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August 12, 2017 18:06

Solar air collector with his own hands

Use inexhaustible and free solar energy for a long time humanity started .For its collection, there are special devices - solar collectors.Every year, their design is becoming more sophisticated, but high prices are not yet allow you to use them extensively and everywhere.Therefore, people who have an inquisitive mind and skillful hands, trying to make your own solar panels.And their knowledge, they are willing to share.In this paper we propose to learn how to make a solar air collector with his own hands.

Solar air collector with his own hands

solar air collector with his own hands

What is a solar collector

Article Contents

  • 1 What is a solar collector
  • 2 Structure and working principle of the air solar collector
  • 3 solar air collector with his own hands
    • 3.1 Determining the location and available space
    • 3.2 Choice absorber design collector
    • 3.3 Manufacturing collector housing and insulation
    • 3.4 Making guides absorber
    • 3.5 making absorbers
    • 3.6 Assembling air solar collector
  • 4 Connecting solar air collector
  • 5 Operation and solar air collector care
  • 6 Conclusion
    • 6.1 Video: How to make the airsolar collector (English)
    • 6.2 Video: Slideshow of manufacturing a solar collector of aluminum cans

task solar collector - to collect the thermal energy of solar radiation and transmit its any substance which further give its «destination».This substance is called as coolant and which may be either a liquid (usually water) or gases (air is almost always).

water is more effective coolant, since it heat capacity is much higher than that of air, but its use is associated with certain difficulties: discharge excessive heat in summer or frost protection in the winter.The air can not pass so much energy, but the design of air collectors is much easier, they are much more reliable and safer.And to make the solar air collector with his own hands a lot easier than water.By the way, the air is first cooled, which was to use people.What are the advantages of the air, like a coolant:

  • air is not affected by freezing and boiling.
  • air is not toxic.
  • air is not necessary to confer some special qualities (in aqueous systems add antifreeze), it is always available.

Air solar collectors are widely used in air heating systems of residential buildings, as well as basements, garages, warehouses.In which countries is the solar air used most widely, is very eloquent testimony to the diagram.

The use of air solar collectors around the world

use of air solar collectors worldwide

It can be seen that the most economically developed countries did not neglect the possibilities of the sun to heat air.And we, alas, still are among many other 4.3%.

Structure and working principle of the air solar collector

solar air collector comprises several main parts:

Scheme of air solar collector

Scheme of air solar collector

  • entire collector structure is placed in a rugged and sealed enclosure, which necessarily equipped with a thermal insulator.The heat from getting inside the collector should not "leak" out.
  • main part of any collector - it solntsepriemnaya panel that still called absorber or absorber.The purpose of this panel take solar energy, and then pass it air, so it should be made of a material with the highest thermal conductivity.These properties are available in the home are copper and aluminum, less steel.For better heat absorber bottom part make possible a larger area can therefore be used ribs , wavy surface, perforation or other methods.For desk better absorption of solar energy absorber portion is colored dark matte color.
  • upper part of the reservoir is sealed transparent insulation as which can be used tempered glass or Plexiglas, polycarbonate or glass.

solar collector is oriented to the south and give the surface a slope to the maximum amount of solar energy incident on the surface.As experts say - for maximum sun exposure.Cold outside air naturally or forcibly enters the receiving portion passes through the rib absorber and comes from the other side, equipped with flange connections with duct leading inside the heated space.It should be noted that the option of solar collectors, there are many designs and the above is shown only as an example.

Air heating using solar collectors is not in our climate zone completely replace the main heating system, but it will be a very great help even in freezing winter sunny days.

solar air collector with his own hands

Determination of installation location and available space

First of all, it is necessary to determine the place of installation of air solar collector, as it can strongly affect its performance.It should take into account several factors:

  • Air solar collector should be located as close as possible to the place where the heated air as duct losses will come may be such that the use of the reservoir would be impractical.
  • collector should be located on the south side of the house or other buildings, and as far as possible under certain tilt for maximum sun exposure.If this is not available, then you should try to set as close as possible to the south side.Insolation dependence on the azimuth and angle of installation on display at chart.
How does the orientation of the solar insolation on

How does the orientation of the solar insolation on

  • surrounding objects, the structure of the building and the plants should not interfere with natural light collector surface.

at selected locations corresponding to all conditions should see a square solar collector can be placed.Obviously, the larger the collector area - so it will be more productive.

design Choosing absorber collector

absorber (absorber) - the most important part of any solar collector and on the design performance will depend in many respects.At the factory models are used parts from special alloys with special highly selective coating, but it's basically and defines the high price.Our task - to find a material that is available and, nevertheless, will cope well with its function - to capture the sun's heat and transfer it to the air.

And so affordable materials are generally aluminum can of Coca-Cola, beer or other beverages.How to collect the required number of empty containers we will not describe, but rather concentrate on the wonderful properties that allow the use of aluminum cans as absorber:

Aluminum can for drinks - the ideal material for the absorber reservoir

Aluminum can for drinks - the ideal material for the absorber reservoir

  • Firstly,cans made of aluminum (very rare steel), and it has a very high thermal conductivity.
  • Secondly, all the banks out of all beverages have the same dimensions: bottom diameter of 66 mm, a top diameter of 59 mm, height from banks 0,5 l - 168 mm.
  • Third, banks are made so that they are placed in the package over each other , meaning they joined wonderful.
  • Finally, a thin aluminum, which are made from banks, is easily processed affordable tool .

With the accumulation of the desired amount of aluminum cans they need to carefully wash with detergent and dry.Otherwise, in the future they will exude an unpleasant smell, which will be harder to handle.

Manufacturing collector housing and insulation

Depending on the available space placing the collector calculated its dimensions.This article proposes to make a solar air collector size 8 8 aluminum cans 0.5 liter, that overall dimensions will be approximately 1400 * 670 mm.One sheet of plywood 21 mm thick standard size 1525 * 1525 mm is enough for the production of all of the solar collector and the thickness of the plywood will provide the necessary strength and rigidity design.

for body need to:

Carefully mark sheet of plywood.For the collector will need:

  • rear wall of 1400 * 670 mm.
  • Two sidewalls 1400 * 116 mm.
  • two end walls 630 * 116 mm.
  • Two guides for cans 630 * 116 mm.

When markup is necessary to consider that it is necessary to give an allowance of 3-5 mm on each side for further processing edges details.To cutting took place without disruption better bright streak line marker.

Cutting plywood is best circular saw, and fewer teeth will have drive - the better.You can use the guide, in which you can use as a sheet of chipboard with the factory edge for a smooth cut .The guide can pull clamps to the sheet of plywood.

circular saw is best suited for smooth cutting plywood edges together with a guide

to smooth the cut edges of the plywood is best saw blade together with the guide

If cut will go across the fibers, it is better to pre-sharp knife on a metal ruler to cut the top layer, so less will be chopped off.After cutting sheet items if the rough edges - they can be treated with a milling machine from a template to a perfectly flat and perpendicular.

It's time to collect the skeleton.To do this:

  • To the rear of the manifold to attach the two side walls.Fasten screws in furniture can be 6.3 * 50 mm - even their called SCREW .Just before that necessarily must first walk a drill diameter of 4 mm.To fix, you can use the usual screws and various parts.The collector must have a sealed body, so it is advisable to promazyvat abraded surface with silicone sealant.
Furniture screws SCREW - quite suitable for joining parts made ​​of plywood 21 mm thick

Furniture screws SCREW-quite suitable for joining parts made of plywood 21 mm thick

  • to the rear, and then attached to the side end walls.After this is verified the correctness of assembly and dimensions.

rear and be sure to insulate the side collector wall is necessary and this is the best suited extruded polystyrene (Epps) thick 2 cm. Before sticking insulation to the walls, to be treated plywood antiseptic or simply be painted, as theseground moisture may condense.

Boards made of extruded polystyrene foam are ideal for insulation of solar collector

boards of extruded polystyrene are excellent for insulation of solar collector

Epps sheets can be glued to the surface of the mounting foam plywood, acrylic "liquid nails" glue "Master" glue "Moment", -in any case it will be firmly stay.The main thing that in the description of an adhesive foam was listed as one of the bonding surfaces.During gluing the insulation is necessary to ensure that all joints are completely closed.If necessary, in the future they can "be blown" with foam.

After the whole inner surface of the collector is insulated, it can be pasted reflective insulation, which is the basis of fiberglass or polyethylene foam and aluminum foil.Very often, these materials have the adhesive base, which is useful, and if not, it can be stuck to any suitable structure for this purpose.Joints should definitely glue aluminum tape.

The joints must be stapled thermally reflective layer aluminum tape

joints thermally reflective layer must be fastened aluminum tape

Making guides absorber

To column of aluminum cans accurately kept its geometry, it is necessary for them to produce the guide.To do this, two pieces of plywood 630 * 116 mm, which is necessary to mark out and drill the following previously cut:

  • From the top of the retreat 53 mm and draw a line parallel to the long side.The resulting line
  • divided into nine equal segments, i.e. 70 mm, put a label.They will be centers of holes.
  • drill for tree crown, cup diameter 57 mm it is necessary to drill holes in the plywood.But before it is better to measure the diameter of the can bottom support ring stability as the dimensions, may vary.If necessary, select a different drill.Bank must enter the hole tightly enough.When working on a drill press, and not much time to time give it a rest.
The drill crown - cup is simply irreplaceable for large diameter holes in the plywood

drill crown-cup is simply irreplaceable for large diameter holes in the plywood

  • markup is similar to the upper rail.The diameter of the head of the banks a little more (57.4) than the rear support ring, so before drilling a better measure it with a caliper and choose the proper crown-cup, and then try the top banks.

Manufacturing absorbers

To prepare cans for installation should perform a series of operations:

  • All banks should be checked by a permanent magnet.Very rarely, but there are steel cans, which must be sorted.
  • At the top of a pair of scissors on metal cans made from cuts of holes to the edges, and then the "tabs" tucked inside.Work should wear gloves to avoid cuts from sharp edges aluminum.Point the sharp tongues inside banks and help align the edge of the hole a piece of the polymer tube clamped in a vise.Similarly we treat all 64 banks.
Scissors for metal, it is best to stretch the upper part of the banks

Scissors on metal it is best to open the upper part of the banks

  • It is time to do the bottom part.To this end, a tapered drill for metal in the bottom of drilled three holes with a diameter of about 20 mm below the 120 ° to each other.In order not to crush the bank, have to put it into an elastic mandrel (eg, a piece of pipe insulation) and does not compress much hands.So handled all banks.
The conical drill cuts a very smooth holes in the bottom of the banks

conical drill cuts a very smooth holes in the bottom of the banks

  • For gluing cans is best to use a high-temperature adhesive sealant High Heat Mortar on the basis of silicate cement .It is used for sealing of furnaces and fireplaces, chimneys.Perhaps his fire for the collector to be redundant, but "safety pocket does not pull."
Such a sealant for stoves and fireplaces is excellent and for the manufacture of the absorber

Such sealant for stoves and fireplaces perfect for manufacturing absorber

  • order for banks during the gluing kept the line, it is necessary to make a pattern of the two flat boards, bonded each other at an angle of 90 °.To fit the cans to the surface of the template put inclined and leans against the wall.
The template is very helpful in assembly

template helps a lot in the assembly

  • Before gluing cans degreased any available solvent (acetone, number 646, 647).This work is best done in the street.
  • Before the start of the next phase of the hands should wear rubber gloves, and a number have container with water.Bonding surfaces wetted, pistol squeezed flat "sausage" sealant on the lower part of the can, and then it is joined with the upper part of the banks located below.