Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

How to lay out a fire with his own hands

Fire has always been at the service of man, is now.But most of it is hidden from the human eye device: is either in the interior of boilers, or under the kitchen utensils on plate.But the instinctive attraction to open fire at the person had not disappeared, so there is a constant desire to construction in its home fireplace.Those people who know how to do it - the master potters, in the understanding of many people who have some kind of sacred knowledge, inaccessible to the average man, but in fact at the heart of everything fireplaces are the laws of physics and engineering.And, in principle, anyone can comprehend this science - how to put a fireplace with his hands.Only need a great desire and patience.

How to lay out a fire with his own hands

How to put a fireplace with his hands

Understanding fireplaces

Article Contents

  • 1 General information on fireplaces
    • 1.1 device fireplace open type
  • 2 How to put a fireplace with his hands
    • 2.1 Calculating the size of the fireplace
    • 2.2 siting fireplace
    • 2.3 materials for the construction of the fireplace
    • 2.4 Mortars for masonry fireplaces
      • 2.4.1 Video: Testing the solution
    • 2.5 Required tools and accessories
      • 2.5.1 Video: Technique grinder for stone processing
    • 2.6 foundation equipment for fire
    • 2.7 Masonry fireplacesbrick
    • 2.8 Putting the fireplace in operation
    • 2.9 Video: Building a fireplace made of bricks
    • 2.10 Video: masonry fireplace

Fireplace essentially a stove, only he designsimplified .In most cases it has an open structure and the furnace had less massive, so it accumulates heat far less than the furnace.Smoke channel direct fire, having no dymooborotov , fuel burns faster than in the oven and a large part of the heat emitted into the pipe.We can say that the fireplace brings longer decorative and aesthetic function than heating, but this does not detract from its merits.An important advantage of the fireplace is the ability to quickly heat the room from the heat ray burning flame.Large volume oxygen is burned in the furnace, contributes to supply of fresh air, provided that the correct ventilation is organized.In areas where periodically lit fireplace will always be dry and there will be no musty smell, even in the absence of the main heating system.

Decorative fireplace with his hands Searching for how to make a decorative fireplace with his hands?

We suggest you familiarize yourself with the step by step guide on how to make a decorative fireplace from the old cabinet with his own hands.In addition to this material is shown in detail the process of finishing the fireplace moldings and connecting stage LED strip!

modern fireplace with a closed combustion chamber can be called a mini-oven, as they organized convection air heating.The efficiency of such fireplaces are much higher in them more fully and efficiently burn fuel, they can not heat only one room, but even a small house.If owners want to enjoy the contemplation of the open fire, the door can be opened, and some models even raise.

A modern fireplace insert can be operated as an open firebox , or closed

modern fireplace insert can be operated as an open firebox and closed

device fireplace open type

Before starting arrangement of the fire, it will be useful to know of any structural elements it is composed, and their appointment .Driving fireplace in the display section in the figure on .

vertical section an open fireplace

  • firebox or insert (3) fire - its main part, which is a niche of refractory material - fireclay bricks.This is where the combustion of the fuel.
  • portal (5) - surrounds the firebox and performs a decorative function.
  • Under (2) - the lower part of the firebox also made of refractory material.
  • grate grille (she was not the kind to on scheme) serves to maintain the fuel and air supply from below.
  • Ashpan (1) designed to collect ash and often do in the form of a metal box.
  • Predtopochnaya playground (12) limits the sparks from the furnace to the floor and is an element of decor fireplace.
  • back sloping part of the firebox (4) has called mirror .Its mission - to reflect the heat from the firebox into the room.Mirror creates smoke tooth (6), which is still called jib or chimney ledge.This important detail chimney prevents the mixing of the air streams, loss of soot and a smoke in the room.
  • Khailo (7) or smoke box , collects the products of combustion from the firebox and transmits them through the smoke neck (9) and removal (10) in the flue (11).
  • Valve (8) or gate closes flow of cold air into the room from the street at the idle fireplace, as well as regulate cravings.

Fuel for the fireplace is usually not a on hearth and fireplace on a special lattice , to have access to fresh air from below.

Fuel in the fireplace is not a better place on the field , and on a special lattice

fuel in the fireplace is not a better place on the hearth, and on a special lattice

How to put a fireplace with his hands

works on the construction of the fireplace should be divided into several stages.

Calculation sizes fireplace

fireplace certainly is the subject of the interior, but apart from that it should perform its main function - to heat the room and to please the owners possibility open flame of contemplation.But in determining the size of the fireplace should be involved not only the imagination of the designer or owners preferences, but also the strict engineering calculation .

If in a small room to place too large fireplace, then vo-pervyh, when burning wood it will burn a lot of oxygen, which would provoke strong drafts if ventilation and, vo-vtoryh, heat of combustion is excessive;in such a room is simply hard to be at a burning fireplace.

The dimensions of all components of the fire is determined by calculating

dimensions of all components of the fire is determined by calculating

fireplace dimensions, height and diameter of the chimney - it is the value derived from the engineering calculations .Methods such calculation is quite complicated, but simplified form it can be summarized as a set of simple rules by doing that you can build a fireplace in charge all the requirements of comfort and safety.We list these rules:

  • fireplace is installed in the room certain area, and the thermal energy radiated from him through the combustion of the area, which is bounded by the fireplace portal.The area of ​​the furnace should be related to the floor space in a ratio of about 1:50.For example, there is a room of 20 m2, where you want to install a fireplace.Its area of ​​the furnace should be 20 m 2/50 = 0.4 m2.
  • Once known area of ​​the portal, you must define its dimensions: width and height.According to the rules they have to treat each other in a ratio of 2: 3.Under the present scheme B / A = 2/3.By selecting the height of the portal, its width can be found by the formula A = 3 * B / 2. give an example: let the height of the portal will be 51 cm = 0, 51 m , while its width B = 3 * 0.51 / 2 = 0. 765 m = 76,5 cm Do not forget to check the conditions of the portal areas:. S = A * B = 0.51 * 0.765 = 0.39 m2, which is approximately equal to 0.4 m2.
  • Another important parameter is the depth of the firebox - C, which greatly affects the proper operation of the fireplace.According to the rules, it should be 2/3 of the height of the portal: C = 2 * B / 3.Compute depth in our example, C = 2 * 0.51 / 3 = 0. 34 m = 34 cm = 340 mm. If the depth is increased, the heat will be free to depart from the furnace to the chimney, and if reduce, the products of combustion will come into the room.
  • podium before the fireplace portal should act at a distance of not less than 50 cm . it is done for the purpose of fire safety.
  • tabs on the sides of the portal should be at least 20-30 cm.
  • rear wall of the firebox must have a slope of 20-22 ° to the vertical, and slope should start with a third of the height.
  • sidewalls to reflect heat into the room should be located at an angle of 45-60 °.
  • cross-sectional area of ​​the chimney must be smaller than the area of ​​the firebox is about 8-15 times.
  • Chimney at its location near the roof ridge, it should be higher by at least 0.5 meters.In the event of a chimney of a location, you must follow the rules, depicted in the diagram.
Terms of the chimney on the roof of the fire location

fireplace chimney on the roof of the location rules

  • If the total flue length exceeds 10 meters, then thrust in the chimney is too big, it will "eat" the wood and cool.In this case, it provides a variety of angular elements that reduce cravings.

With self-construction of the fire is best to choose a model project of the fireplace ready for the required floor space.The most common sizes of the elements work well fireplaces are shown in the following table.

siting fireplace

construction of the fireplace requires considerable force application and investment funds, and that all this is not in vain, it must be properly placed in the room.First, consider how general fireplace can be located:

Accommodation options fireplaces

Accommodation options fireplaces

  • Fireplace, built into the wall ( A ).such construction usually erect still at the stage of building a house or have to disassemble the wall section, which is very difficult.These fireplaces have an advantage in that it does not occupy a useful area of ​​heated space.
  • fireplace trim (B) already require space for their placement.
  • corner fireplace ( In ) is very easy to square-shaped rooms.
  • Island or freestanding fireplace (E) - a very convenient place in the geometrical center of the larger rooms.He furnace can be open with one hand , but there are modern fireplaces that have open firebox with two , three and even completely open fireplaces.
The island fireplace - a modern and original solution

Island Fireplace -

modern and original solution Now consider the places where you can place a fireplace:

Fireplaces can be placed not in all parts of the room

fireplaces can be placed not in all parts of the room

  • In rooms smaller than 12 m2 it is better not to place a fireplace.
  • Any form of accommodation portal fireplace must be sent to the center and along the way there should be no obstacles.
  • Do not place fireplace in the ways of moving air flows:.. Between the windows and doors, between two windows, etc.
  • Do not place fireplace in the ways of moving people.
  • have built-in, wall and corner fireplaces on either side of the fireplace should be free wall space not less than 1 meter.
  • best location for the fireplace - built-in, or near-wall at the inner walls of the capital premises.

materials for the construction of the fireplace

Successful work flawlessly even folded fireplace is largely dependent on the materials, which were used in its construction.Chief among them is a brick.When burning fuel in the fire, the temperature in the furnace it can reach 900 ° C, which places high demands on the materials.Therefore use special so-called full-bodied brick kiln, which can be of two types:

Brick masonry fireplace must only be full-bodied

Brick masonry fireplace must only be full-bodied

  1. Red solid brick kiln bricks able to withstand temperatures up to 1000 ° C. In addition, he very energy-intensive , he is able to receive, collect and distribute large amounts of thermal energy.Brand brick must be at least M200, size should not differ from the standard of 250 * 120 * 65 mm, no more than 2 mm.When you hit the hammer on the brick it should issue clear and sonorous sound.
  2. Fireclay brick is used in those places where the highest temperature is in direct contact with fire .That's why the firebox fire spread just such a brick.In its production using special dense clay chamotte, which make it includes approximately 70%.Fireclay brick is able to withstand high temperatures for a long time, accumulate and transmit heat.Dimensions fireclay bricks may differ from the standard that can be seen from the table.fireclay bricks of special shapes are also produced for masonry fireplaces arches.
The geometrical dimensions of fireclay bricks may differ from the standard

geometrical dimensions of fireclay bricks may differ from the standard

When choosing a brick can not be trusted to the manufacturer and the seller of that absolutely all the bricks the same high quality.each brick should be checked when buying in person.It takes a lot of time, but the result will please many years.What should pay attention:

  • the bricks have to knock a hammer.He shall produce a ringing sound, fireclay bricks publishes greater metallic sound.
  • Actual dimensions should not differ from the standard by more than 2 mm.
  • During external examination if they were seen on the surface of plenochki like mica, it means that the temperature brick firing mode has been broken and it should not be selected.
  • brick color and red, and the refractory must be evenly over the entire surface.Good fireclay bricks must have straw yellow color, and white indicates a lack of firing.
  • When choosing should definitely look at the shattered bricks from the same batch.Red brick should not have inclusions or more dark areas.The internal structure of firebrick must be much darker than the outer surface.If a strong impact hammer fireclay bricks must be split into large pieces.

number of bricks is determined from the data of a specific project.For each project, the fire should go calculation materials used.It should be guided by the fact that even a half or a third of bricks should be considered when purchasing whole.The total number of each type of bricks must be more than 10% of the estimated , as there will be an inevitable battle.

To put the fireplace with his hands still need fireplace and special equipment that can be purchased in DIY stores or markets.Its dimensions are selected under the existing chimney draft.Such equipment includes grill grate , ash pan and gate valve under the right of the chimney section.

Some of the fireplace should be purchased separately

Some of the fireplace should be purchased separately

Mortars for masonry fireplaces

Familiar masonry mortars based on cement absolutely not suitable for masonry fireplaces.The fact that at high temperatures all solid bodies have a property to expand.Expansion of brick and cement-sand mortar is different, so there will be the inevitable cracks, communication solution will be broken with a base and, in the end, this masonry will inevitably collapse.

basis mortars for stoves and fireplaces of clay and sand - those materials, which are contained in the composition of bricks.The percentage of the components is not constant, it depends on the quality and fat content of clay, so every time the composition of the solution is selected by empirical .Tsemen reflux Auger may be included in solutions, but the amount is relatively small.