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October 05, 2016 23:15

Insulation materials for exterior walls of the house

very real situation - in a private house assembled and launched an effective heating system, but did not manage to thus to achieve comfortable living conditions, if the building itself is not a good thermal insulation.Consumption of all energy in this situation jumps to completely unimaginable limits, but the generated heat is wasted entirely on "warming up the street."

Insulation materials for exterior walls of the house

Insulation materials for exterior walls

home weatherization should be subject to all the basic elements and design of the building.But general background on volume heat lead the exterior walls, and their reliable thermal insulation is necessary to think first.Insulation materials for exterior walls of houses in our time are presented for sale in a very wide range, and need to be able to navigate it m m nogoobrazii, as not all materials are equally good for those or other conditions.

main ways of warming of external walls home

Article Contents

  • 1 main methods of thermal insulation of external walls of
    the house
  • 2 What requirements must still meet the insulation of external walls
  • 3 Whatmaterials used to insulate exterior walls
    • 3.1 bulk materials such as
      • 3.1.1 Keramzit
      • 3.1.2 Vermiculite
      • 3.1.3 Expanded perlite
      • 3.1.4 Video: A review"warm plaster» THERMOVER
    • 3.2 mineral wool
      • 3.2.1 Fiberglass
      • 3.2.2 basalt wool
      • 3.2.3 Video: useful information on basalt rock wool "Technonikol»
    • 3.3 Heaters polystyrene group
      • 3.3.1 foam
      • 3.3.2 Extruded polystyrene
    • 3.4 polyurethane
      • 3.4.1 Video: example of polyurethane foam spray to the external wall of the house
    • 3.5 Ecowool
      • 3.5.1 Video: wall insulation ecowool
  • 4 What is the thickness of insulation required?
    • 4.1 insulation calculator to calculate the outer wall

main task of insulating walls - it would bring the total value of their resistance to heat transfer to the settlement index, which is defined for the area.On the method of calculation we will discuss a few below, after considering the physical and operational characteristics of the main types of insulation.And to begin to consider the existing technology of thermal insulation of external walls .

  • Most resort to external insulation already erected structure walls.This approach is able to maximize solve all the major problems of thermal insulation of walls and savings from freezing and accompanying this process the negative phenomena of corruption, dampness , erosion of construction material .

method is only in in External Expansion insulation - a lot, but in private construction often resort to two technologies.

- First - it's plastering walls on top of the thermal insulation layer.

Driving insulation walls with the subsequent plaster

Driving insulation walls with the subsequent plaster

1 - outer wall building.

2 - mounting adhesive on which closely without gaps, attached thermal insulation material (pos 3.). Reliable fixation, in addition, provide special dowels - "fungi" (item 4)..

5 - base layer of plaster with fiberglass mesh reinforcement inside (item 6)..

7 - a layer of plaster.and exterior paint can be used.

- second - facing insulated exterior wall decorative materials (siding, paneling, « blockhouse » and etc .) By a ventilated facade system.

Thermal insulation and finish on the principle of ventilated facades

Warming and finishing on the principle of ventilated facades

1 - capital wall home.

2 - frame ( crate ).It can be made of wood or timber of galvanized metal profiles.

3 - arranged between the guide battens slabs (blocks, mats) of thermal insulation material.

4 - waterproofing diffuse vapor permeability membrane, and at the same time performing the role of windbreaks.

5 - frame design element (in this case - rake kontrobreshetki ), creating an air-ventilated gap of about 30 ÷ 60 mm thick.

6 - external decorative facade cladding.

Each of the methods has its own advantages and disadvantages.

So, plastered insulated surface ( it is often called "Termoshuba") - is difficult enough in a separate execution if the owner of the house is not stable skills in plastering. process is - quite "dirty" and consuming , but overall costs for materials like insulation usually cheaper.

There is a "comprehensive approach" to such external wall insulation - is the use of front facing panels, construction of which has already provided a layer of thermal insulation.Plastering work in this case is not expected - after installation will only fill in the seams between the tiles.

Finishing decorative facade thermopanels

Finishing decorative facade thermopanels

Installation of ventilated facades almost suggests "wet" work.But overall labor costs - are considerable, and the value of the entire set of materials will be very considerable.But and insulation quality and effectiveness of the protection of the walls of the various external influences in this case - is much higher.

  • Wall insulation from inside the house, from the premises.

This approach to thermal insulation of the walls causes a lot of complaints.Here - and substantial losses of residential floor space, and complexity in creating a full-fledged insulated layer without "cold bridges» - they usually stay in the area abutting the walls to floors and ceilings, and a violation of the optimum moisture balance and the temperature in this "pie".

Thermal insulation of external walls from the inside

Insulation of external walls from the inside

Of course, the location of the insulation on the inner surface sometimes becomes almost the only affordable way to insulate the walls, but at every opportunity is still worth to give preference to external insulation.

Calculator - drywall - 1 Should I insulate the walls from the inside?

Report all defects and, without exaggeration, the dangers inner walls mineral wool insulation very detailed in a special publication of our portal.

  • Warming walls creating « sandwich constructions»

Normally such technology is used thermal insulation of external walls still during construction of the building.There are several different approaches can be used as well.

A. Walls laid out on a "well" and as they raise to form a cavity filling is made of dry or liquid filling (expandable and curable) thermoinsulator .This method has been used by architects for a long time when used for thermal insulation of natural materials - dry leaves and pine needles, sawdust, wool culled remnants and etc .Nowadays, of course, often using special insulating materials, adapted for such use.

Options for filling ( filling ) insulation in cavity wall construction

options filling (casting) insulation in the cavity

wall structure Alternatively, for masonry walls of the large aerated blocks with large cavities can be used, which during building immediately filled with insulating material (expanded clay, vermiculite, perlitesand and etc . )

B. Another option omitted as in the original construction of the house, and, if necessary, to create a thermal insulation in an already erected earlier building.The bottom line is that the main wall is insulated or other material which is then closed in a masonry or brick ½.

Laying of insulating boards with further lining brick

Laying insulating slabs with a facing brick further

Usually in such cases, the outer masonry is done "under unravel" and becomes the finish facing facade.

A significant drawback of this method, if it is necessary to perform a warming in already erected Domke - it is imperative to expand and strengthen the foundation, because the thickness of the wall and becomes substantially more, and load of extra brick masonry noticeable increase.

V. Insulated multilayer structure is obtained and used for walling EPS nonremovable shuttering.

units such EPS formwork are somewhat similar to the famous children's designer «LEGO» - they have thorns and grooves for quick assembly of the wall structure, in which at least raise the rebar set times and made pouring concrete solution.The result is a reinforced concrete wall, having two at once - external and internal, insulating layer.Then, on the front side of the wall, you can make fine brickwork, tile trim, or simply plaster coating.Inside is also applicable to virtually all types of finishes.

Walling on permanent formwork technology

Walling technology permanent formwork

This technology is gaining popularity, though, fairness, it should be noted that both opponents have her a lot.The main arguments are the disadvantages of polystyrene in terms of environmental and fire safety.There certain problems and m vapor permeability of the walls and displacement of the dew point in the direction of the premises due to the internal insulation layer.But the fact that the walls are really getting reliable thermal insulation, agree, apparently, everything.

How requirements still must comply with insulation of external walls

clear that the thermal insulation layer on the wall in the first place should be reduced to an acceptable minimum heat loss from the building.But performing its main function, it should not prevent the negative points - a threat to health of people living in the house, increased fire danger, the spread of pathogenic organisms, dampness designs with the beginning of the destructive processes in the wall materials and the like .

So, from the standpoint of environmental safety is very much a matter of insulation on a synthetic basis.If you read the brochures manufacturers, it is almost always possible to meet assurances about the absence of any kind was a threat. Nevertheless , practice shows that the majority of foamed polymers are prone to decay and decomposition products are not always harmless.

More alarming is the situation with the flammability - Low flammability class (G1 or G2) not talking about full security material.But more terrible flames do not even transfer (modern materials in most his zamozatuhayut ), and the products of combustion.The sad story shows that it is toxic smoke inhalation, which is obtained from the combustion of, for example, polystyrene, most often the cause of human victims.And should think, than the owner runs the risk of arranging, for example, such a thermal insulation inside the building.

Terrible pictures - the burning insulation of facades

terrible pictures - the burning insulation of facades

The specific advantages and disadvantages of the main insulating materials will be discussed in more detail in the relevant section of the article.

Another important factor that should be taken into account when planning the insulation.Thermal insulation of the walls should be possible to make "dew point" as close as possible to the outer surface of the wall, and ideally - in the outer insulation material stand.

«Dew Point» - is not linear changing boundaries in the wall "cake", in which the transition of water from one state to another - steam turns into liquid condensate.A cluster of moisture - it's getting wet walls, destroying the building material, swelling and loss of quality of insulation, direct route to the formation and development of centers of mold or mildew, nests insects and etc .

A where the wall can take up water vapor?It's very simple - even during the normal life of a person with breathing allocates at least 100 grams of moisture per hour.Add to that the wet cleaning, washing and drying clothes, taking baths or showers, cooking or just boil water.It turns out that in the cold season, the saturated vapor pressure in the room is always much higher than outdoors.And if the house has not taken effective measures to ventilation, moisture is looking for a way through the building design, including through the walls.

It is - it is a normal process , which does not bring no harm if the insulation planned and implemented correctly.But in cases where the "dew point" is shifted to the side rooms ( it - a typical lack of insulation inside the walls), with a balan can be broken, and the wall with a heater will be saturated with moisture.

To minimize or eliminate condensation effects should follow the rules - water vapor permeability of the wall of the "pie" should ideally grow from layer to layer towards placing them outside.Then the natural evaporation of the excess moisture in the air will come out.

For example, the table below shows the values ​​ paropropuskayuschaya ability of the basic building, insulating and finishing materials.This should help with the planning of primary insulation.

Material vapor permeability coefficient, mg / (m * h * Pa)
Reinforced 0.03
Concrete 0.03
solution of cement and sand (orplaster) 0.09
solution cement-sand-lime (or plaster) 0,098
solution of lime and sand and lime (or plaster) 0.12
Claydite, density of 800 kg / m3 0.19
clay brick, masonry 0.11
Brick, lime, masonry 0.11
Brick hollow (1400 kg / m3 gross) 0.14
Brick hollow(1000 kg / m3 gross) 0.17
large format ceramic block (warm ceramics) 0.14
Foam concrete and aerated concrete, density of 800 kg / m3 0.140
Plates fibrolitovye and arbolit 500-450 kg / m3 0,11
Arbolit, 600 kg / m3 0.18
granite, gneiss, basalt 0,008
Marble 0,008
Limestone, 1600kg / m3 0.09
Limestone, 1400 kg / m3 0.11
Pine, spruce across the grain 0.06
Pine, spruce along the fibers 0.32
Oak across the grain 0.05
Oak along the fibers 0.3
Plywood 0.02
chipboard and fiberboard, 600 kg / m3 0.13
Tow 0.49
Plasterboard 0,075
slabs of plaster (gypsum), 1350 kg / m3 0,098
slabs of plaster (gypsum), 1100 kg / m3 0.11
mineral wool stone, depending on the density