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August 12, 2017 18:06

How to calculate the electric floor heating

Electric warm floor has clear advantages in terms of comfort and convenience.Those facilities, which are equipped with warm floors, immediately become the center of attraction for all households, because on by lu can not only walk, but sit and even lie on it .But before being installed and operated must learn how to calculate warm electric floor yourself or seek the assistance of experts.Otherwise, costly heating cables and mats may be simply useless walled in concrete without the possibility of recovery and reconstruction.

How to calculate the electric floor heating

How to calculate the radiant floor electric

Species electrical warm sexes and their characteristics to consider when calculations

Article Contents

  • 1 Varieties of electric underfloor heating andcharacteristics to consider when calculating
    • 1.1 resistive heating cable
    • 1.2 heating mats
    • 1.3 Self-regulating heating cable
    • 1.4 Film infrared Heated floor
    • 1.5 Rod infrared Heated floor
  • 2 applications warm electric flooring
  • 3 calculation of heat loss of a building or premises
  • 4 validity of the application of thermal insulation systems warm electric flooring
  • 5 How to calculate the radiant floor electric
    • 5.1 Making a floor planand calculating the area to be heated
    • 5.2 calculation installed and power density of electric heating
      • 5.2.1 use underfloor heating as the main heating
      • 5.2.2 use floor heating as comfort heating
    • 5.3 Selection and sizing of the heating elements warm floor
      • 5.3.1 Choice resistive heating cable and the determination step of laying
      • 5.3.2 Calculators calculating the length of the heating cable and its laying step
      • 5.3.3 Selection and sizing of the heatingmat
      • 5.3.4 Features calculations
      • 5.3.5 infrared film floor Video: Professional installation of infrared film floor
      • 5.3.6 Features calculations rod infrared floors
    • 5.4 to the floor covering requirementsthe operation of the electrical warm floors
    • 5.5 calculation of electric underfloor heating systems
      • 5.5.1 Choice of thermostat
      • 5.5.2 General rules for wiring designing floor heating
  • 6 Results
    • 6.1 Video: Example of calculation of electric warm floor

main parts of any warm floors are heating elements or a combination thereof.They have a different design.Note the features of each system.

resistive heating cable

Systems warm floors on this basis is used most often because it is simple for construction u and s an lower in comparison with other types of heaters price.It is based on a one- or two-core conductor, enclosed in a protective shield, and having a certain resistance.At its core - it's elongated heating element, which when connected to the mains generates certain amount of heat energy.Resistive cables always have a fixed length, which can not be changed in any case, as it radically changes the whole configuration of the system.Any attempt to shorten the resistive cable reduces its resistance increases current and it often leads to the failure of .

Resistive cables - simple, reliable and unpretentious

Resistive cables - simple, reliable and unpretentious

main characteristics of resistive cables are:

  • cable construction ( solid , two-wire, zone) and its purpose.
  • voltage and power.Typically, manufacturers suggest two voltage supply 220 / 230 volts and power in watts it appropriate, for example, the heating cable deviflex ™ DTIP-18 to 22 meters in length has a capacity of 360/395 watts respectively.
  • very important characteristic of the heating cable is a power per unit length, ie how many watts emitted by one meter.In above example cable power per meter output is 18 W / m at a supply voltage of 230 V. This parameter is specified in the marking of the cable, but it can be and to calculate.If the power of 395 watts divided by 22 meters in length, it turns 395/22 = 17,95 W / m.

Resistive cables made of different lengths (7- 220 m ), different heat input and total capacity, which may well satisfy all needs.Naturally, the cable should be laid on a special scheme to cover the entire area of ​​the premises, but this will be discussed in detail in the following sections.

heating mats

For ease of installation were invented heating mats, where the resistive heating woven cable into the polymer network and has laid a necessary step.The mesh typically has a basis and the adhesive may adhere to the floor surface, which adds convenience for installation.This is especially good when laying tiles when mats tucked right in a layer of tile adhesive or for the repair, if only to make a thin self-leveling screed, which can then lay a laminate or carpet.Most of the heating mat is available in a width of 45 cm and different lengths, allowing you to select a specific model for every room.At the same time we should not forget that the basis is resistive mats, usually two-core cable, so cut the mats for the conductors is strictly prohibited!

Heating mats are very comfortable in the calculation and installation

heating mats are very comfortable in the calculation and installation

main characteristics of the heating mats are:

  • supply voltage, which is typically 220/230 In and power of the heating mat.
  • mat length and recommended stacking area, usually from 0.5 m2 to 12 m2 with a length of 1 to 24 m .
  • One of the main indicators - power density, ie, a quantity of heat generated in the heating mat 1 IU tr sq adratny. measured she Watt / m 2 (watts per square IU tr adratny).For warm floor mats are usually issued with a power density of 100-150 W / m 2, very rarely 200 W / m 2.

Self-regulating heating cable

main drawback of resistive heating cables and matsis based on their need for a constant heat sink them because of the ambient temperature is essentially independent of the resistance and hence the amount of generated heat.If the cable does not remove the heat, it will overheat and fail.That is why warm floors resistive cables can not be equipped with a fixed standing furniture without legs.

Self-regulating cable underfloor heating is rarely used

self-regulating underfloor heating cable is rarely used

This lack deprived self-regulating cable, power per unit length of which depends on the temperature.The heating element is a semiconducting polymer capable of changing its resistance depending on the temperature of such cables can be cut without fear of any length, it is not lead to overheating and failure.However, the high cost limits their use as warm floors, so they are used mainly for heating pipelines .

Film infrared warm floor

relatively new type of floor heating are infrared (IR) warm floors, which are based on the radiators in the form of transverse strips of graphite, connected to the longitudinal coppersilver conductors.The entire structure is located in the polyester film , which has a thickness of not more than 0.4 mm.A feature film sexes is that most of the generated energy beam falls on the component - infrared wavelength in the range from 4 to 20 nm.It is known that infrared radiation heats than air and surrounding objects, and it is perceived by the person very comfortably.

Пленочный инфракрасный пол не любит "мокрых" процессов в строительстве

film infrared floor does not like "wet" processes in the construction

main characteristics of infrared film floor right in calculations are:

  • Supply voltage 220/230 In and specific power consumption, which canbe 130, 150, 170, 200, 230 W / m 2 - depending on the room and its purpose.
  • Roll width film IR floor: 0.5, 0.8 or 1 meter.Length from 1 to 20 meters.This allows you to "fit» film for any room.

Film floor also requires laying only the floor space that is not occupied by furniture without legs stationary.Another one serious limitation is the impossibility of applying laying in mortar, as the IR film does not "like" wet processes in construction.The best use for such heaters - is laying the "dry" method on a completely flat surface, followed by laminate flooring intended for warm, linoleum or carpet.

Rod Infrared warm floor

most innovative and modern system warm floor is a core infrared floors, where are used as heaters, flexible components of carbon fiber composition, graphite and silver.These rods are very useful properties - with an increase in floor temperature of 20 to 60 ° C of the peak power consumption is reduced by 1.5 times.This allows the use of floor heating even in places where it will be permanently located furniture that can be rearranged periodically.

Rod Infrared mat - the most modern solution to floor heating

Rod Infrared mat - the most advanced solution in the heated floors

heating rods are connected in parallel to the longitudinal copper conductors, forming a heating mat.Even if any one of them fails, the others continue to operate.The width of the mat is 83 cm spacing between the rods can be 9 or 10 cm The main characteristics of the infrared rod floor are:.

  • Peak power consumption, which can measured or W / m 2 or W / m.It can make or 130 or 160 W / m 2 for the linear power 116 or 138 W / m, respectively.These data are given for the system UNIMAT RAIL or UNIMAT BOOST.
  • minimum and maximum length termomata - from 0.5 to 25 meters.
  • Length IR Wavelength: 8-14 microns.
  • supply voltage 220/230 V.

Rod IR warm floor is designed for installation in mostly thin - 2-3 cm screed and tile adhesive layer.His innovation, technology and remarkable characteristics define and high prices, and therefore applies a warm floor is quite rare.

Applications electric warm floor

Specialists heating engineers and manufacturers of electrical heating systems warm floor heating is recommended to use a cable in two basic modes:

  • cable heating system is installed in a concrete screed thickness not less than 35 cm with its use as a complete heating, without the use of additional heating devices.In this case, the electric heating can compensate for all heat loss and to maintain the desired temperature of the air in the premises. Still another option is to use a cable thick thermal storage heating in concrete floors (10-15 cm), when during the action of reduced tariffs for electricity is heated floor, and the rest of the bill for large thermal inertia of the solid ties, heat given the room.
Cable heating systems can be used in pumped massive concrete screeds

Cable heating systems can be used in a massive thermal storage concrete screeds

  • heating system in the form of electric heating cables, mats, tubular heaters or infrared film floors are mainly used only to maintain a comfortable temperature of the floor surface.This warm flooring work together with the main heating system, which compensates for the lion's share of heat loss apartment or house.To do this, use heating cables and mats, mounted directly in the tile adhesive layer or in an air gap of wooden floors, as well as infra-red film floors are laid directly beneath the cover.

Calculation heat loss of a building or premises

When designing any heating system, including electric warm floor as the core, it is highly desirable to calculate the heat loss of each room in the apartment or house.In these calculations initial data are:

  • set temperature in each room and and x and relative positioning.
  • geographical position.
  • design walls: any materials, a thickness applied walls, any namely walls are external.
  • floor and ceiling design.
  • presence and area of ​​windows, their design and heat loss through them.
  • building Orientation.
  • Outdoor air temperature (with regard the coldest temperatures of the year).
  • heat losses through ventilation.

All of the above is not the full list of initial data for the evaluation of heat loss.These calculations make-heat engineering specialists, but there are many free programs or special online payments on the internet, so anyone can make their own assessment.The main objective of these calculations is that every heating system needs to fully compensate all heat loss, even taking into account the coldest winter days.

Heat losses of buildings and facilities is very convenient to count with the help of special programs

Heat loss of buildings or facilities is very convenient to count with the help of special programs

From the analysis of statistical data on the heat loss of the set houses and apartments can say that in most modern apartments and houses built with considering requirementsthermal protection, the specific heat capacity per square IU mp mp oschadi should be 100-130 W / m 2 for all rooms and in bathrooms and lavatories 130-150 W / m 2. in older homes the power density can reachto 180 W / m 2, and in this case no longer dispense with other heat sources.

validity of the application of thermal insulation systems in warm electrical floors

Insulation of buildings structural elements will continue to strongly influence the comfort of indoors and significantly reduce heating costs.And one of the most important is the insulation of the floor construction.Electrical warm floors can be installed directly under the floor covering with a variety of thin insulation, and without them, which is often a necessary measure - it is not possible to sacrifice the height of the room.

Heat loss through any walling place the more intense, the more the temperature difference and lower thermal resistance.Even if in the neighboring areas between the floors will have the same temperature, heat all will still inevitably be passed a concrete slab floor.Therefore, if possible, it is necessary to use heaters and thicker than they are - the better. The above diagram illustrates this.Sex on the ground or above unheated rooms main source of heating.Downstairs is located a heated room additional heating source.Sex on the ground or above unheated spaces Additional heating source.