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October 15, 2016 23:05

long burning Boilers for solid fuels

own home heating problem - one of the most difficult tasks that must be solved master of the house.Ignore the issue will not work - live in an unheated building is almost half of the year will not be possible, and sharp temperature drops quickly grow old all interior trim and shorten the life of the entire structure.

long burning Boilers for solid fuels

Boilers, long burning solid fuel

optimal solution to the issue is seen creating intrahouse water heating system with circulation of coolant through the pipes and radiators, installed in the premises in the right quantity.So, the main problem - the choice of the heat generator, simply - boiler, which will convert the external source of energy in heating.And in this matter , based climate features in the vast majority of the territory of Russia, the degree of accessibility, including - price, those or other energy, is growing in popularity gaining boilers long burning on solid fuel.

What good boilers long burning

Article Contents

  • 1 What good boilers long burning
  • 2 Principles of long burning boilers
  • 3 Varieties solid long burning boilers
    • 3.1 Video: structure and operation of the pyrolysis boilers long burning "Motor Sich«
    • 3.2 Video: The scheme and operation of the boiler continuous burning of the "Traian»
    • 3.3 Video: structure and operation of long burning boiler «Stropuva»
    • 3.4 Video: pellet boiler with dignity
  • 4 automatic fuel supply summarize

to date, the most convenient option is traditionally considered installing a gas boiler.However, not all populated areas, and even more so - suburban cottage settlements laid gas supplying network.In addition, the supply of individual line by line, with its available - this is a very serious costs.

Gas boilers are comfortable and ergonomic, but not always it is possible to install them

Gas boilers are convenient and economical, but not always it is possible to install them

If we add to this the inevitable approval procedures, project drafting in compliance with all the requirements of regulatory authorities, that this method of heating may deter hosts home, especiallyin circumstances where it has a worthy alternative.

would seem a very viable option - the use of electricity.Electric boilers produced a lot, they differ high efficiency , ease of adjustment, saturation control and automatic control of heating systems.But all these very significant advantages easily broken on the main «caveat» - cost of a kilowatt of electricity.The average family simply ruined only one heating your home.

Electric boilers are compact and easy to adjust , but did not differ in efficiency

Electric boilers are compact and easy to adjust, but are economical

In addition, it is no secret that in remote from the major centers of towns differences in power, alas, are not uncommon.Put themselves into complete dependence on the stability of power grids, probably not the best option.

Against the background of the development of modern energy technologies gradually « left in the shadow of" the traditional Russian way of heating spaces of their homes with the help of conventional wood.And it is - a renewable energy source, and with the lack of such fuel in vast areas of the country simply does not. come into play and self-harvested wood, and acquired , and waste wood processing enterprises, and old dead wood that all still needs regular cleaning.In short, the wood has been and remains most probably the type of fuel available in the wooded areas of the country.

Firewood as the main fuel too early to write off

firewood as the main fuel too early to write off

course, away from opleniya wood never abandoned completely, and the stove in old houses owners carefully repaired and used for its intended purpose.But in the new buildings, installing stone oven or fireplace is made, rather, as a tribute to fashion, and not in order to complete the transition to solid fuel.

However, stove oven - she holds long enough to heat through for thick brick walls and elaborate system of channels for output of wood products of combustion.Her to heat and can be once a day, to ensure acceptable indoor climate for living.But what about the water heating circuits?If you just constantly keep the fire in the boiler furnace, as in a conventional wood-burning stove, it would be wasteful in terms of fuel consumption, and extremely tiring - every 2 - 3:00, and even more often, lay a new piece of wood.However, a solution was found - it was embodied in the creation of today's long-burning boilers.

The special design of the heater, based on the applicable during his work physicochemical properties solid fuel, allows loading of wood no more frequently than once every 12 - 15 hours, and in some models, this term even more, and is sometimes even a few days.Advantages

such boilers has and that many of them can be used as fuel, in addition to wood, and its other species.It may be, for example, compressed briquettes from wood waste - pellets , which can be purchased in the store, and in some cases - even make your own.

Pellets - granular fuel for long burning boilers

Pellets - granular fuel for long burning boilers

Apply for solid fuel boilers coal or peat.In recent years began to enjoy popularity of so-called "evrodrova» .

Продукт переработки отходов древесины - брикеты или "евродрова"

product processing waste wood - briquettes or "evrodrova»

It is also a product of processing of waste wood industry, which has high energy intensity and very easy to use.

Principles of long burning

operating principle of a conventional furnace boilers solid fuel known probably to everyone.The furnace laid the wood (charcoal briquettes), and from below the ash-pit camera is air stream containing the oxygen needed for the combustion process.The intensity of combustion is limited only volume of incoming air and an area of ​​the outer surface of the fuel tab.

In normal combustion of the wood is not used in its entirety are incorporated in the energy potential

In conventional combustion of wood is not used fully incorporated in their energy potential

In fact, this is the usual fire , only enclosed in stone or metal walls, and requires constant replenishment of fuel stocks.At the same time the combustion products almost directly discharged into the chimney system, labyrinths and turns that only improves the heat transfer to the structural elements and, in particular wall lead to an increase in efficiency, but can not increase the overall energy impact of a particular type of fuel.The process of thermal decomposition of the wood has been very intense, fleeting, leaving a lot of waste and throwing into the atmosphere unused opportunities.

And these opportunities are to the special properties of wood, which are caused by its biochemical composition.During the heating process, this material is not just oxidized to carbon status with the release of normal carbon ( CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO).High temperature exposure always leads to the synthesis of volatile hydrocarbon compounds with a complex chemical formula, and they themselves are different gaseous fuels, that in conventional furnaces simply discharged into the atmosphere.

Burning wood with a limited intake of oxygen leads to the formation of pyrolysis gases , which are an excellent fuel

Burning firewood with a limited supply of oxygen leads to the formation of pyrolysis gases, which are an excellent fuel

process of thermal decomposition of wood is called pyrolysis, respectively, from resulting hot gaseous constituents - pyrolysis gas.Characteristically, the combustion temperature and hence - and heat, is incomparably higher than that obtained with conventional combustion of wood.This wood oxidation processes are so deep that after their little remains of waste in the form of ash, and in the atmosphere after combustion of gaseous components emitted mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide.

So, in terms of technology the most efficient use of fuel wood it is advisable to minimize the process of open burning, to achieve the maximum allocation pyrolysis gas, which will be by burning, in fact, be the main source of thermal energy.These principles are incorporated into the design of long-burning boilers.

Varieties solid long burning boilers

So, as, probably, has already become clear from the principle of operation of the boiler continuous burning, the main technological problem that must be solved for it to work properly - this dosing air supplythe chamber prior thermal decomposition of wood and adjusting flows received pyrolysis gases and secondary heated air for their combustion in the main combustion chamber, where, in fact, organized by the main heat exchange with heating circuit.

When common tasks in a variety of models, it is technically solved in its own way.

1. One option is the construction in which air injection is carried out using the built-in fan and control flow performed automation unit.

Most of these boilers are arranged such a way that the camera load and pre-combustion fuel they located top.

An exemplary diagram of the device pyrolysis boiler

exemplary diagram of the device pyrolysis boiler

After ignition laid firewood air supply to them is minimized, and the fan provides air flow through the lower chamber of the main afterburning , which is made of heat-resistant materials ( fireclay or keramobetona ) that do not allow rapid burning metal parts and becoming, in addition, good heat accumulators.The created constantly craving "draws the" image pyrolysis gas in the lower chamber.At the entrance to her installed ceramic nozzle, capable of withstanding extreme temperatures - up to 1000 degrees Celsius.

Location of cameras in the classic layout of pyrolysis boiler

Location cameras in the classic layout of pyrolysis boiler

burns pyrolysis gases provide heat exchange with the main pipes or "face" water circuit.The circulation pump, which is usually also tied to the boiler control unit, provides the coolant flow through the pipes and radiators of the heating system.

If you look at the presented video, even can be compared visually very intensity of wood burning in the loading chamber (almost at the level of corruption sluggish) and are not commensurate with their power of combustion pyrolysis gas in the main combustion chamber.

Video: structure and operation of long burning boiler pyrolysis « Motor Sich «

Such an arrangement of cameras is not a "dogma" for this type of long-burning boilers.For example, in boilers lineup «Gefest-profi» camera afterburning taken out back.

Some models of boilers afterburner chamber can be arranged in a different way , for example , in the back

Some models of boilers afterburner chamber can be arranged in a different way, for example, rear

It has a complex labyrinth structure that contributes to the most efficient heat transfer from the heating circuit.Due to this, achieved very high efficiency - up to 90 ÷ 93 % , almost all of the heat is spent on on heating of the coolant.This is evidenced by the fact that the gas temperature at the outlet in flue pipe - only about 70 - 110 degrees.

These boilers with electronic control all good, however, has a very significant drawback.They totally are volatile - when you turn off the power supply fans and automation unit does not operate, and hence , and the entire heating system becomes inoperable, even if the house is in the possibility of a natural circulation of the coolant along the contour.Output, of course, there - is to install an uninterruptible power supply system, but it is good for emergencies.If power outages - a frequent phenomenon, have to choose any other option.

very finicky like boilers and power-line surges - equipment may not work properly, and often they require the installation of a separate stabilizer.

2. Such deficiencies are deprived of nonvolatile boilers long burning, which is organized for adjustable air circulation through natural draft.Examples of such heating devices can serve as a model popular among consumers, "Traian» eponymous Russian trade and industrial associations, and "Bourgeois-K" Kostroma « Teplogarant " plant.

The main advantage of these boilers - complete energy independence

The main advantage of these boilers - complete energy independence

They have an extensive filling chamber is at the bottom, and under it posted ash pan-ash pit - all, as in the classic oven.The flap on the door located at the bottom to the air mechanically (through a chain) is associated with a bimetallic thermostat.

After loading firewood and ignition damper is open to the maximum - it is necessary to began confident burning fuel and run the pyrolysis processes that need the temperature below 200 degrees.

Then, the damper is closed so as to minimize the flow of oxygen in the combustion zone of wood, and the camera turns on the mode of decay.The air passing through special channels required for heating to the required temperature, into the upper chamber.Feed it through special tubes, which are calibrated holes.Going through these unique burner air oxygen entering the oxidation reaction with the rising of the combustion chamber pyrolysis gas.There is effective it afterburning with the release of large amounts of heat, which is spent on on heating of the coolant circulating through the pipes and water "jacket" of the boiler.

Video: long burning boiler design and operation scheme of the type « Traian »

boiler is completely non-volatile, so it can well be used in the absence of electricity in the system of heating of open or closed type with natural circulation of coolant.

In fairness it should be noted that such a scheme does cause a lot of criticism from experts.Argue here is difficult - indeed, on his efficiency and firewood consumption economy is seriously inferior boilers with electronic control and forced the creation of the air flow and pyrolysis gases.However, the independence of electricity and ease of use make these boilers are very popular among Russian consumers.

3. More a technological approach to ensure long burning solid fuel followed dozhigom pyrolysis gas - to create conditions, to processes with a ignition firewood was from the top down, onlyin a relatively thin layer of load.This principle is, for example, used in the popular and proven lineup boilers «Stropuva» eponymous Lithuanian company.