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October 11, 2016 23:16

Waterproofing of the basement with his own hands

From the strength and durability of the foundation directly depends on the stability, integrity of all structures erected building on this foundation, and even , in certain extent, security living in it people.That is why the process of construction of the foundation of the building is always riveted attention, and are used for this purpose only the best building materials.

Waterproofing of the basement with his own hands

Waterproofing basement with their hands

However, whatever high-strength materials or used to "zero cycle», they all have they have a common ruthless "enemy» - water, in one way or another aggregate state.Moisture is able in a relatively short period of time to reduce the strength of the created structure, so waterproofing the foundation with his own hands - the most important stage of self-build your own home, which should never be overlooked.

The dangerous moisture for the foundation

Article Contents

  • 1 The dangerous moisture for the foundation
  • 2 What kinds of waterproofing applied to protect
    the foundation
  • 3 horizontal waterproofing of the foundation
  • 4 vertical waterproofing the basement walls and basement
    • 4.1 repair the surface of the walls and their impregnation (penetrating) waterproofing
    • 4.2 Video: use of penetrating waterproofing system "penetrants»
    • 4.3 Obmazochnaya vertical waterproofing the basement
    • 4.4 Video: surface waterproofing foundation with bituminous mastics
    • 4.5 Okleechnaya (surfaced) vertical waterproofing
    • 4.6 Video: basement waterproofing fusing roll materials

Familiar to all of us the water at all, it would seem,harmless to the dilettante, can cause a lot of trouble the foundation of the building:

Freezing penetrated into the interior of the concrete structure of water can cause a break

Freezing penetrated into the interior of the concrete water can cause the gap design

  • The first known property of water is significantly increased in volume during the transition to solid state - atfreezing.Penetrating into the micropores and cracks of even the most durable construction in the fall of temperatures below 0º With , it is able to expand them to increase in size, and sometimes - just to break into separate pieces.
Chemical elements dissolved in the water , activate concrete erosion

Chemical elements dissolved in the water, activate the erosion of concrete

  • Secondly, the water on the surface of the earth contained in the upper layers of soil, and even dropping out of precipitation is never clean.It is always more or less the concentration of saturated very aggressive chemicals - industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals destination, petroleum waste, car exhaust and etc .These substances cause erosion of concrete surface on which it loses its strength and begins to crumble.
Water causes corrosion of the reinforcing belt

Water causes corrosion of the reinforcing belts

  • Third, those same chemicals plus dissolved oxygen in the water activate corrosion processes on reinforcing lattice.Besides that laid reduced strength of the entire reinforced structure - this leads to the formation of internal voids in the thicker material and eventually delamination of the upper ends concrete layers.
  • And, fourth , we can not forget that, that water has a strong scrub out the property (they do not remember the proverb - « water wears away the stone).Chronic exposure to even chemically pure water is always associated with a gradual flushing of particles from the surface of the foundation material, pitting, cavities and the like .

Water adjacent to the foundation soil can be in different layers and in different states:

  • top, called , filtration layer - water that falls from the precipitation that forms from melting snow or simplyfrom external spill ( use of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, and occasional gusts of highways etc . ) .Sometimes, if the way of absorption comes vysokoraspolozhenny waterproof layer, then at a certain limited area can be formed quite stable horizon - perched.

saturation of the upper layer of water filtration is always heavily dependent on the time of year, steady weather, rainfall and is not constant.An important role in reducing the effects of moisture this layer to funda nt Article swarming to play, in addition to high-quality waterproofing, sound system stormwater.

  • in the upper layers of the soil always contains soil ( dirt ) moisture, which is constantly kept there for through capillarity, or the adhesive properties of the soil.Concentration its quite constant and very little depends on the level of precipitation, season and etc .She no effect on the foundation of any dynamic, washes away stress and negative its impact is limited by capillary penetration of materials and chemical "aggression".

To counteract soil moisture sufficiently waterproof waterproofing layer.However, at excessively humid areas of terrain, with a tendency to waterlogging, have to provide for a system of drainage water drainage.

  • Underground groundwater - specific to a particular location and its relief upper aquifers.The depth of their occurrence depends on the location of impermeable layers soil and on on complementarity rather strongly influenced by seasonal factors - excessive melting of snow, incessant rains or, the contrary, the steady drought .

Smart the depth of the water-bearing layers and seasonal fluctuations it can be observed in the near the well - normal or technological drain.In addition to the direct penetration into the interior of the foundation material, the water and may have a hydrostatic pressure on recessed part of the design.With the high occurrence of such layers need the maximum amount of work on the waterproofing with obligatory installation of an efficient sewage drainage around the building.

What kinds of waterproofing applied to protect foundation

In order to prevent the negative effects of moisture on the foundation using the following types of waterproofing and other construction and assembly works:

  • Giving construction materials additional water-repellent properties.
  • Create waterproof coating on the vertical walls of the foundation, from its sole and up top edge of the cap.
  • Reliable waterproofing horizontal mezhurovnevyh joints, preventing penetration of moisture wicking up.
  • Reliable waterproofing protection itself from external mechanical influences.
  • measures on warming the basement and plinth, reducing the negative impact of freezing temperatures.
  • device drainage system around the house.
  • Create reliable drainage system of rain and melt water - wastewater and stormwater.
  • Ensuring reliable ventilation basement and basement premises.

on the proposed figure as an example shows a possible general building foundation waterproofing scheme:

Scheme numbers marked:

Approximate basement waterproofing scheme

Approximate basement waterproofing scheme

1 - sole foundation, which usually rest on compacted sand-gravel cushion.Between it and the vertical wall of foundation (2) to be shut-off horizontal waterproofing (4), which is joined overlap with an insulating layer, arranged in a semi basement space (4) between the base and screed.

external vertical wall has lubricative waterproofing coating (5), further protected waterproof membrane (7) and covered with a layer of geotextile (8), which protects from abrasion and other mechanical influences.

upper edge of the cap (foundation walls) also necessarily closed waterproofing roll material (6), on top of which will be carried out further erection of walls and ceilings of the building.

for removal of moisture is provided the drainage system - arranged around the perimeter of the pipe at the foot of the foundation (9) in a gravel cage.For more reliable protection against ingress of water from precipitation in in deep into the ground, around the house, it is desirable to arrange the clay lock (10).

In areas with harsh climates, strong freezing upper layers soil or when in the basement or the basement is planned occupancy residential or economic premises , waterproofing system is the foundation and the plinth is complemented by a system of insulation:

scheme in general repeats one that posted above, so the main numbering of parts and assemblies saved.In addition shows:

Driving basement waterproofing it with additional insulation

Driving basement waterproofing it with additional insulation

1.1 - sand-gravel cushion under a oshvoy foundation.This layer can also be performed from lean concrete with large fractional filling.

12 - insulation panels of extruded polystyrene installed outside the roll on top of the waterproofing over the entire height of foundation and basement walls.

13 - basement finishing plaster layer.Currently, instead often used special plinth thermopanel - they give and insulation, and reliable cover from direct exposure to water.

14 - erected buildings wall.The figure clearly shows that it starts from a horizontal stowed sure to shut off the foundation waterproofing layer.

choice of a particular type of waterproofing and means - and used it to materials largely depends on the destination premises, located in the basement.The existing classification (according to BS 8102 standards adopted in Europe) divides them into four classes:

  • first, lower class - this utility or technical room not equipped power grid.They allowed the wet spots or even small leaks.The wall thickness should not be less than 150 mm.
  • second class also includes technical or utility room, but equipped with ventilation, which allowed only a moist vapor, without the formation of damp spots, with wall thickness of not less than 200 mm.There already are allowed to set the standard electrical mains.
  • third class - the most common , and the most interesting individual developers.This includes all residential buildings, offices, retail outlets, objects of social sphere.The wall thickness should not be less than 250 mm, the required system of natural or forced ventilation.No penetration of moisture is not allowed.
  • With fourth class facilities during the construction of his own house to face, as a rule, do not have - are objects with a specially created micro-climate - archival repositories, libraries, laboratories, etc., where a permanent, clearly set humidity level is subject to specialrequirements.

The table below, lists the recommended types of waterproofing and applied for its materials device indicating its degree its strength generated protection of or other effects of groundwater and compatibility with classes Being equipped rooms:

type waterproofing and materials used resistance to cracking degree of protection against water room class
perched soil moisture compactoraquifer 1 2 3

4
Modern lining hydraulic seals using bitumen membranes on polyester based high yes yes yes yes yes yes no
Waterproofing, mounted with plastic waterproof membranes high yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
surface waterproofing, using plastic or bitumen-polymer mastic average yes yes yes yes yes yes no
flexible surface waterproofing, usingpolymer-cement formulations average yes no yes yes yes yes no
Waterproofing Obmazochnaya tough based cementitious compositions low yes not yes yes yes no no
impregnating waterproofing, increasing the water repellency of concrete low yes yes yes yes yes yes no

After viewing the table, you can make a very erroneous conclusion that, for example, to residential homes, will be enough only one of some type of insulation.Practice shows that this is clearly not enough, and often an integrated approach, where one type, combined with the other, creates really reliable waterproof barrier for the foundation.

horizontal waterproofing of the foundation

Post advisable to review it with a horizontal waterproofing.The fact that it can take place only during the construction of buildings.If the vertical can be carried out even on a fully constructed building, for example, after the acquisition of the finished home, horizontal hold lost sight of it is almost impossible - it is always planned in advance .There are, however, modern methods of injection waterproofing, but they are very expensive and all still remain only a palliative, aimed at minimizing the mistakes made earlier .

  • kind of waterproofing The first level is the rammed sand and gravel are laid under the pillow or under the sole foundation is poured monolithic structure.
  • If the basement or the basement is planned to fill the concrete hard, then its first layer also performed at such a filling, with calculation , to level equaled the height of the top edge stacked soles or first layer «tape. "Made of lean concrete.This is where the first layer is laid horizontal waterproofing - the room turns out completely covered the bottom of the soil water infiltration.In addition, it creates a barrier against rising damp on the walls of the future foundation.
Waterproofing of the basement floor

floor Waterproofing basement

  • Waterproofing spend roll materials - roofing material, which is adjacent sheets lay with overlapping 100 - 150 mm with obligatory their "provarivaniya" with a gas torch.If the combined layers of roofing material, lay on the floor and on the ground for further pouring of the foundation tape, then increased to 250 laps - 300 mm.