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September 29, 2016 23:08

Class laminate how to choose

Laminated flooring in the apartment becomes more and more popular every year, and many owners housing during repairs give preference to him.At relatively low cost and ease of stacking, which is feasible to perform and can be prepared floor surface, little in than inferior natural wood - and decorative performance, and performance.

Class laminate how to choose

class how to choose laminate

However, a hike in the store to purchase the necessary coverage often before unsophisticated buyers rises problem - what would be optimal for the deck in a particular room?If a decorative qualities more or less clear - everyone homeowners their preferences and their own vision of the future design of the room, the service classification of the material it is possible to get confused because of the abundance of icons and icons on the package.However, all is not so difficult - much talk about how to choose laminate class for which specific conditions and will be described in this publication .

What is laminate, his dignity
and disadvantages

Article Contents

  • 1 What is laminate, its advantages and disadvantages
    • 1.1 Video: an object lesson about the kinds of laminate, itadvantages and disadvantages
  • 2 Existing classes laminate
  • 3 What we take into account when buying laminate flooring
    • 3.1 Video: types of interlocks laminated panels
    • 3.2 Video: tips for choosing laminate for apartments

The term "laminate" often involve prefabricated panel certain size of wood-based composite for laying flooring.They are decorated may be different - the vast majority of them are made with imitation of natural wood texture (floorboards, solid wood, parquet or cork), although there are a collection in which the external design is made by natural stone or ceramic tiles, or even under the more original invoiceFor example, rusty metal.The thickness of the laminated panels can vary from 4 to 12 mm.

basic structure of the laminate - it Four- structure, each layer having its own certain function:

Basic laminated panel structure

basic structure of the laminated panel

1 - outer protective coating (overlay) - in fact, this is thelaminating layer panel.Is it a transparent polymer film of high strength acrylic or melamine resins.The quality and thickness of this layer determine the wear resistance of the material in many respects, its ability to withstand abrasive and shock loads.It performs an essential function of protecting the underlying layers from moisture, dirt, aggressive from chemical exposure and UV rays.Qualitative state of the coating determines the sex hygiene, easy to care for him, the ecological purity of the material.

2 - decorative layer.On the basis of a paper or foil suffered the picture that shines through the upper transparent overlay.In fact, these two upper layers and create an incomplete coverage necessary textured decorative.

3 - base layer, which determines the overall strength of the laminated panels.This - the thickest layer of the overall "pie".It is made of wood composite, close to what we used to call in everyday life fiberboard .However, the differences from conventional wood-fiber boards are very important.

If the furniture industry increasingly used MDF sheets ( Medium Density Fibroboard - literally from the English "fiber medium density board"), the practice of using laminated flooring has shown that strengthsuch insufficient material for such operating conditions.Therefore, at the present time by the use of MDF all reputable firms abandoned in favor NDF ( Nigh Density Fibroboard - high density).The share of such a composite may reach 850 - 900 kg / m³.This material is characterized by excellent stiffness , strength, perfectly holds a predetermined shape, low water absorption.

By the way, if you select the laminate shop consultant trying to sell to the buyer panel MDF-based , assuring their quality and decoding in the Russian manner abbreviation MDF , like « finely-dispersed fraction", it is not necessaryeven continue the conversation.This shows the low competence of the seller, who does not even bother to deeply understand the accepted terminology, and even more so - can not wait for him competent council in performance coatings.Once again emphasize - quality laminated panels based on MDF can not be by definition!

4 - stabilizing protective coating panels.This layer tarred paper or polymer substrate, which should prevent the penetration of moisture and stabilize the bottom panel of the geometric shape, preventing it warping or bending.

5 - lock of the laminated panel, which is always located on at the level of basic NDF-layer.About varieties of locks will be described below.

  • Similar four-layer laminate models usually produce by direct compression technology ( Direct Pressure Laminate ).After assembling all the layers are sent to the press low pressure.Proce ss etc. ohodit one step at a certain temperatures.A protective layer with a decorative case reach a thickness of not more than 0.2 ÷ 0.4 mm.As stabilizing bottom substrate using this technology most commonly used plastic layer.

After pressing plate, after 4 ÷ 5 days, come to the site cut into desired size to individual boards.After still a two-day endurance billet transferred to the laser cutting machine of the castle.This is followed by a cycle of technical control, packing and shipping to consumers.

have this technology has a number of drawbacks, chief among them - remain in the interior of the internal stresses of the material.When sudden changes in temperature or humidity conditions of operation it may manifest deformation, buckling panels, forming cracks at the joints between them.

  • looks somewhat more complicated process of manufacturing high-quality laminate, which is reinforced by additional layers.
In high-grade laminate can be additional structural layers

In the high-end laminate may have additional structural layers

As can be seen from the figure, there are some differences from the base schema.Thus, under the decorative layer (2) has several layers high kraft paperboard (2a) , impregnated melamine resins.This gives the face of the special strength quality that dramatically improves the performance of the flooring.

The substrate (4) is not used plastics and resins impregnated kraft paperboard.In addition, there may be an additional and composite layer (4a), the main purpose of which becomes noise reduction .

In the production of such a laminate material passes proce ss etc. essovaniya in two stages.First, apply a high pressure technology NPL ( Nigh Pressure Laminate ) with high temperature exposure - so connect several transparent laminated layers (in this case the behavior px Square enochnogo coatings are deposited layers of aluminum oxide or corundum), a decorative layer and substrate kraft paperboard .The result is a virtually monolithic structure with a protective layer to 0,5 ÷ 0,9 mm.

Then, a conventional process of DPL-pressing, in which, in fact, going to all the laminated panel with the base layer and the substrate.Subsequent processes are not different from those that have been described above .

It is these types of laminate are among the most durable class and have the most long-term warranty periods.

What are the main advantages of high quality laminate flooring:

  • High decorative - diversity of the collections on offer will satisfy even the most demanding taste.
  • comparatively low weight and, yet , high strength of the coating, which is on a number of parameters exceeds the natural wood.On the surface is not scratches, dents, cracks are absolutely excluded.
  • Extreme ease of caring for floors - cleaning laminated surface will have no x x Lopota, as it does not absorb dirt and it does not form spots.
  • laminated surface does not rot , not a breeding ground for mold or mildew, has a high water-repellent properties.
  • Good laminate does not fade even in sunlit rooms.
  • service life of the coating, without losing decorative, tens of years.
  • Laying laminate average Russian landlord is able to hold its own.

Disadvantages are not so significant:

  • Certainly, laminate seriously loses natural wood in thermal insulation qualities - he is a "cold".
  • Some types of coverage may have a property to accumulate static charge.It is necessary to choose a material with anstistaticheskim properties or carry out regular processing of the respective compositions.
  • Laminate may not be suitable for the system « warm floor".Be sure to clarify with the purchase of this opportunity to use it - it should be noted appropriate icon.

Video: an object lesson about the kinds of laminate, its advantages and disadvantages

Existing classes laminate

Depending on the type used in the production of raw materials, the thickness layers , manufacturing technology, different types oflaminated boards may differ significantly from each other with their technical and operational characteristics.Of course, this has a direct impact on the possible scope of their practical application.To facilitate the selection of the desired coating process developed a special its classification.

division into classes determined by the results of tests of special .There is a single method (EN 13329) test laminate in several key indicators (the test may include about 18 evaluation criteria).

  • To test the resistance of a material to abrasion (abrasion) is carried out, called , Taber test.
Apparatus for carrying out the Taber test for abrasion resistance of the coating

Apparatus for Taber abrasion resistance test coverage

Samples are placed in a special cover diagnostic apparatus, where they are affected by the rotating grinding wheel certain grain under the set pressure.The equipment monitors the number of revolutions until the visible damage to the laminate surface and wear full protective and decorative layer.These figures are added together, the average output value, which becomes the defining class at exhibiting resistance to abrasion exposed.

current standard abrasion resistance (EN 13329) number of revolutions of the test grinding wheel
Abrasion class 1 (AC 1) 900 - 1500
Abrasion class 2 (AC 2) 1500 - 2000
Abrasion class 3 (AC 3) 2000 - 4000
Abrasion class 4 (AC 4) 4000 - 6000
Abrasion class 5 (AC 5) over 6000
  • to test the impact strength of the coating is carried out tests with freely falling steel ball with a diameter of 40 mm, and "shoot" the ball of small diameter.At the same time determined by the stress or the drop height at which visible dents remain on the surface.

stability of the laminate to the shock load Test with a free fall of a large globe with a certain height (mm)
800 1000 1200 1400 1600
test the impact of a small ball with a calibrated force of impact (H) to 8 N no IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 1
to 10 N IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 1
to 12 N IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 2 IC 2
to 15 N IC 1 IC 2 IC 2 IC 2 IC 3
to 20 N IC 1 IC 2 IC 3 IC 3 IC3
  • to check surface chemical resistance tests are carried out using reagents, divided into several groups according to the degree of its aggressiveness.
  • checked the water resistance of the material - it is immersed in water for a day at 20 ° With , and then measure the water absorption coefficient.It is believed the water absorption rate of 18%, but some manufacturers have managed to achieve and much higher rates - laminate can absorb all the moisture up to 8%.Of course, this figure is lower than the better.
  • conducted tests with static load - so the laminate is tested ability to withstand the pressure of the legs of furniture and chairs clips.
  • There are specific methods for determining the light fastness, anti-static coating qualities, resistance to thermal load (test fallen lighted cigarette) and other tests.

According to the results of tests conducted indicators appropriately processed, and a laminate in accordance with the European standard, is assigned to a generic class.With some simplifications results are shown in the table:

performance indicators purpose, load intensity and laminate class testing technology
accommodations public areas
low average high low average high
21 22 23 31 32 33
abrasion resistance AC 1 AS2 AC 3 AC 3 AS 4 AS 5 Annex E
ustochivost to shock loading IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 1 IC 2 IC 3 Annex F
resistance to 4 spots (g.1 & amp; 2), 3 (g.. 3) 5 (g.1 & amp; 2), 4 (g 3) EN 438
thermal stability - 4 4 4 4 4 EN438
resistance to furniture legs - - without visible damage EN 424
resistance roller wheels furniture - - without visible damage EN 425
swelling ratio less than 20% less than 20% less than 18% less than 18% less than 18% less than 18% Annex G

Exposed laminate class and will determine the