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August 12, 2017 18:06

Types and patterns of roof systems

designing any residential building, the architects pay special attention to the roof, as it carries not one but several functions, depending on its design features.It must be said that not all future homeowners meet ordinary gable roof, although it can be called the most reliable, because it has only two plane pitched and one joint between them.Many are attracted to more sophisticated designs that add structure special appeal and originality.Other, more practical homeowners prefer to roof construction, which at the same time are able to fulfill the role of the roof and the second floor.

Types and patterns of roof systems

Types and patterns of roof systems

basis of any individual is a roof truss system, with its own design features.Make the right choice of roof frame will be much easier if you understand in advance what are the types and roof systems schemes used in construction practice.Upon receipt of such information will become clear how complicated to assemble such constructs.This is particularly important to know if the f

ramework for the roof is expected to build their own.

main functional problem of roof systems

Article Contents

  • 1 main functional problem of roof systems
  • 2 main roof structure elements
    • 2.1 components and spare parts of roof systems
    • 2.2 Attic space
    • 2.3 slope ramps
  • 3 basic design of roof systems
    • 3.1 Naslonnaya system
    • 3.2 Hanging system
  • 4 shaped roof and truss system
    • 4.1 Pent roof
      • 4.1.1 simple calculation parameters truss system
      • 4.1.2 Calculator height "rafter triangle»
      • 4.1.3 calculator for calculating the length of the rafters
    • 4.2 gabletruss system
      • 4.2.1 Video: useful information for planning a gable roof truss system
    • 4.3 hip rafters and poluvalmovaya system
      • 4.3.1 Videos: features the design and installation of gambrel roof
    • 4.4 Hip rafter system
    • 4.5 Broken truss system
    • 4.6 Mnogoskatnaya truss system
  • 5 Some useful advice on the choice of roof system
    • 5.1 load calculation Calculator truss
  • system

At arrangement of pitched roof constructions, truss system is framed to cover and to keep materials "roofing pie".With proper installation frame structure will be created the necessary conditions for the proper "work" insulated and non-insulated type of roofing to protect the walls and the interior of the home from different weather conditions.

When choosing the type of roof system must take into account many diverse criteria

When choosing the type of roof system must take into account many diverse criteria

roof design also always is the final element of exterior architectural building design, its appearance maintaining its stylistic direction.However, the design features roof systems in the first place must meet the requirements of durability and reliability, which should correspond to the roof, and only then already - aesthetic criteria.

frame truss system generates the configuration and angle of inclination of the roof.These parameters are largely dependent on natural factors, specific to the region, as well as the homeowner desires and possibilities:

  • amount of rainfall during the different periods of the year.
  • direction and average wind speed in the area where the building will be erected.
  • plans to use the space under the roof - everything in it residential or non-residential premises, or use it only as an air layer for thermal insulation below the premises.
  • Variety planned roofing material.
  • Financial Opportunities homeowner.

Precipitation and wind power flows provide a very sensitive load on the roof structure.For example, in regions with heavy snowfall should not choose a truss system with a small inclination angle rays as snow masses will stay on the surface, which can lead to deformation of the carcass or roofing or leakage.

If the area where the building will be made, is famous for its winds, it is better to choose a design with a slight slope ramp to the case of sharp gusts not thwarted the individual elements of the roof and the roof.

Key elements of the roof structure

components and spare parts of roof systems

Depending on the type of roof system, used design elements can vary considerably, but there are details that are present in a simple andin complex roof systems.

The main components of standard truss system

The main components of standard truss system

The main elements of the truss system are pitched roof:

  • rafters forming the roof slopes.
  • mauerlat - wooden beams, fastened to the walls of the house and serving for fixing thereon the bottom of the rafters.
  • Skate - a joint skeletons of two stingrays.It usually is the highest horizontal roof line and serves as a support on which are fixed the rafters.The ridge may be formed by the rafters, connected to each other at a certain angle, or fixed to the ridge board (run).
  • Crate - a rail or bar mounted to the rafters with a certain step and serve as the basis for the deck selected roofing material.
  • Retaining elements, where you can carry them sleepers, girders, pillars, struts, ties, and other items, serve to increase the rigidity of rafters, ridge support, binding the individual components in the overall design.

addition to these details of construction, it may include other elements which function aimed at hardening systems, and optimal distribution of load on the roof structure walls.

Rafter system is divided into several categories depending on the different characteristics of their design.

Attic space

Before proceeding to the consideration of different types of roofs, is to figure out what would be the attic space, as many owners successfully use it as a full-fledged business and residential premises.

Before choosing a roof system should immediately determine what role the attic

Before choosing a roof system should immediately determine what role the attic

construct pitched roofs can be divided into Built-up and attic.The first option is called this way because the space under the roof of a small height and is used only as a warming layer of air on top of the room of the building.Such systems typically include pent roofs or having a few rays, but located at a very slight angle.

Attic structure having a sufficiently large height of the ridge, can be used in different ways, be insulated and non-insulated.These options include the attic or gable option.If you choose the roof with a high ridge, it is imperative to take into account the wind loads in a region where the house is built.

slope ramps

To determine the optimal slope roof slopes future residential building in the first place you need to look at the already ranked low-rise neighbor's home.If they are more than one year and steadfastly withstand wind loads, their design can be safely to base.In the same case, when the owners set a goal to create an exclusive original design, unlike the buildings standing side by side, you should be familiar with design and operational features of different roof systems and to make the appropriate calculations.

The figure shows a simplified wind impact on the pitched roof

Figure simplistically illustrated wind impact on the pitched roof

Keep in mind that how large roof slope depends on the change of the tangent and normal wind force values ​​- the steeper the angle, the more important are the normal forces andless shear.If the roof is flat, the structure has a greater effect on the tangential wind load, as it increases the lift on the leeward side and decreases on the windward.

Consolidated wind and snow load may force to strengthen the individual elements of roof system

Consolidated wind and snow load may force to strengthen the individual elements of roof system

Winter snow load must also be taken into account in the design of the roof.Usually this factor is considered in conjunction with the wind load, as upwind snow load will be much lower than the leeward slope.In addition, on the slopes there are places where it will be sure to gather snow, giving large load on this area, so it should be strengthened by additional rafters.Sloping roofs

rays may vary from 10 to 60 degrees, and it should be selected not only based on the consolidated external load, but also depending on the roofing which is to be used.This factor is taken into account because roofing materials vary in their weight, for their fastening elements require a different number of roof system, and hence will vary the load on the wall of the house, and how large it will also depend on the angle of slope of the roof.Equally important are the characteristics of each coating for resistance to water penetration - many roofing materials in any case must be one or the other slope to ensure the free gathering rainwater or melting snow.In addition, by selecting the slope of the roof, you need to think in advance how the process will be carried out cleaning and repair work on the roof.

planning a particular roof pitch you need to know, the smaller joints between the cover sheets, and what they are sealed, the less you can do incline ramp, of course, if you are not supposed to make a living in the attic space or utility room.

If used for roofing material consisting of small items, such as ceramic tiles, the slope of ramps to do quite steep, so that the water never lingered on the surface.

Given the weight of roofing material, you need to know - the harder the coating, the rays must be greater than the angle, as in this case the load is properly distributed on the truss system and load-bearing walls.metal tiles or profiled sheet, galvanized steel, corrugated asbestobetonnye and bitumen-fiber sheets, cement and ceramic tile, roofing material, soft roofing and other roofing materials:

following materials can be used to cover the roof.The illustration below shows the allowable slope angles of rays for different types of roofing.

This diagram will help to determine the ratio of the slope of ramps and the proposed roofing material

This diagram will help to determine the ratio of the slope of ramps and the proposed roofing material

basic design of roof systems

First of all it is necessary to consider the basic types of roof systems with respect to the location of the walls of the house, which are used in all designs of roofs.The basic options are divided into naslonnuyu, pendant, and combined, that is, including in their design elements and the first and second types of systems.

Naslonnaya system

in buildings, which provides for the internal load-bearing walls, often installed naslonnaya truss system.Mount it much easier than a hanging, since the internal load-bearing walls to provide a reliable support of its elements, and in addition, for this structure will require fewer materials.

Typical sloping roof system design

Typical naslonnoy design

truss system to the rafters in this system is determined by the reference point is a ridge board on which they are fixed.Bezrasporny naslonnoy kind of system can be equipped in three versions:

  • In a first embodiment, the upper side of the rafter is fixed to the ridge pole, called the moving, and the lower side is fixed by them to notching mauerlat.Additionally, the bottom of the rafter is fixed to the wall using brackets or wire.
Rigid fixing rafters to mauerlat

rigid attachment to the rafters mauerlat

  • In the second case, on top of the rafters are cut at a certain angle and connected to each other by means of special metal plates.
One of the options for connection ridge rafters

one embodiment, the compounds rafters in ridge

The lower edge of the rafters attached to mauerlat movable fixtures.

Sliding mounting on rafters mauerlat

Sliding fixing rafters to mauerlat

  • In a third embodiment, the rafters are rigidly fastened to the top of the bars or treated planks arranged horizontally, parallel to each other on both sides of the connection at an angle rafter, and between them pinched ridge run.
Driving pinch ridge runs at the top of rafters

Scheme pinching ridge at the top run

rafters in the lower part for fixing the rafters, as well as in the previous case, the slide mount used.

necessary to explain why to fix the rafters to mauerlat often used is the sliding mount.The fact that they can relieve the bearing walls from excessive stress, since the rafters are not fixed rigidly, and shrinkage of the structure they are able to move without distorting with the general construction of the roof system.

This type of attachment is used only in naslonnyh systems that also sets them apart from the hanging version.

However, in some cases to apply the rafters naslonnyh spacer system in which the lower end is rigidly fixed to the rafters mauerlat, and to remove the load from the walls are built into the design of the tightening and struts.This option is called integrated because it includes elements naslonnoy and hanging system.

for the construction of private homes is naslonnaya system is used more often, so a few words should be said about the assembly work.

  • the extracted bearing walls of the house is laid waterproofing material - most often it is roofing.
  • on waterproofing is secured by anchors mauerlat - it can be a timber of a large cross-section (for example, 120 × 150 or 150 × 150 mm).
  • On mauerlat rafters are fixed to the sliding or rigid mount.Quite often, additional rafters are fixed on the inner side of the wall with a wire twist.To do this in the wall at a distance of 250 ÷ 300 mm from the surface mauerlat hammered crutch on which is screwed the wire, and then fixed to the rafters.This fixture will keep intact the roof during the strong wind.
Driving additional fastening to the rafter mauerlat wire strand

Driving additional fastening to the rafter mauerlat wire twisting

Scheme numerals indicate:

1 - rafter;

2 - mauerlat;

3 - a brick wall;

4 - counter-;

5 - wire twisting;

6 - fastener.

  • At the top of the rafters can be connected with one of the above methods.
  • To generate tightening overhang joists or rafters themselves are derived by the edges of external load-bearing walls.This arrangement will protect the wall in the rain.The width of the overhang should be 500 ÷ 600 mm.
  • further strengthening truss system braces, struts and girders.
Decking boards do perform activities more comfortable and safe

decking boards do perform activities more comfortable and safe

Before starting assembly operations for installing roof system recommended by the floor beams at least temporarily lay board.