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October 14, 2016 23:04

Biofuels own hands

Questions ensure their personal household needs for the functioning of energy resources - a problem that a greater or lesser degree of severity rises to any owner.Often the difficulty is even impossible to bring the relevant communication, for example, in the absence of gas distribution networks in the area of ​​residence.But then, if we consider all the complex, the main problem - it's high energy tariffs, which often call into question the profitability of subsistence farming.Unfortunately, even a drop in prices for basic energy sources in the world market in no way reflects on the end-user - tariffs remain at the same level and even tend to increase.

Biofuels own hands

Biofuels own hands

Naturally, in such a situation more owners starts to think about the possibilities of using alternative energy sources.In particular, a lot of talk right now talking about biofuel - energy-dense (liquid, solid or gaseous), which are obtained by processing of raw materials, often in the literal sense of the word "

lie under their feet."In particular, many people are interested in the question of how to make a real biofuel with his hands, in a small private farms.

Opinions about this a lot, up to those that organize such a mini-production - literally "a piece of cake."Can you believe such optimistic assertions?Probably not - any biofuel will require special and often - a very expensive equipment, and the necessary knowledge and skills, and constant source of raw materials.Let us understand more ...

What are biofuels and from which it is obtained?

Article Contents

  • 1 What are biofuels and from which it is obtained?
  • 2 biodiesel production
    • 2.1 Advantages of biodiesel and its production bases
    • 2.2 Is it possible to make your own?
    • 2.3 Video: example of a self-made plants for biodiesel
    • 2.4 Video: continued process of producing biodiesel at home
    • 2.5 Video: Automated Modular line for the production of biodiesel
  • 3 Solid biofuels -pellets
    • 3.1 why and how to produce fuel pellets
    • 3.2 Video: small-scale production for the processing of wood waste into pellets
    • 3.3 and what about the "private owner"?
    • 3.4 Video: Model granulator with a fixed flat die 4 kW
    • 3.5 Video: How does a compact machine for granulating pellets

Almost all mined in the world energy is a product m m nogoletney naturalorganic recycling.The complex biochemical processes taking place in stratifications of obsolete plant and animal remains, under the influence of external factors (temperature, pressure) with the passage of time led to the formation of deposits of coal, oil reservoirs, to the accumulation of combustible gases in the thickness of the soil.It is these natural resources and are still the main energy used by man.

Production of energy is often carried out under the most extreme conditions

energy production is often carried out under the most extreme conditions

The problem is that all these resources - well finite, and their number is decreasing year by year.Recovery of virtually no (it takes many millions of years).All of them, in the vast majority, are located at great depths, often in remote places (in arctic areas or offshore), their production requires the use of sophisticated technology, and plus the considerable complexity are still and transportation issues.

In short, these problems are likely to be only increase with time, and humanity is nothing , how to consider the possibility of alternative sources of energy.As one of the most promising areas are currently considering bioenergy.

In fact, the laws do not change biochemistry, organic - a renewable raw material, so why artificially, in a short time, do not hold those same processes for the production of energy?Moreover, as a raw material can be used not only special because the crops, but also a variety of biological and technological waste, simultaneously solving the problem of their disposal.

Raw materials for biofuel production often literally lying under your feet

Raw materials for biofuel production often literally lying under your feet

The table below shows schematically the main trends in the production and the associated use of biofuels.It should be noted that similar approaches can used in large scale and in a fairly isolated, stand-alone systems, for example, medium or small agricultural complexes.

feedstock for processing Technological lines resulting product recyclable product or processing
agricultural livestock waste, residual products of feed production installations biogas Biogas (biomethane) Ensuring livestock complexes "gratuitous" electricity
Provide Autonomous heating
organic fertilizers
Industrial crops with high soderzhdaniem oils (sunflower, canola, soy, corn, etc..) Pererabatyvayushie line Ethanol (alcohol)
technical vegetable oils Biodiesel
agricultural wastes (crop and food production) distilleries and pyrolysis installation gaseous fuel (pyrolysis gases) Electricity
thermal energy
liquid fuel (alcohols)
Waste derevopererabatyvayushey industry pyrolysis installation gaseous fuel (pyrolysis gases) Electricity
thermal energy
granulation installation Fuel briquettes (pellets)

Some countries with a developed agro-technical infrastructure erected in the production of biofuels wounds g g lobal national programs.A striking example - Brazil, where the introduction of alternative fuels technologies is «leaps and bounds", and it is likely that this country will soon lay claim to being one of the largest suppliers of such energy.

In Brazil and many other countries with biofuels column no one is surprised

In Brazil and many other countries of the column with biofuels already surprise nobody

However, back in "native land."In our case, too, it is possible produce almost any types of biofuels, using or specially grown for this purpose raw materials, or applying recycling technology agriculture, food production, forestry or wood-processing industry.In particular, we consider the process of creating liquid biofuels ( biodiesel ) and solid (fuel pellets ).

production biodiesel

Advantages biodiesel and bases its production

Can diesel - diesel , the product obtained by rectification, ie directdistillation of crude oil, derived from vegetable raw materials?It turns out quite as on the molecular structure of vegetable and animal oils very similar to diesel fuel classical.

This, in essence, the same "long" hydrocarbon molecules, but not in a free state of the linear and related to the "triad" cross-frame of fatty acid - glycerol.So, to distinguish it from oil energy combustible component, you need to clear it from glycerol.In this the and is process for producing biodiesel .

Biodiesel from different grades of oil

biodiesel from different varieties of oil

As a result, should get a yellow (with the possible variety of tint) liquid that has no peculiar smell, which is peculiar to the usual diesel fuel.Nevertheless , is finished fuel, which can be used both in pure form or as an additive to the "classical" diesel fuel.Interestingly, the conventional diesel engines do not need any refinement even during the transition to pure biodiesel .

(Most still , due to the high temperature of the freezing threshold, biodiesel used in a mixture with conventional diesel fuel, and the resulting fuel is usually denoted by alphabetic symbol "B" with a number, which shows the biofuel component of the percentage of the total . volume, for example, the most common fuel "B20» - 20% biodiesel and 80 % diesel ).

However , a biofuel is not lagging behind in their caloric even differs in many respects from the refining of the product for the better:

  • This fuel has a pronounced lubricating effect, which significantly extends the life of diesel engine parts.
  • This fuel contains virtually no sulfur, which oxidizes the engine oil, quickly removing it from the state of fitness, and "eats" rubber seals, and just extremely harmful to the environment, which falls as a result of the exhaust.
  • Flashpoint biodiesel - significantly higher than that of conventional diesel fuel (about 150 ° With ).This means that a biological fuel and is much safer in storage and in transit, and in use.The toxicity of the fuel - much lower than that obtained from oil distillation .
  • One of the basic indicators of diesel fuel is the "cetane number" indicating the ability to hot to ignite during compression.The it is higher, the quality fuel, the smoother running engine and less wear of its parts.If conventional diesel fuel, the figure starts from 40 - 42, then biodiesel cetane number below 51 and not found (by the way, according to the European quality standards cetane number in any diesel fuel, applicable in the EU, should not be brought below than to 51).

Disadvantages biodiesel can be attributed a higher temperature of crystallization start (usually such fuel requires preheating) and a relatively short period of time possible storage of the finished product (usually - up to 3 months).

as a raw material for industrial scale production of technical vegetable oil, and then - biodiesel , used high-yield oleaginous crops - such as sunflower, soybean, corn.

Products for the production of technical vegetable oil - a raw material for production of biodiesel

products for the production of technical vegetable oil - the raw material for the production of biodiesel

special attention from farmers recently began to conquer the rape, because of its extremely high productivity, simplicity and addition , he of all these culturesmuch less draining soil.

One of the most promising industrial crops - canola

One of the most promising industrial crops - canola

However, the trend of development of production of biodiesel such that is considered inappropriate borrow at him valuable acreage that can be greater demand in the food purposes.The most promising area are farms growing green algae special breeds that extremely rapidly grow and provide excellent content Energy From Biological material.

From green algae - to full fuel

from green algae - to full fuel

When creating certain conditions for the growth and functioning algae in artificial reservoirs (bioreactors), they actively accumulate vegetable fats and sugars, which are then in the process ofprocessing are the starting material for producing hydrocarbon fuel.By and large account , the price is high only the equipment itself, and algae growth is only active for water, sunlight and carbon dioxide needed.

It will look like factories for the production of biodiesel from green algae

So will look factories for the production of biodiesel from green algae

used for the production of biodiesel and other oils - palm, coconut, and animal fats, as a rule - in the form of waste processing or the food industry .

In than is the process of "separation" of the hydrocarbon chain from unnecessary glycerine bases?You just need to replace it with a tight binding to other, more reactive and volatile.As such a reagent is optimally suited methyl alcohol (methanol).It is itself a vysokogoryuchim substance and even some cases can be used as a completely separate type of fuel, so does not reduce the properties of biodiesel .

chemical glycerin component of the displacement process (in this procedure the scientific literature called pereterifikatsiey ) should go on its own, but it is not irreversible - a substance can pass in the desired state, and again in the original. order to avoid such instability and to accelerate proce ss etc. imenyaetsya catalyst.In its capacity as the most commonly used alkali ( NaOH or KOH ).For maximum uniformity of the exchange process, the treated mixture was subjected to constant stirring and heating to about 50 degrees temperature.

Usually, depending on volume and quality of the original products, process can go from 1 to 10 hours.As a result, the mixture should give expression to the bundle.In the upper part of the reactor (a vessel where there was a process) remains light fraction - actually, biodiesel .In the bottom - expressed dense mass - glycerol component.

Stratification of the composition after the transesterification

Stratification ended after pereterifikatsii

Now we have to separate the biodiesel , tuck it clean from excess methanol and the catalyst residues.The remaining glycerin fraction was also subjected to purification process as glycerol itself is a highly valuable product with a wide scope of application .

optimal dosage of components considered is this: for the processing of tons of vegetable oil will require 111 kg of methyl alcohol and about 12 kg of catalyst - sodium or potassium hydroxide.Subject process technology at the output should have primerono 970 kg (or 1110 liters) of finished purified biodiesel and 153 kg of glycerine.

can certainly paint a complex chemical formula, but it is unlikely that skazhetpoleznogo reader.Better bring a visual flowchart of the production process to make it clear how difficult qualitatively carry out all operations.

A block diagram of a standard industrial process for the production of biodiesel

Block diagram of the standard manufacturing process for the production of biodiesel

Vegetable oil or pressed in place, or is supplied as a finished product or used fat waste of food production.After the cleaning process - enters ester exchange reactors.There, according to a different channel arrives prepared mixture of catalyst and reactant - methanol. Next, follow technological cycles division of fractions and their multi-stage cleaning.As a result, biodiesel and refined glycerin come as a final product warehouse, and learned excess methanol are returned for reuse.