Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

Wooden Flooring with his own hands

Make flooring wooden floor with their hands quite possible , if pre-study the instructions on carrying out this work.Boardwalk has always been a popular flooring made from other materials, as different from them its natural warmth, ecological compatibility and the ability to create in a residential area specific, particularly healthy microclimate.

Wooden Flooring with his own hands

Wooden Flooring own hands

Most often plank floors in the house are selected coniferous wood.Advantageously, in the course of is larch, which shows special resistance and temperature extremes, and moisture.Due to a natural antiseptic qualities of this tree, on it does not occur destructive fungal formations and means , excluded the processes of decay and destruction.

requirements for floor

Article Contents

  • 1 requirements for floor
    • 1.1 Criteria for selection of the material
    • 1.2 Preparation wood
  • 2 floor construction Selection
    • 2.1 flooring system on the beams overlap
    • 2.2 Laghi, fixed on the concrete cover
    • 2.3 Flooring to concrete
  • 3 mounting floorboard
    • 3.1 Video: floorboards flooring with the use ofclamps
  • 4 floor surface treatment after the final flooring
    • 4.1 processing oil
    • 4.2 waxing the floor surface
    • 4.3 lacquering wooden floor
    • 4.4 Staining wooden floor
    • 4.5 Video: how to prepare and plank wood floor

Wooden flooring shall conform to specific requirements, without which the floors not last long and will not be comfortable for the occupants. These criteria can be safely attributed:

  • Effective sound insulation and thermal insulation of buildings.
  • reliability and durability of the wooden cover.
  • Wear resistance, and therefore - and durability floor.
  • moisture resistance and hygiene - cleaning the floor should not cause too much difficulty.
  • aesthetics of wood flooring - it has to become an ornament to the room.
  • ease of installation.

To achieve all these qualities of a wood floor, you need the right approach to the choice of materials for its devices.

Criteria for selection of the material

For wooden floor should be selected high quality material

to the wooden floor should be selected high quality material

to floors served for a long time without cracks of boards and their deformation, the choice of wood is necessary to pay attention to the following material parameters:

  • Grades.For the finishing coat is better to choose the highest or the first grade of the board, and for rough flooring usually bought 2 ÷ 3 grade.If you finish the floor will be covered with paint, and it is quite suitable second-rate material for him.

From wood grade will depend directly and its quality.Even getting the highest grade material, it is necessary to pay attention to on presence of possible defects, such as chips, cracks and knots - they must either completely absent or have a minimal amount.

  • It is very important to pay attention to -dried wood.It should have some humidity, otherwise the years between the boards will crack, and the floorboards themselves become deformed. Humidity for finish coating of boards can not exceed 12%, and for rough - not higher than 17%.
  • bars and planks length should ideally correspond to the length and width of the room, where it will lay the floor.
  • floorboards standard thickness is 120 × 25 × 100 mm and 25 mm.This option is chosen depending on the step of laying the lag on the board to be secured.According to current technology, these distances should be selected according to the data given in the table:

pitch lags in mm thickness of the floorboard in mm
300 20
400 24
500 30
600 35
700 40
800 45
900 50
1000 55

buying any building material, once carried out the necessary calculations , you need to add to this amount 15% reserve - is usually checked by experienced builders, therefore, advised to follow it.

Preparation wood

Before installation process lag and floor boards, they should be prepared.Typically, material for the floor sold already planed in the form, but if during the inspection revealed the bumps, they need to be removed with a elektrorubanka.

Woodworking antiseptic compositions

Woodworking antiseptic compositions

Further, all of the board and handle bars antiseptic compositions.This is to protect them from fungal lesions and molds, insect and to some extent even - rodents.

These installation begin only after complete drying of the material.

floor construction Selection

Knowing all the requirements, that apply to cover the material, it is necessary to determine the floor structure for each case suitable its option, depending on the conditions in which installation will take place.

There are several basic types of structures wooden floor:

  • floors on joists, laid on joists.In this case, the finished floor may be used plywood or boards.
  • « Floating» design - planks laid on concrete base, but not attached thereto .
  • coating, fixed on the joists, laid on the ground.

These methods wooden floor devices have become the most popular, as they give the freedom of the master, which can bring into the design of their adjustment.But, anyway, for each room you need to choose the only option that suits him the most.

flooring system on the beams overlap

  • Laghi, as a basis for the floor, can be attached to the joists, which, in turn stacked on the columnar or strip foundation.It is acceptable if the room where the floor is arranged, has a width of not more than 2,5 ÷ 3 m .
The beams are attached to the foundation

beams are installed directly on the foundation

  • To create a layer of air, floor joists are often raised above the ground on certain height, putting them on top of damp-proof surface of the foundation.They can be rigidly attached to it, or simply securely stacked on top.The second option selects if the foundation has not had time to shrink, and when it will happen, it will not pull for a floor system that such influences surely starts to deform.
For large spans further established support posts

For large spans of further support posts installed

  • When large room width (more than 3 meters), between the walls can be additionally installed bollards, which will create stiffness overlapping system.All support structures under the base floor beams necessarily plank waterproofing, for the wooden parts have served as long as possible.

What should be the thickness of the lag and beams overlap?It basically depends on the width of the free span (distance between adjacent supporting points).Usually based on the following indicators (see table.):

lag-sectional size in millimeters span width of the room in meters
110 × 60 2
150 × 80 3
180 × 100 4
200 × 150 5
220 × 180 6
  • After installed floor joists, they need toconsolidate logs.The distance between them, as already mentioned, is calculated according to the selected thickness of the floorboards.
Logs are fastened to the joists

joists are attached to the joists

  • Arranging a "floating" floor construction, logs, and then the board should be located on to distance of at least 12 ÷ 15 mm from the wall, that is to be on themindependent.In floor opening between the walls and the system laid heating material, which will not allow cold air to get inside, allow the wood to "breathe", and at differences in temperature and humidity - to expand freely.
  • When laying the lag, consisting of two separate sections, combining them overlapping 400 ÷ 500 mm should be on supporting the bars or beam.Logs should be aligned to the construction level, if necessary, to achieve the perfect horizontal under logs puts small pieces of wood.
  • After joists are exposed and fixed, it is recommended to arrange a rough floor, which should be fine for the low quality of the board.To install them, the entire length of the lag bolted bottom cranial bars of 30 × 50 mm.
For the sub-floor is fine low-grade board

For subfloor quite suitable low-grade board

  • boards sub-floor is not always fixed to the cranial bars, they are usually just placed tightly together.On top lay a subfloor vapor barrier film , consolidating its stapled to the joists and planks.
Steam insulation film on top of the boards subfloor

insulation film on top of the boards subfloor

  • between lags on vapor barrier fits tightly heating material - it may be mineral wool mats or in rolls, as well as the dry bed of expanded clay or slag.
Placing insulation on the draft floor

Placing insulation on the draft floor

  • insulation is laid on top still single layer film vapor barrier.Separate its sheets glued together with adhesive tape, and then film is attached to the joists braces.
Insulation on top of the same layer of the film closes

Insulation top layer film also closes

  • upper layer of vapor barrier is necessary in order to prevent dust and particles of insulation material could not enter the premises.Pove px Sun her this floor system will then be laid floorboards or thick plywood.

Laghi, anchored to concrete

often to create insulated layer for flooring in the apartments on the concrete base is also arranged on the wooden floor joists.There is the complexity lag alignment surface, especially if the wood coating scheduled to lift a few centimeters over the concrete slab.

If the apartment is located above the first floor, most often lags spread, level by level, and then fixed to the concrete base by means of anchors.

Setting lag horizontally with the threaded dowel racks

Setting lag horizontally by means of threaded hairpin racks

both the first and second embodiment, the lag drilled through.To raise the lag on the basis, using various metal and plastic parts.In this case, the photo shows the studs.They allow to raise and lower one or lags the other hand, aligning them in level.The extra length of the studs, after removing the lag to the desired height, cut off by a polishers .

Each of the options on the concrete between joists can be laid insulation, add a covering insulation, as well as to help drown out the noise , like from the lower apartment and of the rooms, where the joists are installed under the wooden floor.In mineral wool, foam or bulk insulation can be used as an insulating material.

recommended in both the first and in the second case, on top of the lag to stretch and fix vapor barrier film and only then start to finish flooring coatings.

Flooring to concrete

Sometimes wooden floor laid on the concrete floor without lag.In use as a coating or veneer flooring planks.It is desirable for such a thin floor heating material to lay - most often used for this purpose polyethylene foam, and the best to choose one that has a foil cover.

Laying wood floor without lag

Laying wood floor without the use of a lag

individual sheets of substrate material bonded together with adhesive tape to the coating was created whole - it will make the floor warmer and drown out the noise.If the deck is used plywood, we must remember that the top it must necessarily be laid decorative coating.Floors of the boards will be sufficiently thick to look respectable, if their varnish, wax or paint quality.

mounting floorboard

selecting the desired board thickness, it is important to determine the correct direction of their laying on the floor.As the long-term experience, the best option to lay the board considered in the direction of natural light, that is, away from the window.Therefore, plan stacking boards need to start with the layout and fix lag.

floorboards have different types of connections:

Types of connection boards for flooring

Types of boards for flooring compounds

1. Connection with insert-insert into the grooves of the two boards.

2. Connection "tongue and groove» at available grooved boards.

3. Connection "in the quarter."

latter type connection - the easiest to install, so most often used floorboards with such a fixture.In addition, the combination of "a quarter» creates a single coating with almost imperceptible gaps between the boards, so it is optimally retain heat in the room.

boards can be fastened to the joists are two ways to mount:

Screws can twist hidden in the castle part of the board

Screws are screwed secretly in the castle part of the board

  • nails or screws can be exhausted into the slot located on the side of the board, at an angle of about 45 degrees, withdrowning hats inside wood.Some artists prefer to act contrary , driving screws at an angle to the end of the cleat.
Mounting can be carried out through the front surface , followed by spackling holes

Mounting can be carried out from the front surface and then filling holes

  • In a second embodiment the nails or screws are driven or screwed into the front of the plane of the board.
  • Since installing floorboards, it is necessary to withdraw from the wall 12 ÷ 15 mm.Later in this period laid the strip of insulation, and installed closed plinth.It must be possible for the tree to grow with changing humidity and temperature.
Be sure to leave a gap in the wall , which would then be covered by the skirting board

sure to leave a gap in the wall, which will subsequently be covered by skirting

  • board is attached to the joists with nails 80 ÷ 120 mm or screws 70 ÷ 100 mm.Hats are driven "by Hidden », later they were sealed putty matched the color of the wood.
  • If applied insufficiently seasoned wood, the floor requires roofed drying period, which lasts for 6 ÷ 8 months. During this time the coating will shrink, and shrinkage, increase the gap between the boards, and therefore will need to carry out the process of relaying.In this regard, during the initial laying flooring, nailed to the joists are not all the boards completely, and only the fifth attached - seventh board.