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August 12, 2017 18:06

Assembly and installation of the electrical panel with their own hands

When repairing or building is always in front of the hosts there is a question about wiring: its replacement or installation "from scratch".And this question ignore the way does not work, because it does not cost any modern home without electricity.But, in addition to its direct function, ensuring the right place the right amount of electricity - it has yet to be properly distributed and secure.It is engaged in the electrical panel, which is sure to have in our apartments and houses.

Engineering science is absolutely indifferent to the human senses, it is based on the exact sciences - physics and mathematics.That is why, before doing the wiring, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge and understanding of the whole process of physics.Assembly and installation of th

e electrical panel with their own hands is possible, but only with full understanding of the process.The purpose of this article - a small educational program and specific recommendations that may help.

Assembly and installation of the electrical panel with their own hands

assembly and installation of the electrical panel with their hands

What is the electrical panel and what is it for?

Article Contents

  • 1 What is the electrical panel and what is it for?
  • 2 electricity distribution principles in groups
    • 2.1 Video: Electricity.How to divide into groups
  • 3 electrical panel Charting
  • 4 it necessary to RCD in the electrical panel?
  • 5 How to calculate the number of seats in the electrical panel?
    • 5.1 Example of calculating the number of seats in
  • 6 electrical panel How to choose a good electrical panel
  • 7 How to choose a modular equipment in the electrical panel?
    • 7.1 Video: Secrets of the assembly and select the machine.Electrical and wiring in the repair
  • 8 assembly and installation of the electrical panel
    • 8.1 Installation of electrical switchboard housing
    • 8.2 Organization of cable entry into the electric panel
    • 8.3 cables Cutting inside the electrical panel
    • 8.4 protection of internal electrical panel of repair and finishing works
    • 8.5 Pre-assembly of the electrical panel on the frame
      • 8.5.1 layout options of modular devices in the electrical panel
      • 8.5.2 principles of modular installation devices in the electrical panel
      • 8.5.3 Benefits conductive wire PV3 before PV1
      • 8.5.4 Video: Crimping wire lugs
      • 8.5.5 Installation and switching of modular devices
      • 8.5.6 it necessary to voltage monitoring relays?
      • 8.5.7 Video: Connecting voltage monitoring relays
      • 8.5.8 What nondisconnectable line in the electrical panel?
      • 8.5.9 Video: can not be disabled in the line of electrical panel
    • 8.6 final installation of the electrical panel.Connecting consumer groups
    • 8.7 Commissioning works
  • 9 Operation electrical panel
  • 10 Conclusion
  • 11 Video: Build Power Shield (describing the process)
  • 12 Video: Overview of electricalshield apartments

The term electrical panel may be hiding other concepts.It can be called a diminutive - the switch box, distribution board (guard) also concerns him, and the main switchboard, group shield.The essence of this unit from the name is not changed.For what it is intended?

  • Firstly, the electrical panel must take energy from an external source.
  • Secondly, shield distributes energy by consumer groups.
  • Third, this device is to protect the wiring short-circuit and high current loads.
  • Fourth, modern dashboards monitor the quality of the incoming energy, and, if necessary, react to it yourself, or connect other devices.
  • Finally, the electrical panel must provide security, rescue people and animals from the damaging factors of electric current.

small in size on the device is assigned a number of important functions.That is why the attitude to the electrical panel must be the most serious and thoughtful.And without settlements and without science there can not do.But the whole complex and difficult-to-understand science it can be offered in the form of several recommendations that simply help to make things right.Let us turn to the case.

electricity distribution principles in groups

Naturally, the electricity that comes into the house or apartment must be properly distributed.To name a few "iron" of the distribution rules, observing that you can begin to build their own electrical panel.

  • All powerful consumers of electric energy to be allocated in separate groups.This applies to washing machines and dishwashers, air conditioners, ovens and electric cookers, water heaters and other devices, which power more than 2 kilowatts.And on each line in the panel must be suitably rated circuit breaker.Each of these lines should not have any branches, and go straight from the panel to the consumer segment of the whole cable.
  • washing machines, dishwashers, water heaters, air conditioners, electric oven, some with connecting cable 2.5 mm2: VVGng or NYM 3 * 2.5 mm2.In each line switchboard protected by circuit breaker (AB, machine) at 16 Amps.
Circuit Breakers 16 A are protected by all the outlet line

Circuit Breakers 16 A protected all outlet lines

  • Some ovens require a connection cable with a large cross-section - 4 mm2, respectively, and the denomination of the machine in the panel should already be 20 Amps.And such powerful devices such as electric hob or instantaneous water heaters are already "demand" cable 6 mm2 and a circuit breaker rated at 32 Ampere.
Modern electric cooktops are one of the most powerful household electricity consumers

Modern electric cooktops are one of the most powerful residential consumers

  • Rosette line so it is best to distribute - in each room or area, it should have its own separate and made a three-conductor cable is 2.5 mm2 (or VVGngNYM) on the way to this line can branch out into distribution boxes to the desired number of sockets.In the event of any emergency situation will not have to turn off the other rooms, you can turn off just the right machine (or it turns off itself).
  • lighting lines must also make separate for each room and cable of 1.5 mm2.Each line must be protected in the shield machine at 10 Amps.

may at first seem that this approach to wiring in general and in particular the shield may seem redundant.But in fact, it is only true in terms of safety, ease of operation and comfort.

Some would-be electricians or DIY, do not have basic knowledge of electrical engineering in the assembly of electrical panels and wiring installation of the desire to save money buy cheap breakers and RCD unknown origin.Instead, they use a variety of cable wire (SPAP, PVA), but also make an illegal thing to some of the lines are beginning to reduce the cable size.

Consider a simple example.Suppose there is a wiring line lighting some room.From the left panel cable VVGng 3 * 1.5 mm2, which is under the protection of the machine is 10 Amps.But then, at the next branching in the junction box "caring" the electrician said that the next load will be smaller and "can" go to the wire section below.Let it be a group of lamps in the false ceiling.Out of the box into the ceiling already came PVS 2 * 0.75 mm2.According to circumstances beyond the owners reason was the closure, such as a neighbor, on top of just flooded.The increased current to the wire 10 A solid that PVA 2 * 0.75 mm2 already critical, and the cross section of 1.5 mm2 is normal.Wire strongly heated, melted insulation, and AB at 10 amps does not "see" any problems.And very often this is the cause of fire.This is a very important principle - -section on a line should not be cut! Application of PVA wires to connect the lamps is quite acceptable, but then it must be of the same section.

Video: Electricity.How to divide into groups

electrical panel Charting

wiring design in general, and in particular the shield is best to entrust the electrical engineer.But if the above principles are met, then we can try to do it yourself.And the first thing to do - is to create a circuit wiring.Example of single-line diagram is shown in Figure.

single-line diagram of the electrical panel may seem strange only at first

At first glance incomprehensible "abracadabra" ordinary people may be quite understandable if we say that it is called a single-line only because they do not paint the each wire separately, andIt shows a group.The number of inclined transverse dashes shows how the group of conductors.At the bottom of the circuit painted line customers, their power and how the cable wiring must be installed.

Ā«Undetermined" device icons H1 - is load-break switch (switch), its task is simply to break the electric circuit, which is under load.Allowed instead use the circuit breaker, but it is by virtue of its design, sensitive about off-load.H2, H3, ... .H16 - it breakers, and A1, F1, F2, F3 - is protective devices - RCD.In the upper left part of the diagram shows a floor panel, which is installed on the opening machine 100 amps, watt-hour meter and inlet RCD, which is often called the fire due to the fact that works on a large enough differential current 100-500 mA, but it will save from the leak,which can trigger a fire.This device is best to choose selective - this means that it should not react immediately, but "wait" for a while, worked to the RCD, which are closer to the wiring problem areas.But if they suddenly did not react, the selective input RCD disable the whole house or apartment.

Selective RCDs

Selective RCD

For understandable perception of the electric circuit board and can be viewed in a more attractive way, where are painted all Guides and all devices.

As such, the electrical circuit is more understandable

As such, the electrical circuit is more understandable

In the upper right part of the shield shows a group of three RCD, and in the bottom 9 breakers.

it necessary to RCD in the electrical panel?

unambiguous answer to this question only one - yes, it is necessary!All power dedicated lines and outlet must also be "supervised" RCD.What you need to know and on what basis to choose about him?

  • For power lines and sockets should be chosen with RCD residual current 30 mA operation.Moreover, the nominal operating current of the RCD must not be less than that of the machine, but rather a step more.
  • in "wet" rooms for power outlets in bathrooms, spa bath, washing machine, electric underfloor heating is used RCD with a residual current of 10 mA.
  • As can be seen from the scheme, under the "wing" of the RCD can put a few lines (2-4) protected by circuit breakers.Then it is called the group of RCD.It must ensure that the operating current of the RCD was approximately equal to or greater than the sum was protected denomination machines lines.
  • Using Differential machines, ie those who combines the functions of circuit breakers and RCD, is not justified from an economic point of view.It is better to buy them separately.Emergency circuit breakers separately, it makes sense to put the shortage of space in the switch box or to protect critical lines.For example, electric underfloor heating in bathrooms.
Differential machine combines the functions of the RCD and circuit breaker

Differential machine combines the functions of the RCD and circuit breaker

After circuit switchboard has been developed, it is desirable to still consult with a specialist, because a lot of these issues "pitfalls" that a beginner can nottake account.

How to calculate the number of seats in the electrical panel?

All equipment that is installed in a modern electric board has a standard uniform size.All major elements are placed on a DIN-rail, special metal profiles 35 mm wide.The unit is a unit of this size or location that holds a single-pole circuit breaker having a width of 17.5 mm.And one of the most important characteristics of the electrical panel is the number of modules or packages.How do I know how much you need?Very simply, it is necessary to recalculate the right amount of the scheme, using a lookup table.

(35 mm)
Illustration Name Number of units (seats)
1 single-pole circuit breaker 1 module (17.5 mm)
2 single-phase two-pole circuit breaker 2 module
4 single phase RCD 2 modules (35 mm)
Protsessed to : Alison filter ;
3 three-pole circuit breaker 3 modules (52,5 mm) -phase RCD 4 modules (70 mm)
6 Alternating differential automatic 2 modules (70 mm)
8 Terminal for DIN-rail 1 module (17,5 mm)
7 electricity meter modular 6-8 units (105-140 mm)
I socket module for DIN-rail 3 modules (52,5 mm)
10 relay voltage 3 modules (52,5 mm)

authors strongly recommend not regret 3rd place and mount the plate in the socket module.It is necessary to ensure that it would be possible to turn off all the lines and easy to connect power to the shield an extension cord with the repair work.

is also recommended to use a voltage relay, tracking of its value in the network.If it is outside the normal framework - switch off the load, and after a certain time again includes.This allows you to save electricity of consumers demanding voltage.

example of calculating the number of seats in the electrical panel

For a more complete understanding of the calculation give an example of the scheme and make a calculation of the number of modules in a simple electrical panel, whose scheme is shown in Fig.

An example of a simple circuit of the electric switchboard

example of a simple circuit board electrical

The scheme simple apartment shield single phase, in which electrical energy meter is mounted.Input cable made VVGng 3 * 6 mm2.We calculate the number of modules.

  • On entering the two-pole machine 2 module.
  • further 6 meter modules eventually 8.
  • Two RCD four places, as a result 12.
  • six-pole machines, then 12 + 6 = 18 beds.
  • Two Zero tires for RCD 1 and RCD 2, then 18 + 2 = 20.

Background Zero tire and the tire PE generally included good guards, and they are mounted on DIN-rail, and are located above and below the body.It turns out that even for a simple flap has required 20 seats.But experts always recommend taking guard with the reserve, on the lines of adding the case, and so in the panel was not all scored "to the eyeballs."Therefore, the closest by number - this is boxing for 24 seats, and even better to get 36 seats.

How to choose a good electrical panel

Once the number of seats should be defined, and which actually need a shield, a design.What do they happen?