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August 25, 2016 23:11

How to make a grounding in a private home .Guidelines and Policies

How to protect people living in a private house, electric shock?To do this, there is a security measure, in which the main electrical installation is connected to ground via a conductor.With basic skills, you can make the ground of a private house with his own hands, saving significantly on the services of special organizations.

necessary to examine in detail the rules for Electrical Installation (PUE), safety at work with the devices.By the selection of equipment and tools should be approached carefully, preferring the reliable manufacturers.Before starting work, should examine the existing equipment and the actual wiring of the house.Initial data are needed for the correct calculation of the grounding device - the most important component of the entire system.

Grounding of a private house with his own hands

Grounding private house with his own hands

As a result, the optimal values ​​of the resistance value to be obtained, the number of electrodes and the distance between them.Next, the markings on the ground near the building to det

ermine the best design.From the selected type grounding device dependent methods Bookmark trench and burying electrodes.Installation setup - the most important stage of the literacy of its implementation depends on whether the system is to work effectively, all the earth.

Role ground

Let us ask ourselves.Why do we need grounding?The abundance of home appliances and other electrical equipment imposes stringent requirements for home security.As with any building, ground in a private home - is to establish electrical contact with the casing soil ground.It provides protection for the person from the negative impact of current, as well as perform a number of other important functions:

  • optimization of electrical installations;
  • warning network problems;
  • preservation of health technology in surges;
  • reduction in the power of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

Operating principle Ground

case of contact person with the device, the surface of which there was tension, electric current is sent into the ground than through the body and through the conductor.It's all about the difference between the resistance values: a man - 1 k, the conductor - 4 ohms.Electric current elect the easiest and fastest way to the ground, which has a high electric capacity.As a result, a residual current device (RCD) responds to current leakage in the circuit and produces a shutdown problem area.

Concepts

key element of the system is a grounding device, which can be factory or homemade.It consists of:

It looks like earthing and grounding conductor .A photo

It looks like earthing and grounding conductor.Photo

1. Earthing - metal structure in contact with the ground.It carries out the descent and dispersion of current.Types:

  • natural (part of the building elements, deepens the soil);
  • artificial (specially made Guides. Used when the natural resistance is not correct).

If the ground is made of a private house with his own hands, PUE recommend the use of natural grounding:

  • steel pipe;
  • street metallic structures (column, pillar);
  • protective lead cover of the power cable;
  • steel or reinforced concrete structure of the building, located in the ground (foundation, column).

2. The grounding conductor - element connecting the earthing and electrical installation.It is a wire strands in yellow insulation of the external and internal contours, bus in the distribution board.

How to calculate the resistance of the grounding device

conductivity magnitude of the earthing directly affects the resistance of the entire system.With the increase in size of the electrode resistance is reduced, and the number of received current increases.According to the SAE maximum allowable resistance values ​​are:

ground - to - chasnom - dome2

to competently make a grounding in a private home, you need to make a preliminary assessment.Example of formula for a single earthing with a round cross-section:

ground - to - home - chasnom

Initial data are specialized directories.To check the collected equipment efficiency measurement carried out on the spot.If the value exceeds the norm, it is required to increase the number of earth or the depth of their location.

When using multiple electrodes calculation is complicated.For each indicator is according to the formula above, then get them to the total value.Next, apply the utilization rate, showing the impact of earth on top of each other.The most effective distance between the electrodes is equal to the length of their penetration, multiplied by 2.

ground - to - chasnom - dome3

To calculate the number of the electrodes acts formula:

ground - to - chasnom - dome4

ground rules in a private house

Before self-grounding is in a private home, you need to get acquainted with the methods of its implementation.

vanishing

ground - to - chasnom - dome8

works, but not very reliable way.It passes through the switchboard wire - zero potential, by contacting the compound with the housing with the bolt.To ground the new conductor, it must be secured by the bolt or make a similar fixation side.However, in this case the wire is not protected from the combustion inlet.

grounding circuit

grounding circuit in a private home .A photo

grounding scheme in a private home.Photo

most secure way.How to implement it:

  1. next to the house to dig a pit depth of two bayonet spades.Mechanical drilling of holes in the ground to make it is impossible, because the work will not be a loop;
  2. score in the bottom of the pit metal area (about 3 m, width of 40 x 40 cm or 50 x 50 cm);
  3. connected to a corner of a flexible stranded wire PV-3 (section 6 mm2) and bring it to the board.

to ground loop in a private home gave the maximum effect, the design must have metallosvyazyu: consist of 3-4 parts, welded together metal strip similar width.

addition to the direct grounding in the work necessary to perform at least one of the following conditions:

  • potential equalization values;
  • voltage drop;
  • setting device for automatic shut-off;
  • use wires with double insulation;
  • use of isolating transformers.

help implement proper grounding in a private home designed to specifically designed and regularly updated PUE.This regulation prohibits:

  • grounded electrical installation on any kind of pipe, including plastic;
  • output grounding conductor to the outside for connection to the bus on unprotected from moisture pads.

What will it take for the work

as artificial earth electrodes can be used steel angles, tubes, rods, electrodes, galvanized.These elements can not be painted in order to avoid reducing their conductivity.In view of their anti-corrosion treated with special trains.Equally important are the other values:

  • minimum cross-section of the electrodes: a rectangular rental - 48 mm2, the rod of black metal - 10 mm, galvanized steel - 6 mm.The thickness of the walls and shelves - 4 mm;
  • minimum cross-section of materials for metallosvyazi: Rod - 5 mm, rectangular steel - 24 mm2.The thickness of the walls and shelves - 2.5 mm.

Earth bar .How to make ground in the country

grounding bus.How to make ground in the country

also grounded in a private home provides for the use of the electrical tires bronze.It will take a sledgehammer to the natural penetration of the electrode or a jackhammer - artificial, stepladder, for arc welding black steel.

When wiring the rooms is necessary: ​​

  • wire (minimum cross-section for copper bare - 4 mm, insulated - 1.5 mm, bare aluminum - 6 mm, isolated - 2.5 mm);
  • socket with contact to the ground;
  • bracket or skirting trunking for capturing and processing.

stages of installation of grounding devices in a private house

  1. preparatory work.
  2. Deepening design.
  3. collection metallosvyazi
  4. connection to the switchboard.

Preparations .The layout of earth location made on the basis of several conditions:

  • distance to the foundation - about a meter contour shape - any: line, triangle, circle, etc .;
  • optimum spacing between the electrodes - 1.2 m;
  • trench minimum parameters: earthing for natural depth of 50 cm, a width of 1 m burial places;Artificial -. hole 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m

If you use metal, for the best diving in the soil it is possible to sharpen the end, using grinders.The material used, be sure to clean off all coatings.When installing the module factory to wind the electrode pointed head, and a junction lubricated paste.

Deepening design.Metal studs homemade hammer into the ground with a sledgehammer.When the metal is not very hard, it is advisable to wear a wooden pad to seal during strikes.The upper part of each earth electrode should extend from the bottom of the trench is 15 - 20 cm.

jackhammer with a cartridge capacity hitting 20 - 25 J deepened factory electrodes.At first lowered to a depth of 1.5 m pin screwed coupling and the next part of the earth electrode.Then, work is continuing with a hammer and other parts of the accession until the design depth.

collection metallosvyazi .Connect all of the electrodes may be using metal strips, to get the ground loop in a private home - the final element of a design.Black joins metal weld, not oxidizing materials - bolts.

When the band is ready, it continues in the direction of the house and is attached to the foundation.At the end of the contour welded M8 bolt for fixing the conductor.The default setting for this purpose on the final pin hang clip, which is then protected by waterproof tape.The trench is dug dense fine-grained composition or withdrawn soil.The factory unit with one electrode of a plastic well may be provided.

connection to the switchboard .Create your guide to the house is possible by using plastic or metal pipe-liner.Next, it is necessary to compress the end bolted and connected to the ground bus located on the body according to the CT system (when the grounding circuit is not linked to the neutral conductor N).Yellow wire strands must also hold in the bus connectors.Multimeter checked resistance grounding device.

Conclusion

is important to use high-quality materials and observe safety precautions.Have a minimum of electrical experience, a good knowledge about the house in which to work and careful preparation of all phases - the key to successful implementation of the ground.