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September 27, 2016 23:02

How to dig a well

Be master of your own country site and have your well - perhaps this is not the best option.Yes, of course, some suburban towns are equipped with centralized water supply systems, but it is better to be completely independent from the "whims" of public utilities.The well will be a source of clean drinking water, and will satisfy all household need, and provide irrigation infield, but only if it will is equipped properly.

How to dig a well

How to dig a well

How to dig a well on its territory?The easiest way - is, of course, to invite a team of specialists, although it will cost quite expensive .Of course, if you want to try your hand at this delicate matter, you need to pick up a diligent assistants prepare tool , equipment and necessary materials and daring.However, it should warn at once - digging wells refers to works of high complexity and risk, and should be very sober assessment of their real possibilities.

However, if such work is quite reasonable for seems not on the shoulder, you know its theoretical basics all still need, although would to imagine the sequence of operations and their labor input - will be able to more specifically control the work of hired crews.

So, the whole process of everything "from scratch" the well can be divided into several stages:

  • selection of a suitable location;
  • excavation and installation works;
  • waterproofing pit mine;
  • bottom filter installation;
  • arrangement of the upper part of the well;
  • if necessary - the decorative design .

Where to dig a well?

Article Contents

  • 1 Where to dig a well?
    • 1.1 Videos: Dowsing place for the well using the framework
  • 2 What will it take for
  • 3 digging wells and installing rings
    • 3.1 Video: methods of digging pits of concrete rings
  • 4 Bottom filter well
  • 5 what safety measures are required when digging the well
  • 6 Video: Tips professional master digging wells

say that by and large account , in central RussiaYou can dig a well at any place - sooner or later you will get on the aquifer.However, why dig where the work will require maximum effort with minimum impact?There are proven methods to find the most suitable place for this water source.

Estimated groundwater layout

approximate location of groundwater

scheme must first imagine what are the groundwater:

  • On not great depth (up to 4 meters) from the soil surface may lie superficial water layers - they are called perched.They have a stable character, are highly dependent on the season and precipitation, rather heavily contaminated with chemicals or organic fields, and as a source of water is not considered.
  • next layer - ground water located at a depth of about 10 meters and below.This horizon is already different enough stability, the water in it went deeper filtration, and it is on this layer and calculate when digging wells.The water here is not under pressure, that is, the level should remain at approximately the same elevation, with certain seasonal fluctuations.
  • More deeper, at a depth of several tens of meters, are mizhplastovi or artesian aquifers.It is done to them, "sight" when drilling wells aquifers.
And this is - well , the base circuit

This - the base of the well

scheme So, the purpose of the search - find a place where the second aquifer groundwater is nearest to the surface of the soil.How to do it?

the outset of the search area is necessary to exclude its location near the pit or silos, latrines, septic tanks, landfills.Ideally, such to sources of pollution should be not less than 50 meters.In addition, the well should not byt closer than 5 meters from permanent structures.

The most accurate results will , of course , exploration drilling

most accurate results will, of course, exploration drilling

most accurate, of course, is a method of exploration drilling, but it is quite a complex procedure that requires a lot of energy and material resources.You can try to determine the location for the well by other means, which are widely used long .

usually search aquifer IU Art etc. Gadfly early in the morning, 5 to 6 hours , or in the evening and night hours - from 6 to 7, with10 to 11 or midnight to hour night.

  • The first thing you should pay attention - on lowlands, a place with a higher number of morning dew, those sites that collect or pillar rises a dense fog.
  • has long been used for this purpose « dowsing » - skilled craftsmen with great accuracy the place indicated for digging wells, bypassing the site with a slingshot from long willow branches.She held vertically, and in a place fit the maximum aqueous layer « lozohodets » felt the attraction of the common trunk of a slingshot to the ground.
С давних пор для поиска оптимальных мест применялось "лозоходство"

For a long time to find the best places to apply the "dowsing»

Can I try this way of itself?It is doubtful, probably, all the same in this case should be the appropriate skills and experience.

similar method dowsing can be used somewhat differently.A metal wire (for example, welding electrodes) are made two identical L-shaped frame.Available holding their fists in both hands for a short shoulder, slowly bypass section.In areas close to the location of the water framework should start to rotate and intersect.

Videos: Dowsing place for the well using the framework

Some people with a strong sense to dowsing doing so finding even almost professional manner, showing the exact location of the room to the well.

The tool specialists in dowsing

tool specialists in dowsing

  • Much can prompt trees, shrubs, herbs.For example, willow, birch , alder and herbs - sedge and mother-and-stepmother necessarily prompt, that the shallow aquifer.Other trees (pine, for example) on the contrary, suggests that until the water is not close .Plant species can tell even the approximate depth of the aquifer:
What can tell plants

What can prompt plants

  • can watch and others and features.For example, on a summer day a flock of mosquitoes or midges winds typically over promise for the well sites.Smell the proximity of water and pets - dogs, for example, may be in the hot time in these places, dig yourself a little hole-den for relaxing during the day.
  • most promising places you can still check and moisture absorption by .To do this, take the material with increased absorbency moisture - for example, silica gel, or crushed red brick.Such adsorption nt TIH atelno dried in the oven and fill them dry unglazed earthenware vessel.All this is wrapped in nonwoven material and weighed with the accuracy to literally grams.Then, filled and wrapped vessel buried at the audited site to a depth of half a meter of the order of a day.(The test is performed only in clear weather, in the dry earth).You can immediately carry out checks at several points.After one day, weighed containers and determine how much water was absorbed by the adsorbent.The best place to become a well where water has collected the most.

place to pick into account all possible criteria and the results of several tests.As a rule, the totality of the data should indicate the most appropriate point for further work.

What will it take for

If you have decided on the destination, you need to plan and perform further work time.There widespread opinion that the best time is winter - the ground water are "alone" at the lowest point of its occurrence.However, this is sometimes difficult to accept, as the winter to carry out excavation work, but even in conditions of high humidity and constant water entering the final stage - a very difficult and dangerous enough. Besides , in warm clothing in close mine pit work will be very difficult.However, during the digging of deep wells (about 10 - 15 meters) in which air flows more easily in the winter and in the summer this could be a problem.Yet for the average depth of the wells optimal time of the end of summer seems to dig and the beginning of autumn - before the onset of the rainy season.

Tools and equipment for work

tools and accessories for

From the Tools needed:

- spades, shovels have shortened cuttings ;

- crowbar and pickaxe for penetration through the dense layers of the soil;

- bucket for lifting selected soil and wheelbarrow for his drove aside;

- ropes for lifting buckets , straps for hanging and installation of reinforced concrete rings;

- tripod that is installed on the shaft, with fixed her lifting mechanism (manhole collar, pulley block, winch , hoists and etc .)

- pitches and building level for careful monitoringverticality of penetration;

- funds and insurance protection - a helmet, a safety belt with lin ;

- the drain pump is required to pump the incoming water;

- for waterproofing materials and tools.

Most modern wells is made of reinforced concrete rings.It is best to buy such products, which have a locking part of the "quarter" for centered rings and snug fit to each other.Standard ring size - 1000 mm - internal diameter, 1160 - the outer wall thickness - 80 mm, maximum height - 900 mm. Weighs this product (COP-10 - 9) 600 kg.If necessary, it is possible to acquire the ring of the same diameter but lower height - 300, 500 or 600 mm. on the walls of such rings have openings for places at slings hanging and lowering them into the mine.

Pit rings of various heights

Pit rings of varying heights

should immediately warn against the purchase of low-quality, non-liquid rings with damaged or has already been in operation.These savings are not only inappropriate, but can also be dangerous, since the arrangement of wells practice knows many cases break, warp, rings bursting with all the possible consequences.

How long will it ring - a question for each individual space.It is necessary to find out from neighbors - what depth well with them, this figure should not change significantly.At the same time take into account the structure and the very well - height of the water-bearing part of the trunk and the head.

The wells may vary in height depending on its design

Wells can vary in height depending on its design

digging wells and installing rings

  • work begins with a markup on the soil surface.For these purposes, as well as to monitor compliance with future penetration sizes need to build a simple device - the crossbar of the two rods, with a length equal to the desired diameter of the shaft.
Cross - a template for future work

Cross - a template for further work

If the ring has 1160 outer diameter of the shaft should mark approximately 200 - 300 mm wider, ie .Ø from 1350 to 1450 mm with the open method of well construction (about this - below).In the closed method, leave a minimum clearance needed - so that the ring is held in schahtu straight.

  • removes the top layer of soil with turf and begin to delve into the dense layers of the soil.
Remove the top layer of sod

removes the top layer of sod

All selected land should be treated from the workplace for a distance of at least 3 meters from the pit.Can it even immediately evacuate out, for example, in a place where it is planned to build a "Alpine hill".When will clay layer, the selected clay is best stored separately - it useful in the future for waterproofing well.

The diameter of the penetration and its verticality is constantly monitored

diameter tunneling and its verticality is constantly monitored

  • After deepened to the height of the first ring, set the tripod or other structure on which are mounted hoists, and further work can be designed in different ways:
Deepening of the first ring ready

Deepening the first ring ready

1. You can set exactly the first ring and continue to dig through it - it will sink under its own weight.

Installation of concrete rings

Installing concrete rings

As the drawdown of the first set next ring, and they are bonded to each other staples - and so on down to the aquifer.This method is called a "closed", and more relevant to the problem, shifting soils with quicksand, underground "rivers" and etc .Thus, the excavator is always working in the concrete ring, which descends with it as soil sampling.

Prosazhivanie all goes well stem as soil sampling

prosazhivanie all goes well stem as soil sampling

This method is not considered to be optimal, as it has many shortcomings.Thus, the biggest challenge may become large boulder, caught under a wall of the ring when driving - it will not be easy to pull out, and sometimes even impossible.But on the other hand, mounting the next ring is not required a complex lifting equipment, since it is carried out always at the top.

2. The second method is called "open" and involves excavation of the mine for the rest of the required depth with the subsequent installation of the Rings.Disadvantages - much more volume selected ground, difficulties with erection and bonding rings (work is carried out at a considerable depth), there is always the danger of fraying or even the collapse of mine walls, especially when begin unstable aquifers or in the wall breaks quicksand -source "perched".

Mine pit , Opens a way

mine pit, rip open pit

3. Based out of false, best, probably, will be a mixed method.Initially, the work is open method, but before the first sign of instability in the walls or signs of perched.Then immediately sink to the dug deep reinforced concrete ring, and further eject ground being already closed technology to precipitate incremental well bore.Most often used in practice this approach.

  • work is complicated to reach the aquifer - according to the rules necessary to precipitate the trunk has at least one, but better - to two rings.Often it is necessary to provide continuous pumping of the incoming water.Before getting into the bed joints of the lower rings immediately subject to specific sealing cementitious compositions.
The joints of the lifting rings and the holes to be sealed with a special solution

joints rings and lifting holes to be sealed with a special solution

  • Building well maintained trunk with calculation , to the top ring of about 500 mm protruding above ground level.In the future, this log cabin headroom can be made out, or in any other way, it is arranged over crowfoot gear mechanical gp to I lifting buckets.

Video: methods of digging pits of concrete rings

After complete tearing of the well throughout the depth, it is necessary to pump all the water out of it and silt to arrange a bottom filter.