Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

220V voltage stabilizer to give a pick

is almost impossible to imagine the life of modern man without the use of electricity to them.Fortunately, the power lines in our time were stretched, probably to each locality, including the suburban housing estates.But that's just the quality of the power supplied, expressed in voltage and frequency stability, still leaves much to be desired - many consumers, alas, there are differences with these parameters with alarming regularity.

220V voltage stabilizer to give a pick

voltage regulator 220 to give a select

But most modern electromechanical and electronic home appliances such extremes does not like.They lead to the malfunction of devices, rapid wear, and often - and, in general, an instantaneous failure, sometimes accompanied by the creation of a fire situation.Only one way out - to protect their property from such phenomena installing special devices.It can be a relay control or voltage regulator 220 to give a select for a particular occasion - will be discussed in this publication.

Causes of unstable voltage and danger

Article Contents

  • 1 Causes of unstable voltage and danger
  • 2 solutions Option - voltage control relay
    • 2.1 device, operating principles andcircuit connect voltage relay
    • 2.2 Video: reliable voltage relay Bison D25
  • 3 cardinal solution to the problem - setting a voltage stabilizer
    • 3.1 Structure and working principle
    • 3.2 voltage regulator What is evaluated when selectingvoltage stabilizer?
    • 3.3 Video: Overview AVR Model "Resanta»

At first glance, a paradoxical situation - the development of technology is rapidly advancing, and problems with the supply voltage stability is not only thing of the past, and vice versaeven multiply.But if you think about it, it is explained quite simply.

Unfortunately, it must be noted that the development of new and improvement of old power lines significantly lags behind the progress.For the most part, especially in the "peripheral" conditions, the power supply is carried out on the same transmission line, which once were built taking into account existing realities while.And if you remember, the average Soviet family of "hardware-content" was limited to a fridge, the evening includes a TV, ironing facilities.In short, the family consumption lies in the range 2 ÷ 3 kW.If we compare with the modern picture of when human life is saturated with electrical engineering, it becomes clear that the old network to cope with such an increased load - is extremely difficult.

Moreover, the old LEP "decrepit" from time to time - oxidized compound contacts, increasing the amount of mechanical damage, etc.All this, too, does not add voltage stability.

Old, not designed for modern load backbone and local transmission lines - the main cause voltage instability

old, not designed for modern load backbone and local transmission lines - the main reason

voltage instability in an environment where there is a massive switch of home appliances, home lighting power line capacity may be insufficient, resulting in a lower voltage.Or another option when the line suddenly stopped the general consumption with high load (for example, over a change in the company) - quite likely a sharp jump in voltage above the acceptable parameters.

Depreciation networks, substations, switchboards, negligence staff often leads to a very common and catastrophic to unprotected electrical situation - cliff (burning-off) "zero" wires.Look at the diagram:

An extremely dangerous situation - break the "zero" wires

extremely dangerous situation - break the "zero" wires

In the normal state of affairs, each phase with its load is connected with the general "Zero" wire - a valid state voltage and supply current.However, at the time of termination "zero" current begins to flow between the phases, the alternating voltage across the load is applied, and in the end instead of the 220 there may be all the 380 ÷ 400 V, which will certainly lead to very dire consequences.It can be considered a great "success" if it's over a combustion device - often such cases end in fire.

The unfortunate consequences of exposure to extreme stress - fire washing machine , followed by fire

sad consequences of exposure to extreme stress - fire washing machine, followed by a fire

It drops very common reasons can be attributed to "human error."For example, the lack of qualification of electricians serving local line or in-house wiring often results in "phase imbalance" - the main burden falls on one, while others remain or are not involved, or loaded at times less.

In such a state "zero" wires to a major accident - one step

In this state of "zero" wires to a major accident - one step

Often their "contribution" is made and does illiterate action owners of houses and apartments - during small independent wiring repairs or when the incorrect laying inexperienced person does notIt is to confuse the wires, causing imposition of counter phase, with all its consequences, not only for their homes, but often - and for neighbor.

And finally, you can never discount the natural factors.This can be the icing wires, damage caused by high winds or falling trees, lightning, etc.All this can also cause voltage surges in the one or the other side.

As a result, under-voltage equipment is not working properly, it does not perform functions assigned to it, and often from that quickly consume their resources and fail powertrains, such as refrigerators or air-conditioning compressors.Blocks of complex electronic equipment power do not give the required fixed voltage indicators, and all work of this makes it impossible slipping "stitched" or made to the program, there are failures in the control modules.At high voltage, especially at sharp jumps, significantly increases the likelihood of accidents primary coils multiple transformers to overheat and burn components of electronic circuits, the melting of the wire insulation - and much more.

It is difficult to imagine what kind of device it was before ...

is difficult to imagine that for the product that was used to ...

In other words, if the owners really care about the comfort of living and the use of electrical appliances, about the safety of not only their home appliances, but also of the property, they have to take certain steps- to establish appropriate safety and stability equipment.

Alternative solutions - relay control

This voltage, high-quality voltage regulator - quite an expensive device and its purchase should really be justified.Perhaps it makes sense to use a much cheaper, but effective solution.

device working principle and voltage relay wiring diagram

For example, the state of power grids in the village is maintained at the proper level, and the voltage drops almost annoying residents - if they happen, it is extremely rare and small amplitude.However, as already mentioned, no one is immune from any kind was natural manifestations or "human factor".A sophisticated equipment for the failure of even one time can be enough.

In such a situation seems quite justified the use of simpler instruments - voltage control relay.

If sufficiently stable local building and electrical installation is often sufficient voltage relay

a sufficiently stable local building and electrical installation is often sufficient voltage relay

electronic circuitry at a small size of the device is provided in such a way that the constant monitoring AC parameters is carried out in the course of work.If the voltage indicators are beyond the specified range, the relay is activated and an eclectic breaks the chain, and the voltage drop is not able to bring harm to household equipment.After normalization of the voltage relay again closes the circuit and the power supply is restored.

Most current voltage relay has the ability to self-installation by the user upper and lower boundaries of the acceptable range.That is, with information on the technical parameters of the existing equipment in the house, demanding to supply stability, easy to configure this protection.

Because some home appliances (such as refrigerators or pumps) do not like sudden change of duty cycle - power on and off, many relays are equipped with a delay function for a certain period of time.This interval can be defined itself voltage relay circuit, or set by the user.

Relay control with controls for user preset thresholds and delay

relay control with controls for user preset thresholds and delay

Execution relay may be different.The most frequently used compact devices, which are ideally suited for mounting on DIN-rail electrical panel.These devices are designed for fairly high load performance.

If it is necessary to ensure the protection of only any one or more appliances with low loads, the device can be used, which is just a kind of adapter into the power outlet, and having its own outlet to connect home appliances.Another option - the relay itself, together with the controls arranged in a socket housing.You can purchase and model, equipped with extension cable and shoe several bush nests, similar to a conventional line filter.

Various embodiments of the voltage monitoring relays

Various embodiments of the voltage monitoring relays

If the relay is connected to the panel, it is usually adhere to the following scheme:

An exemplary diagram of the connection voltage relay

approximate voltage relay wiring diagram

L - phase;

N - «zero»;

1 - electric meter;

2 - machine at the entrance;

3 - voltage control relay;

kN - connecting terminal "zero" wires;

KL - input terminal and the output phase.

This diagram shows an example of a powerful relay for the whole house.However, it is possible to install such devices in the selected areas intrahouse network, equipped with their own guns - the connection principle is not changed.

relay is necessary to choose the correct power.There is a rule - if it is installed in the circuit with a gun, then its current denomination to be a step above.For example, if there is a circuit breaker of 25 A (5.5 kW power consumption), something worthwhile in conjunction with the relay it should already be rated to 32 A (7 kW).

However, the overload relay is too high current contacts - is undesirable.At high power consumption figures (from 6 ÷ 7 kW or above) is better to include in the electromagnetic contactor circuit.It turns out that the relay will control a contactor supplying or interrupting the current to the coil it, and only he, in turn - to provide termination and closure of the load circuit.Sample wiring diagram is shown in the illustration:

voltage relays Installation example in conjunction with an electromagnetic contactor

voltage relays Installation example in conjunction with an electromagnetic contactor

4 - electromagnetic contactor;

A1 - phase control voltage terminal;

A2 - terminal "zero" control voltage;

rk L - group input contacts (one or more);

rk T - group output contacts (corresponding to the input pins).

If the house is supplied with three-phase power line, but all the equipment in the house uses only single-phase power supply, it makes sense to put the three relays for each phase separately, and evenly distribute the load between them.By the way, at the same time it will be possible to allocate separate groups of devices of consumption, similar in rigor to the stability of the voltage, and ask to switch individual settings, such as:

1 group - electronic devices requiring high-stability voltage - Multimediaequipment, computers, etc.Such equipment typically requires a 200 ÷ 230 volt range.

Group 2 - furnished, equipped with electric (washing machines, refrigerators, pumps, air conditioners, etc.).There may already be a range slightly wider - from 190 to 235 volts, but may require the inclusion of reverse delay.

3 Group - appliances, undemanding to the exact parameters of voltage (resistive heating, lighting, etc.).The voltage range can be set wider, eg 170 ÷ 250 volts.

One of the models of three-phase voltage monitoring relay

One of the three-phase monitoring relays models

voltage There are, of course, control relays, designed specially for the phase of consumption, but such an option would be relevant in the case if the house is really worth Appliances requiring 380 (eg,hob or powerful pump station).The fact that the voltage jump at least one phase of the three de-energize the relay - this is its structure.

Issued and more modern instruments, which provide the ability to customize for each of the three phases.However, most often it turns out that the purchase of compact three-phase medium-power switch is much more favorable than the one powerful three-phase.

Each phase provides its voltage relays with individual settings

Each phase provides its voltage relays with individual settings

to be understood correctly, that the relay does not stabilize the voltage, but only provides a reliable protection of your home power from the consequences of his jumps or dips.That is, we repeat, it is necessary to put in if the differences - a rare phenomenon, episodic.And in the case of extreme short-term failure, power supply necessary equipment may well be provided by installation of an uninterruptible power supply.

Video: reliable voltage relay Bison D25

cardinal solution to the problem - setting a voltage stabilizer

Structure and working principle

voltage stabilizers in case voltage differences do notThey are rare and occur with "enviable" regularity, or if low or high voltage is almost a norm in this village, you can not do without a more radical solution - install the stabilizer.

These devices can also be compact, designed to ensure a stable supply of one unit or a small group, or is a powerful device that can cater for all household power grid.Accordingly, the stabilizers may be compact, portable (which is particularly important especially for summer conditions in unstable accommodation in the country - they are easy to carry with them).Powerful instruments often assume a fixed installation near electrical panel, and from the power lines already laid to the consumption points.

Various design of the voltage regulator

various designs

voltage stabilizers According to the principle of the action stabilizers can be divided into three large groups:

  • Relay stabilizers.They used transformer secondary winding circuit which has a plurality of loops with different number of turns.Depending on the input voltage provides automatic switching relay coils to the output voltage was applied to stable, close to the regulatory 220 W.
A whole group of relay switches provides fast switching between the windings of the transformer

whole group of relay switches provides fast switching between the windings of the transformer

Such stabilizers attract low astypically, the cost and duration of non-failure operation, rather "modest" size, the ability to withstand the overload of the order of 110% of the nominal power, a wide control range.However, they are inherent in certain drawbacks.Thus, stabilization occurs linearly, stepwise, which may significantly dazhe life, such as illumination devices.