks.The wall thickness of the cap is determined by calculation.

floor basement role played by a concrete slab, it is performed by pouring or ready to put concrete slabs.Covering the ground floor can be either concrete, from plates and wood.When a large above-ground height of the cap it can be made doors and windows, thus it is necessary to place them on the south, east or west side.Location of windows on the north wall of the cap may lead to excessive accumulation of snow and bursting window frames.

Walls require mandatory cap waterproofing.The recessed portion of the cap is recommended to treat waterproofing materials both outside and inside for increased reliability.Aerial parts is allowed only to seal the outside.

technology performance monolithic basement

ground floor of reinforced concrete has a number of advantages: high strength, good protection against moisture, high speed erection.In the basement, performed on monolithic technology, you can have any room, from the garage to the pool.The ratio of underground and aboveground part of the ground floor can be anything.With high-quality waterproofing a basement which can be installed even on wet ground, with a floor slab of the ground floor must be rigid adherence to the foundation walls.

Construction Technology:

  1. plot intended for the construction, mark and dig a trench across the construction area.The depth of the pit is determined by the project, it must be deeper underground part of the foundation of 0.5-0.6 meters.It is necessary to carry sand and gravel cushion, the purpose of which - drainage of groundwater and prevent soil heaving.When a sample of soil excavated to avoid uneven penetration of the pit, so the last two feet of soil is usually removed manually.Bedding too recessed areas is prohibited, it could lead to deformation of the floor slab.

    Prepare a trench over the entire area of building

    Prepare a trench across the building area

  2. On close groundwater level can fill the pit with water.In this case it is necessary to arrange a drain at a distance of several meters from the pit, and to exclude the presence in the ground quicksand.In the presence of quicksand requirements for increased drainage device - it should be mandatory runoff and avoid stagnation of water.Podsypku operate sequentially from the layer of crushed stone or gravel to 50 mm size fraction and the sand layer.The thickness of layers -. 10 cm Each layer must be compacted and the sand also shed several times with water for maximum compaction.
  3. Over lined pillows fill the base of the lightweight concrete grade M50-M100.concrete layer thickness of 5 cm, its purpose - to perform the waterproofing layer and the base under the alignment plate pola.Na hardened concrete is laid a layer of waterproofing roll.The material can serve as a roofing material or bedding of his modern counterparts for horizontal work.Lay a waterproofing material in at least two layers, pasting them on bitumen mastic or pontoon method.

    We put a layer of waterproofing roll

    laid a layer of waterproofing roll

  4. After preparing the base for pouring slab formwork erected outside.Please fill in the floor slab, which will also serve as a support for the foundation walls.Formwork is made of a non-removable boards or boards, connecting them with the help of the bar and screws.A mandatory condition for quality and solid foundation is its reinforcement.Fittings for the foundation plate to be corrugated in the longitudinal and transverse directions.Diameter rebar - 10 cm, more precisely it is defined by calculation.The valves are placed on special guides and knit using provoloki.V field wall location for rigid connection with a stove installed vertical reinforcement bars.

    The process of reinforcement of the basement foundation

    process of reinforcing base basement

  5. After preparing formwork and fittings poured concrete slab foundation of the brand M250-M300, plate thickness is usually not less than 20 cm. The casting is produced as soon as possible.Can filling in separate batches, but the strength of the board is reduced and the joints may occur with increased tensile stress.Joints in concrete when it is better placed along the longest steny.Posle pouring concrete punch using vibrators and screeds, level the surface and allowed to mature for at least 28 days.To accelerate the speed of construction, a few days after pouring can begin construction of the formwork for the foundation and basement walls.

    The process of concreting the basement

    process of concreting the basement

  6. Formwork basement walls erected in the same way.When the formwork can be used non-removable panels made of polypropylene, they simultaneously serve as thermal insulation of walls of the cap, which is important when applying it residential pomescheniy.Armirovanie performed in the longitudinal direction of the walls, tying reinforcement bars with existing vertical bars.The foundation height of 2.5-3 meters needs to be at least two strapping belts located at the bottom and the top.In building on silnopuchinistyh ground with the possibility of horizontal shift of soil reinforcement may be enhanced by additional belts.

    Erect the formwork for the walls of the ground floor

    Erect the formwork for the walls of the ground floor

  7. When the device is necessary to lay shuttering windows and doors installed in place of the project, as well as the sleeves of metal pipes for the construction of communications.
  8. pouring concrete is carried out as soon as possible, or in layers.Fill each subsequent layer must be carried out either before the initial setting of the previous games, or after holding not less than 3 days, it will help to avoid the destruction of concrete, not gain sufficient strength, under the weight of these parties rastvora.Nabor hardness project lasts for 28 days, after which you canproceed to further construction and laying floors.

    The process of pouring concrete

    process of pouring concrete

  9. Waterproofing basement operate outside of coating or back-lining method.From the inside it is more convenient to apply the penetrating waterproofing, do not violate paroobmena and increases the strength of concrete.Thermal insulation on the outside of the cap is usually performed with the use of polystyrene plates, mounted on a special adhesive.The above-ground part of the plate is further fastened with dowels to the foam.

    Waterproofing of the basement

    Waterproofing basement

  10. backfill underground part can be ground to produce selected in the process of digging the pit, however, if the ground is solid impurities that can damage the hydro and thermal insulation layer is recommended for filling coarse sand.
  11. Finishing a basement can repeat finish the main walls of the building or be made using other materials.The ground floor can be nice to beat, giving the house a unique decor and charm.

technology implementation cap of blocks or bricks.

When the cap of the materials its underground part, which plays the role of the foundation can be made by casting technology or strip foundation also of the blocks.At the same floor of the ground floor usually has no rigid connection with the walls and poured separately, after the construction of the foundation.Since its gidroizrolyatsionnye properties slightly lower this cap is usually erected in areas with deep groundwater and a half meters.

foundation is poured to the ground level in the usual way, waiting for a set of concrete project hardness, and then spread the aboveground part of the plinth blocks or bricks.Laying lead to grout with ligation, with every two-four layers further enhance the reinforcing mesh.The technology of waterproofing and insulation cap is not different from the above.

The process of construction of the cap out of the blocks and bricks

process of construction of the cap out of the blocks and bricks

plinth blocks can also be performed on the pile technology: in the bottom of the pit pierce concrete piles, which will serve as a support for the floor slabs and the space between them lay the concrete blocks.Such a foundation has high resistance to stress, but requires the use of large amounts of heavy equipment, so in particular the construction is rarely used.