Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

Concrete floor screed with their hands

concrete base floor is currently perhaps the most common in residential and industrial construction.It is suitable for almost any surface finishes or can , after appropriate treatment, be operated independently.Its main advantages, while respecting casting technology - high strength, fracture resistance, durability use.No wonder that in the conduct of private construction or repairs in an apartment in the majority of cases the owners housing stop is on a floor arrangement technology.

Concrete floor screed with their hands

concrete screed floor with their hands

Should we invite experts-builders or concrete screed floor with your hands is quite affordable process for the average property owner?The answers to these questions are the subject of this publication.

Types concrete screed floor

Article Contents

  • 1 Types concrete floor screeds
  • 2 Solutions for pouring concrete screed
  • 3 Surface preparation for pouring concrete screed
  • 4 beacons system and reinforcement
    • 4.1 Defining zero
    • 4.2 marking system for beacons
    • 4.3 As exhibited beacons and guides to the zero level
    • 4.4 Video: setting the beacons using screws and krepleniy-"Ushastik»
    • 4.5 Nuances reinforcing ties
    • 4.6 Video: a few tips for installation of the system of lighthouses
  • 5 screed
    • 5.1 Video: illustrative example pouring beacons
  • ties

Concrete floor screed may have different design, carried out by several different technologies and intended for different purposes.

  • Thus, they can serve only for floor leveling performed before installing finish.Strong ties are reliable basis in areas where provision increased mechanical load . they can perform the functions required ensure thermobalance, speaking, for example, the powerful battery of heat in systems « warm floor".Screed often closed communications system.Can they be used and in order to create a certain bias in those areas where it is needed.
  • differ concrete screed on the number of layers :

- They may be single-layered, that is poured at the same time for all the calculated height.Usually it is used in industrial, commercial or ancillary commercial premises, where a floor flatness is not increased requirements.

- Layered screed poured several receptions.Usually, the first layer is rough ground and the upper creates a smooth surface for further work on the flooring coatings.This approach is applied in cases where the total thickness required tie up too large, and it expedient perform in layers.

  • ties differ in the degree of adhesion to the substrate:
Different types of ties

Different types of ties

- Related ties have direct contact with the ground.Of course, with such a casting technology the maximum uniformity of materials should be ensured and their high adhesion to each other.Thus coating quality characteristic of good strength in terms of withstand high mechanical loads.However, the state of the surface layer will depend largely on the level of humidity of the substrate.Such ties mainly operate on a dry floor slabs on the floors of buildings.

- In the case when the substrate does not have sufficient waterproofing applied screed sleep spacer layer.The layer of waterproofing material (roofing, polymer film of coating composition) becomes a barrier to the penetration of moisture from the bottom, and she screed contact with the ground is not.With this solution the filling layer technology can not be less than 30 mm and usually requires reinforcement.

This technology is often used when constructing the screed on the ground, for example, in the garage, shed, cellars, on the first floors of houses without basements.To resort to it in areas with high humidity levels.

- Where reinforced floor insulation is required or there is a need for sound insulation, using floating screed.In this case, the solution is poured concrete behavior p cl oya insulation of a particular type.Screed is transformed into a completely independent structure - plate, not associated with the base or with the room walls.The minimum thickness of the casting in this case - not less than 50 mm, and reinforcing ties becomes imperative.

Humidity this tie is completely independent from the ground state, and achieved good Insulating shumopogloschayushy effect.Disadvantages - excessively large thickness, and therefore - roof load.Typically, these ties are used only on the ground floors of residential and outbuildings, especially if filling is carried out on the ground.

  • Ties can be carried out as a homogeneous solution or include certain fillers:

- The addition of a cement-sand mortar EPS chips significantly increases thermal insulation qualities of the coating.

Screed using expanded polystyrene crumb

screed using expanded polystyrene crumb

Typically, these ties require a second, reinforcing and leveling layer.

- Where required screed thickness or large with high thermal insulation properties, a concrete solution is added to concrete block.

Good thermal insulation properties of the screed has keramsit

Good insulation qualities of the screed has keramsit

Claydite strong enough, but for some floor coverings need to fill still and the surface layer of a conventional solution.But ceramic tile is quite possible to be laid directly on a substrate.

-Good performance show ties with the micro-fiberglass .This technology can dramatically increase the strength of the coating to mechanical stress, to stretch, bend.

Fiberglass create an internal reinforcing structure

fiberglass create an internal reinforcing structure

Such ties usually do not give reflux reschin less defeated shrinkage during solidification, have less dusting.They are excellent for floor heating systems.

  • Concrete floor screed can be performed on the classical "wet" technology, or by on lusuhoy.Semi-dry screed - it is relatively new, and not all still willing to try it in practice.In addition, it requires particular professionalism in the preparation of the mortar in the computation, compacting and leveling solution.Most home builders prefer to use proven "wet" technology, which will and discussed in an article in the future.

Solutions for pouring concrete screed

Quite naturally, if necessary, pour concrete screed is required primarily to determine the type of solution.In this regard, there may be some options.

According to the existing canons SNIP minimum strength normal concrete screed, irrespective of its future lining should not be less than the M-150 (the coating can withstand the force of 150 kg / cm²).If you use self-leveling filler composition here requirements even higher - from the M-200.In accordance with these requirements and should be selected solution.

1. « classic" concrete solution used to fill a conventional floor screed is considered a mixture of cement and sand in a ratio of 1: 3."Recipe" that - a time-tested and fully justified.However, there are some nuances, without accounting which can easily spoil a future tie :

  • To prepare the concrete can not use the normal "washed" river sand, not specially treated.Frozen surface will be no different strength, starts eventually crumble, crumble and crack.The fact that the grains of sand smoothed by long exposure to water outlines, not provide adequate adhesion .In this regard, a much better career sand, e his faceted sand grains of irregular shape.However, when choosing a need to look closely to it in not come across a large number of clay inclusions - this will also reduce the strength of ties.

presence of a small amount of gravel component of fines on the strength of quality ties will not be affected.However, if you want a smooth surface, you will need to sift sand through a sieve.

  • A very important condition for the strength and durability of filled screed becomes optimally matched amount of water.It is no secret that some novice home builders, seeking to facilitate currently working on filling and leveling concrete, an excess amount of water, receiving semi-liquid, easily diffluent solution.In this way they lay the "bomb» - output coupler will not possess the required qualities.
This tie is sure to be no different strength

This tie is sure to be no different strength

Firstly, the excessively liquid solution uniquely gives a strong shrinkage during solidification.A flat surface, exposed according to the level in this case is not expected.And secondly, the violation of the cement-water balance is required to reduce the strength of concrete quality frozen.Surface turns loose, unbound, with increased formation of dust.

There are, of course, specifically designed ratios of water in a concrete solution, but they usually adhere to technology companies for the production of reinforced concrete structures and large mortar units. In terms of home construction more often rely on their own experience, intuition and common sense.In addition, to accurately calculate the amount of water is very difficult and of , it largely depends on the humidity of the filler.The sand may be wet, heavy - and this is also the water that will be involved in the process of preparation of the solution.Ideally

concrete solution should turn dense but sufficiently pliable so that when pouring and leveling of the floor does not remain thicker air voids.Some can navigate to the following ratio - a liter of water for five kilograms of dry cement-sand mixture.

Важно правильно подобрать "золотую середину", чтобы раствор был и плотный, и пластичный

It is important to choose the right "middle ground" that the solution was both dense and ductile

qualitatively mix mortar for screeds manually using shovels, very difficult.Better for this use a concrete mixer or a mixer construction of high power enough.Initially, the desired ratio stirred dry ingredients (possible - with little moisture), and then very cautiously, in portions, was added water.

important condition for the quality of the future concrete screed - water purity. Do not use industrial water containing fats, oils, oil residues and etc .You also can not be used to carry water to the site of mixing concrete dirty greasy capacity.

2. Modern Art assortime nt roitelnyh submissions on sale, can greatly simplify the process of casting the screed.ready dry mixes can be used for this purpose.

In what part of the component mixtures already has the optimal ratio

In such mixtures, the component structure already has an optimal ratio

compared with usual cement-sand mixture, such technology has a number advantages:

  • on strength and other performance indicators covering, made of pre-mixes, in no way inferior to conventional concrete, and may even exceed it by a number of parameters.
  • To prepare the solution does not need a powerful technique or heavy manual labor - quite powerful mixer or electric drill (Punch) with an appropriate nozzle.
  • There is, in principle, problems with the dosing of components - everything is provided by the manufacturer and master remains only clearly follow instructions on the preparation of the solution.
  • Many solutions prepared from such mixtures is much easier, thereby reducing the load on the slab and reduces transportation costs and easier lifting materials on floors.
There is a possibility to choose the mix to the specific operating conditions of the floor

There is a possibility to choose the mix to the specific operating conditions of the floor

  • There is a possibility of selection of the desired composition to the specific operating conditions.So, there are solutions for rough or leveling screeds, for the system « warm floor" and for rooms with high humidity.Added to their special composition or plasticizers microfiber not only increases the strength characteristics of the coating, but also reduce the total periods of hardening screed, reducing the total duration of the construction work.
  • What is very important for beginners - to work with such compounds is simple and does not require particularly high skills.The main thing - to follow the recommendations on filling technology, which must be attached to each batch of material.

All this is true only if a quality dry mixture purchased.Alas, the building materials market in this segment a lot of fakes, or low-grade mixtures.It is best to select compounds from reputable manufacturers, necessarily verifying the certificate, not to run into counterfeiting.It is also important to check the validity of the material flow - it is limited, and overdue mixture can significantly lose its quality.

The only drawback of this approach to filling screed - tse on to it can turn out somewhat higher than at independent manufacturing solution.Well, for the comfort and quality you have to pay.

Surface preparation for pouring concrete ties

surface under the screed is prepared differently , based specific conditions:

  • If the floor will be laid on the ground, such as in a private home without felling orthe basement, the work is carried out in the following sequence :

- primer selected to a depth of 500 mm.

-Nasypaetsya pillow of sand, 100 mm thick, carefully compacted.Over it in the same way is poured a layer of gravel.

- rough casting is done with the addition of expanded clay concrete to a height of 150 - 200 mm - for thermal insulation of the floor surface.

- After hardening bases, she certainly waterproofing - roofing material or dense plastic film , to prevent ingress of dirt damp.The waterproofing material must go on the wall at the height , slightly higher than the height of the planned tie.If necessary, top it will be possible to fill even one layer of insulation, and then pour a reinforced screed finish.

  • In the apartments, you must first remove the old tie.This is done for several reasons:

- Firstly, the old screed does not guarantee the integrity, because it can flake, crack, and the strain will be passed again cast in layer.

- Secondly, we should not forget about the maximum permissible loads on the floor slab.Thus, in the serial high-rise buildings of old construction load capacity of 400 kg per square meter - 150 kg and static - dynamic.A west one square meter of concrete screed, 50 mm closer to 100 kg. Therefore, all work associated with the thickening ties have coordinate in the design organizations. And not the fact that such permission will be obtained.