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August 12, 2017 18:06

Brick masonry oven which to choose

Hosts country houses in our time thinking through the issues with the heating housing have a very wide choice.The range of the boiler equipment and all the necessary components for an effective heating system with regard to the existing conditions - is extremely wide.However, many owners wish to have in your home is also a real brick oven.That - and a tribute to the traditions, and the creation of a special comfort, and the availability of fail-safe "helper" for emergencies.

Brick masonry oven which to choose

Brick masonry oven which one to choose

brick masonry stove - quite a complex process that requires considerable skills.This is usually entrusted to an experienced master-oven-builder, whose services are constantly in demand.However, so "arranged" many Russians, they want to try to do everything on their own.To do this, you must find a quality, proven-operation poryadovkoy scheme, the most suitable size and function to a particular place of erection.But she stove must be built of quality material with a well-prepared solutio

n.This publication will be considered for brick masonry oven which one to choose for a particular department structures, how to evaluate the quality, what mistakes should be avoided.

Even if invited master setter, a qualitative brick information will be useful.Unfortunately, a lot of this field strive for masteries frank "shabashniks", whose main goal - to disrupt as much money from the owners, inflate overhead while gaining not the most high-quality material.Therefore, no harm will be monitoring the purchase of bricks, which is best done in conjunction with the master.Anyway, so will avoid unnecessary recriminations.

Departments furnace and basic load falling on them

Article Contents

  • 1 furnace Departments and the main burden falling on them
  • 2 main parameters of brick
  • 3 bricks Typesin material and manufacturing technology
    • 3.1 lime brick
    • 3.2 hyperpressed brick
    • 3.3 Ceramic brick
    • 3.4 Clinker
    • 3.5 refractory fireclay bricks
  • 4 How to evaluatebrick when choosing?
    • 4.1 Video: for brick quality control recommendations for the stove
    • 4.2 Video: Comparative extreme tests the quality of furnace bricks
    • 4.3 Video: a brief overview of bricks for furnaces and fireplaces Company «LODE»

Novice master must first understand that the furnace consists of various departments, each of which is experiencing its own "bouquet" of loads of different plan - thermal, mechanical, chemical, humidity and even abrasive - particularly the well head pipe is exposed to constant influence of wind.Consequently, bricks, and for different elements of this structure can be applied different.You can briefly see below) poryadovkoy it is not - it is simply a schematic illustration of the furnace core structure).

The approximate scheme departments brick oven

approximate scheme brick oven departments

oven - rather heavy construction, therefore, it requires a solid foundation (item 1.).Usually cast concrete slab, but it need not "drag" in the room, because it is a powerful rechargeable battery and a conductor of cold from the ground.Therefore, the optimum will arrange it so that it was below the level of the floor (pos. 3).And at the desired height above the floor level to the base of a further clutch is already directly by the furnace, it is better to put two - three series of solid bricks (4 pos.).They are separated from the concrete pits waterproofing layer (pos. 2).Naturally, such a basis will withstand a load of the entire mass of the furnace, so the basic rate here is on the strength of the brick.In addition, it reduces the possibility of exposure to subzero temperatures, so important and frost resistance of the material.

furnace Area (Pos. 5) is subjected to a maximum temperature by direct flame, and temperature can here be critically high.Therefore, a special refractory brick, fireclay or, less frequently, quartz.

The furnace refractory fireclay brick laid

Furnace refractory fireclay brick is laid

area around the furnace, the whole maze of chimney internal channels (Pos. 6) also experiences significant thermal stresses, however, is already incompatible with the furnace.It requires a high-quality heat-resistant ceramic brick.

Of course, you always want to oven, located in the room looked beautiful.Therefore, the upper cladding layer (pos. 7) must also comply with certain rules.For cases where the wonders oven with masonry under unravel, used a well-crafted face brick as the usual form, and shaped.It is possible to use a brick and a beautiful textural surface.In the case where the plans should oven finishing, such as plastering or facing tiles, bricks have external data play no role.On the contrary, a few rough surface ordinary brick is even preferable to better to grip the mortar.But in any case, the brick must be of high quality, always full-bodied, with a high heat capacity and good heat transfer, since the outer surface of the oven should be well heated and radiate heat into the room.

All that is above the main gate-dampers (pos. 11), can be attributed to the Department of the chimney (pos. 9).This site is like no other, is experiencing stress from the external environment.It would seem that the temperature of gas allocated to it is not so high.However, changes in temperature and humidity in areas above the ceiling (8 pos.), And even more - above the roof (. Key 10) can reach a very significant values.Thus, the street may be hard frost, and in the flue duct is about 200 ÷ 400 ° C.Plus - precipitation, condensation, saturation allocated gases are chemically aggressive substances - all this affects the material is very destructive.

Under the influence of changes in temperature inside and outside , condensation , precipitation , wind , and other factors outside of the chimney can quickly grow old.

Under the influence of changes in temperature inside and outside, condensation, precipitation, wind, and other factors outside of the chimney can quickly grow old.Optimally

- use two types of bricks - to the internal channel, increased durability, and to the exterior sheathing - with minimal thermal conductivity to minimize temperature difference and accordingly, the volume of condensate.

main parameters of brick

Later during the examination of varieties of bricks will have to operate with several concepts that characterize the material.

  • First of all, it is the size of a brick.According to established a long tradition in our area used single brick of length (L) of 250 mm, a width (W) of 120 mm and a height (H) of 65 mm.
brick parties have their name : 1 - B ( die ) ;2 - stretcher ;3 - jab

brick parties have their name: 1 - B (die);2 - stretcher;3 - jab

, however, may occur, and other dimensions, and it is necessary to pay attention when buying the material.Several standard sizes of a format shown in the table:

Variety brick frequently used designation type Size mm Designation size range
length (L) Width (W) Height (B)
Brick normal format (single) KO 250 120 65 1 NF
Brick 'Euro' standards KE 250 85 65 0,7 NF ​​
Brick thickened KU 250 120 88 1,4 NF
Brick single modular KM 288 138 65 1,3 NF
Brick thickened with horizontal voids IBM 250 120 88 1,4 NF

There is the so-called furnace module, dimensions 230 × 125 × 65.Although he is already considered obsolete, but some schemes are designed on him.Incidentally, it is released and a whole line of refractory bricks, including tapered and narrowed with a reduced height: 230 × 114 × 65 and 230 × 114 × 40 mm.

When choosing circuit-poryadovkoy mandatory should clarify under what format brick design was carried out to avoid later unpleasant "surprises."

For calculations arched vaults, some curly oven elements, special formats of bricks can be used for exterior finish.

So, for codes used wedge-shaped bricks (with Rebrov narrowed or socket).Dimensions narrowed parties in this case are indicated by a fraction, for example: 230 × 114 × 65/45.

Example refractory bricks SHA - 45 wedge-shaped

example refractory bricks SHA-45 wedge-shaped

for external finishes used bricks with rounded corners, or other non-standard configuration.All this should be reflected in the scheme poryadovkoy and attached to her table with a list of necessary materials.

One form of the shaped brick lining

One variety of facing shaped brick

  • Branded strength of brick.This figure shows the level of mechanical load that the material can withstand without causing deformations destructurization, cracking, crumbling, etc.

Brand strength is specified literal value M and the number which indicates the level of permissible load in kgf / cm².For example, for laying any of furnace departments need bricks mark of not less than the M150.If the oven is massive, two-storey, it is often necessary to use more high-grade: M200 or M250.But chasing too high rates still not worth it.The fact that to achieve ÷ marks M300 M500 in the manufacturing process in forming the mixture is introduced special synthetic additives.For the walls of the house it is not critical, but for the furnace, which is experiencing a significant thermal load - this is unacceptable.Moreover, the price for such marks will be considerably higher.

  • Frost brick.

This parameter is shown in the marking by the letter F and the numerical designation.The number indicates the minimum number of cycles of freezing and thawing of the bricks without losing his or her performance, including - strength qualities.

Although masonry oven this option, it would seem, is not so important, it is still necessary to pay attention, especially when choosing the material for those departments that may be exposed to freezing temperatures - is the foundation and chimney.By the way, the higher the score, the more resistant bricks in principle to any sharp temperature changes.

  • thermal conductivity of bricks.

oven - is, above all, thermo structure, and its machines have a good store heat and release it into the room.For these purposes use a brick with the heat index is not lower than 0.61 W / m × ° C.The exception allowed for external finishing the chimney, which is located in the attic and outdoors - where insulation material quality are rather good.

  • hygroscopic, ie the ability of a material to absorb moisture.Usually expressed as a percentage by weight of the bricks.This option should be borne in mind when selecting the material for the furnace department where required or likely contact with a damp environment - again, foundation and chimney.The lower hygroscopicity, in this case the better.

types of bricks in material and manufacturing technology

Now to actually consider types of bricks, once accompanying remarks, the purposes for which they can be used.

lime brick

lime brick appearance attracts impeccable correctness of its forms, smooth surfaces, a variety of colors.It is made from a mixture of the purified quartz sand and lime additives (approximate percentages of 90 to 10, but there may be variations).For the highest quality raw materials production comes special treatment, as the inclusions of free minerals and organics from.

A variety of possible colors of silicate bricks

variety of possible colors of silicate bricks

resulting mass is subjected to molding and pressed under high pressure at a certain temperature range, and the structure of the resulting articles obtained sufficiently dense.But this is good for brick interior walls, and even for the cladding of buildings, and then the condition of its protective treatment.But for furnaces like material application finds.Silicate is very poorly kept with clay mortar, which in our case - a prerequisite.The second drawback - sand-lime brick is unstable to temperature changes, and always starts to absorb moisture, which will lead to its rapid destruction.And the heat of the material is low - the oven will be too fast to give the heat and cool.

foundation for it, too, is not necessary - because of the proximity to soil moisture and strength of outstanding performance.The only place with great caution can apply it - is the outer lining of the chimney, but even there, from this experiment should be abandoned.

Hyperpressed brick

This type of brick is most often produced from calcareous rocks screenings group (shell rock, dolomite, limestone, marble, etc.), as well as a binder was added Portland cement, about 10% of the total mass.Raw materials must be prepared in compliance with the strict proportions of water to ensure proper ripening of cement.Bricks are molding and compression step, also with respect to the specific process requirements weight of humidity, temperature and level of pressure on the press.The result is a block with a clear geometry shapes, smooth or textured patterns, often simulating, for example, wild rocks.

Bricks produced by hyper- technology

Bricks produced by the technology hyper

Despite the fact that these bricks seem to be good indicators of grade strength - in compliance with manufacturing technology, it achieves performance M200 ÷ M300, and frost is characterized as F100 ÷ F150, hygroscopicity is low -for kiln works such material is not suitable.

- Firstly, such a brick is almost completely absent which however has plasticity - it can not withstand loads on the break, and be sure to go cracks shrinkage oven.

- Secondly, lime brick foundation does not like high-temperature heating - at thermal effect such rocks are starting to release carbon dioxide and absorb water profusely.So long furnace of hyper-pressed bricks do not live.

- And thirdly, the density of bricks - is very high, and the furnace construction is too massive, absolutely not justified, without any "dividend" from the performance of the material.

Hyperpressed brick is good for finishing works - facade or plinths, fences, buildings, etc.In the construction of the furnace it is possible to come up with, perhaps, only one reasonable use - it finishes street barbecue facilities, in places where the thermal effect is eliminated from the combustion chamber.In such circumstances, it is fully manifest their positive qualities.

The only reasonable use of hyper-pressed brick kiln case - lined street complexes BBQ

only reasonable use of hyper-pressed brick kiln case - lined street barbecue facilities

Ceramic brick

This ceramic brick - that's it for the masonry stoves and fireplaces.The basis for the production of a natural clay, and quality of raw materials and purification technology, handling, and molding and sintering are dependent performance of the finished products.

Special grades of clay - the main raw ingredient for the production of ceramic bricks

special varieties of clay - the main raw ingredient for the production of ceramic bricks

Species ceramic bricks - a lot, and not everyone is like to work furnace.Much depends on the type of feedstock, the technology features of compliance and temperature and duration of firing.