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August 12, 2017 18:06

How to make the attic

most probably the best way to increase the effective area of ​​his house - is replaced gable roof to roof houses. So you can buy one, two or even three additional rooms, not vykraivaya additional space on the site and not contacting very laborious process pouring a new foundation and wall construction.And to learn how to make the attic properly, you need to consider all the stages of its arrangement , since calculations and ending with the roof covering and the roof trim to obtain additional space .

How to make the attic

How to make the attic

To all works were successful, you must first make sure that the existing wall (if the superstructure will be constructed in an old house) are able to withstand the extra load.From this factor will depend on whether or not to contrive such a construction site and, if so, on what design mansard roof would be better to stop.

It should be noted that the load-bearing walls significantly increase - for through more trusses, because the mass of interior walls and flo

or, windows and doors, insulation systems, as well as all elements interior fillingattics.All of these factors suggest that you should start with the selection of the optimal design of the attic, with calculations of , drafting and drawing future superstructure.

Types penthouses

Article Contents

  • 1 Types penthouses
    • 1.1 gable attic
    • 1.2 sloping ceilings
    • 1.3 Single-level console attic
    • 1.4 multilevel superstructure
  • 2 Basics truss roof structure
    • 2.1 Hanging system
    • 2.2 Naslonnaya design
  • 3 Designing attic
    • 3.1 elements design
    • 3.2 Conductbasic calculations attic
    • 3.3 Video: example of a professional approach to the calculation of the construction of the attic
  • 4 Materials and tools for the construction of the attic
  • 5 Mounting roof structure
    • 5.1 mauerlat
    • 5.2 Beamsoverlap
    • 5.3 Installing rafters
  • 6 waterproofing and vapor barrier
  • 7 Warming attic
    • 7.1 Winterizing floor
    • 7.2 Installation of insulation to the walls and ceiling of the attic
  • 8 Decorating the walls of the attic
    • 8.1 Video: insulation of the attic space and furnish it with clapboard
    • 8.2 Video: example of construction and finishing of the attic

under current building regulations loft considered space under the roof, which has a height of overlapto skate is not less than 2500 mm.If this parameter is less than the specified boundary, the space is considered to be an ordinary attic.

  • If uprights, determine the height of the walls of the room, have a size of 1500 mm, the attic space can be considered a full floor.
  • Polumansardnym called attic in which there are no vertical supports, or if they have a height of 500 to 700 mm.
В основе любой конструкции крыши всегда заложены треугольники с их "жесткой" структурой

At the heart of any roof structure is always laid triangles with their "hard" structure

There are several types of roof superstructures, but the most popular of them are the high gable and broken structure.Their popularity can be explained by simple calculations , relatively simple installation and ease of use.In third place, after pitched and broken structures can be called single-slope variation nt cr yshi, which is also sometimes used for arranging the attic.Unfortunately, not every design house can apply this type of superstructure, as it requires not only the reconstruction of the roof, but also lifting height has built walls, which significantly increases load and them, and foundation.

If a new home is being built, and the second floor is planned as an attic, the single-slope variation nt cr yshi well suitable for this purpose.In addition, it will help to save on roofing materials.

More complex designs - dome, hipped, and with different projections console arranged in the slopes of the roof (single-level and multi-level), are used very rarely and only in exclusive projects, as they have a complex and engineering calculationsand installation design.

Different types of mansard roofs

Different types of mansard roofs

The figure below shows the numbers:

1 - gable attic.

2 - Bent attic

3 - Single-level console attic

4 - Multi-level penthouse.

attic gable

Attic on d d vuskatnoy roof, which is arranged at an angle between the ramps 80 ÷ 90 degrees on the ridge, it may well be converted into a loft.To create a full-fledged residential premises it is required to carry out a number of necessary renovations, for example, very often not without strengthening the attic floor.All these alterations, and plus to this - the necessary insulation certainly "eat" a significant portion of usable space under the roof, so you should not expect the room to be so spacious loft with high ceilings.

Attic gable inside

gable attic inside

Of course, if the size (length and width) home - big enough, and the roof has significantly angle the slope (45 degrees or even higher), after alterationsit will be possible to rely on the relatively spacious attic room.

sloping ceilings

room under the sloping mansard roof is much more spacious and with high ceilings.This loft can easily be divided into two separate rooms.

Интерьер мансарды, выполненной по "ломаному" типу

Interior attic, made by "Lohmann" type

sloping plane has four ramps.Place them at different angles - upper slopes called ridge and the lower - side.They are, for the most part, and perform the role of the walls.

This kind of mansard roof is somewhat more complicated in design and installation, but the result will appreciate the spacious rooms and a respectable appearance at home.

Single-level console attic

This type of attic still has more complex design than the previous one, because it implies the displacement of the attic space into one or the other.

Console attic

Console attic

Using this option, you can get the device attic spacious room, much bigger, than qq vuskatnoy roof.

design of a single-level mansard roof can be repeated not only gable, but also single-slope option - it will depend on how much is supposed to make a console outside the attic, and raise its ceiling.

multilevel superstructure

Multilevel design the most complex in design and installation.In its design and construction will certainly need help of qualified professionals.Supports for attics levels are different truss systems and overlapping, which are combined with the main.Multilevel system assumes the location of the rooms on the different levels of the attic, and that is why the console must be located exactly.

Attic may have even several levels

Attic may have even several levels

choosing the most desirable type of the attic, you must determine whether it improvement on the old walls of the house, or have them to strengthen. therefore need to make accurate calculations and draft.

Basics truss roof structure

Most roofs, attic and in this regard is no exception, has one of two types of truss system, or a combination of their choice.Each of these species has its own characteristics, which depend on the load-bearing structure of the wall arrangement.

Hanging system

Hanging truss system is determined by the fact that it has the support of only two exterior walls of the capital, located along the length of the building, which has no internal capital partitions.

The principle of the hanging roof system

principle hanging truss system

Such a system is used, provided that the distance between the capital pillars of no more than 13 ÷ 14 meters. Anyway , this design gives sufficiently large load on the walls and funda nt Article swarming.

To mitigate loads on the system are various support elements - girders , Grandma, braces, tightening, racks and other details.

example, the grandmother as if suspended by a tightening system to the entire ridge beam, and pull struts overlapping beams to the rafters.

to attic floor in the system need to use thick bars, logs or boards that set on edge.Their thickness can be determined from the table given in this publication, based on the distance between the points of support.

to using the suspension system overlap was reliable and strong, you need to make accurate calculations , and if their own to make it difficult, then better

Naslonnaya design

Naslonnaya system differsin that the support is not only on the external main walls, but also on the inner walls which are without foundation.

The approximate scheme of a sloping structure

approximate scheme naslonnoy design

Therefore, starting construction of houses, which is scheduled attic, you need to think in advance the location of internal capital partitions.

Home with loft naslonnaya system - is the best option, as the overlying house beams are durable and reliable fixed on walls and partitions.

When constructing sloping mansard roof design, you can use a combination of variations nt Article ropilnoy system, that is, to use elements such as hanging and naslonnoy system.

Designing attic

drafted any kind of construction of the attic, it is recommended to consider in different projections, in order to clearly identify the location of all support elements.Counting all the parameters of the attic, they should immediately bring to the project.

Based produced calculations , determined places and methods of installation of all elements of the structure truss system. Calculation also necessary to accurately determine the necessary materials for the construction of the attic and their parameters.

design elements

Any of wooden structures mansard roof consists of certain elements that communicate with each other connector assemblies having different configurations.To better understand the structure of these compounds, draw the recommended each of them, and during installation works - sure to have on hand this drawing-drawing .

The main elements of the rafter roof construction

Key elements of truss roof structure

The design of sloping mansard roof system consists of the following components:

  • mauerlat - element, made of timber and placed on the walls of buildings in the capital of its length.It is used to balance the load on the design of roof system on the wall and the foundation.On mauerlat installed and secured rafters.This element is mounted in the gable , and the sloping roof of the attic design.
  • joists, which are stacked on the main walls of the structure are the basis for the future of the attic floor and the ceiling of the first floor, as well as to install the entire roof system.
  • Rafter leg consists of one direct element - the bar or board in gable roof form, or of the two parts - in sloping design.The sloping mansard roof top, fixed to the horse , called the ridge and the bottom, which forms the walls of the attic, called the side.It is obvious that the lateral leg will be installed on naslonnomu principle, whereas the upper ridge rafter - typically becomes hanging
  • to skate or used timber board certain thickness.Sometimes they do without it, connecting with each other the upper ridge of the rafters, which form horse .
  • racks are the basic elements of the system.They support the rafters and remove some of the load from the walls and structure of the basement.Racks in the future will crate wall, which will be installed in the process of finishing the attic.
  • bevels or other elements mounted diagonally, backups are incremental, fastening straps and retaining beams, making system design more reliable .
  • between rafters for stiffening bars are installed, called mezhstropilnymi runs - they also give system rigidity .

Carrying out basic calculations attic

independently developed project mansard roof is quite difficult, as this proce ss tr ebuet certain knowledge and skills in the design and implementation of specific architectural calculations .If at the same time to make mistakes, attic design will unreliable , and addition - your weight can damage the walls and foundation of the building.

The calculations should be taken into account everything - from the beginning of the construction and decoration to

The calculations should be taken into account everything - from the beginning of the construction and decoration to

However, if you think not too complex design, you can try to cope on their own.

Calculation height of the ridge

Size usable area attic space depends on the height of the roof ridge, and the latter is determined by the selected slope rays - than this angle is less, the lower the ceiling and, therefore, less helpful attic area.

From the slope of the roof depends on the height of the ridge , and the useful floor space

From the slope of the roof depends on the height of the ridge, and the useful floor space

Calculate the height of the ridge gable mansard roof possible using the following formula:

N = L × tg α

H - the height of the ridge;

L - ½ the width of the structure (if it is of gable roof symmetrical);

α - angle of slope roof system.

The scheme - for clarity

scheme - for clarity

As an example, can be substituted into the formula above used data:

structure size 8 × 10 m , slope angle 30 ° , tan 30 ° = 0, 58

N = 8/2 × 0,58 = 2, 32 m

height of the ridge is equal 2, 32 m .

great detail, with all the nuances and the necessary reference tables, the process calculate the angle of the roof and all other parameters associated with it is presented with a separate publication, devoted to this issue.