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Furnaces And Heating Systems

August 12, 2017 18:06

Driving two-storey house heating

heating system is the most important life support engineering systems of any home.Its purpose is to compensate for heat loss and the creation of a certain temperature, which is necessary especially for people living in the house, but do not underestimate that factor and that an effective heating system is designed to ensure, in particular, resistance and durability of building structures.

Calculation and designing better to entrust Heating engineer, who will appreciate the heat loss, give advice on home insulation, and make detailed calculations, in order to avoid unnecessary expenditure on expensive equipment.But the choice of a two-story home heating scheme can make the customer himself, based on the years of experience the functioning of the various systems.

Driving two-storey house heating

scheme heating

house for heating Classification

Article Contents

  • 1 heating Classification
    • 1.1 Types of thermal energy - heat generators
    • 1.2 Types coolants
    • 1.3 Types of heaters
    • 1.4 types radiators
  • 2 heating circuits house,
    • 2.1 Driving home heating with natural circulation
    • 2.2 heating systems with forced circulation
      • 2.2.1 pump capacity calculation calculator
      • 2.2.2 Calculator created pressure coolant
    • 2.3 -pipe heating system house,
    • 2.4 Video: One-pipe heating system, its advantages and disadvantages
    • 2.5 -pipeautonomous heating system
    • 2.6 options two-pipe systems
  • 3 Results
    • 3.1 Video: options for radiator heating systems

Types of thermal energy - heat generators

Beforechoose one or the other heating circuit, it is useful to know the existing types and which one is suitable for the specific task at hand.It is known that the main source of heat are different types of heat sources, as which can act:

  • furnaces and fireplaces.This type of heating was once a major, but is now used less and less because of the high cost of fuel (wood and coal) and the inability to effectively control the temperature in the house.In some regions where there is no gas, this type of heating is no alternative choice.
Stoves and fireplaces are still used in country houses

Furnaces and fireplaces are still used in country houses

  • Different types of boilers, which can be: gas, solid fuel, liquid fuel, electric - depending on the availability of access to a variety of energy sources and their cost.
  • Alternative energy sources.In this category are: geothermal energy obtained by heat pumps and solar, which is converted into thermal solar collectors.This type of heating is in the stage of rapid development and is used in our country are rare because of the high prices of equipment.
Future Perspective - volatile home

prospect of future - volatile home

  • Infrared heating.specific heat sources are infrared radiators, which are used in most cases, electric energy.The thermal energy in this heating delivered directly "sent" by the radiation.For heating large areas or areas with a low frequency of occurrence of these people infrared heating will be an excellent choice.

In some situations, it is reasonable to combine various types of heat generators for heating.For example, if there is a holiday house where the family had just arrived for the weekend.In this case, it is wise to have a gas boiler for the main heating and electric - to prevent water freezing in the winter in the system and maintain the minimum allowable temperature in the house.

Types coolants

Any heating system should transfer the heat concentrated in the heat source to the heat of the device, which heats the concrete room.This is done by means of the coolant, which may be:

  • air, which is used for heating stoves, fireplaces and various electrical heaters.Since the air has a lower density, heat capacity and heat transfer coefficient, it is much inferior to the liquid coolant.
  • Water is almost ideal heat transfer due to the fact that it has a high heat capacity, density, heat transfer coefficient, and chemical inertness.The water, heated heating boiler is conveyed to the thermal devices with the help of piping systems.

Most modern heating systems are used as a coolant water or antifreeze different, is an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or combinations thereof.This property is a resistance to the anti-freezing at low temperatures may be useful in systems of heating of houses where people do not plan to stay permanently in the winter.In those homes where heating is working throughout the winter, the use of anti-freeze is not economically feasible.

Various antifreeze bad "coexist" with aluminum radiators, some seals and trumpets.In addition, heat transfer fluids containing ethylene glycol are toxic.Therefore, use of such compounds is necessary only in cases where without them simply can not do ..

Types of heaters

Space heaters can be divided into two main classes:

  • Radiators - in Latin, they are translated as"emitter" that is a device which transmits the heat in the form of infrared heat radiation.However, modern radiators are not purely emitters, but also convey some of the heat in the form of convection, but they have kept their name.
  • convectors - heat transfer in the room is due to heating of the air, and he was giving it to all surrounding objects.Such heaters are made of copper (less steel) pipe, surrounded by finned heat exchangers.The air entering the heat exchanger, it heats up and rises plates, giving way to a cooler.To be effective breathability, the entire structure of the convector is placed in a special housing.

In modern systems are widely used even this method of heating as a "warm floor" or "warm wall", which in essence is a large heatsink, transmitting "lion's share" of heat in the form of radiation, which increases comfort and reduces the temperatureair in the room by about 2 degrees, resulting in fuel savings of approximately 12%.

types radiators

In the House, the heating system can be used completely different types of radiators, depending on the task, floor space, design data, and preferences.Radiators can be divided into several types:

  • Cast iron sectional radiators - the ones we used to see in the apartments and old houses.They have a large mass and a high thermal inertia, but undemanding coolant quality, do not corrode, have high heat dissipation.Such radiators fit perfectly into any interior, especially classical.
Cast iron sectional radiators - timeless classics

Cast iron sectional radiators - timeless classics

  • Aluminium sectional radiators - the perfect choice for autonomous heating systems, but they are more sensitive to the quality of the coolant, can not tolerate direct contact with copper pipes.Such radiators fit perfectly into any interior.
Aluminium radiators : modern design

Aluminium radiators: modern design

  • Bimetallic sectional radiators are a combination of steel or copper pipes, which circulates the coolant and the aluminum surface gives off heat into the room.These radiators are undemanding to the coolant, can withstand high operating pressure, externally virtually indistinguishable from aluminum.
  • Steel panel radiators - a one-piece structure made of stamped and welded sheet steel.These radiators have only two threaded connection to the heating system, which increases their reliability.High heat, low weight, low inertia, aesthetic appearance - all this has made them the most popular in the autonomous closed heating systems houses.
Panel Radiators : an excellent choice for modern heating systems

Panel Radiators: an excellent choice for modern heating systems

In addition to these models manufacturers still produce a variety of design models, which include the Solid cast iron, steel pipe and even ceramic.The high price of these devices is because the design ambitions in them prevail over rationality of engineering.

heating circuits House,

number of heating systems implementations House, endlessly, as it depends on many factors:.. The size of the house, the availability of uninterrupted power, permanence of residence in the house of the people, etc. Therefore, it is wise to consider some typicalschemes that have proven effective.

Driving home heating with natural circulation

name of this system speaks for itself - the circulation of coolant in the heating system is due to natural processes.The work of such a system can be considered below.

with natural circulation system

system with natural circulation

water heated in the heat exchanger of the boiler is reduced in density and displaced more cold and dense water of the reverse link.It is this difference of weights of hot and chilled water circulating in the heating system.The highest point of the hot water riser equipped with an expansion tank which allows the water to expand when heated, allowing to control the level of water in the system and produce a recharge if necessary.In addition, all the air which is inevitably present in the system will go into the surge tank.

distributing lines and return lines, also called deck-chairs, to facilitate the circulation of water is always made under the slopes: the upper lounger to the radiators, and the lower - to the boiler.In this system, the boiler must be at the lowest point.The supply of coolant to the radiator through the risers make hot water and chilled plums through reverse risers.

One embodiment of the two-pipe heating system house with natural circulation is presented in the following diagram.

One embodiment of the gravity of the heating system in the two-story house

One embodiment of the gravity of the heating system in the two-story house

It should be noted in this scheme, a large number of lines and their high nominal width - dy .This is because in gravitational systems to provide coolant circulation must minimize resistance, and this is possible only in large diameter pipes.

systems with natural circulation, of course, have the advantage:

  • Independence of power - the heating system will operate as in the absence of electricity, and when disruptions in its supply.
  • proven over many years of operation reliability and simplicity.
  • The lack of pumps and small coolant circulation speed make a quiet system.

Despite all the advantages of such a system is gradually receding into the past as no longer meet modern requirements for heating systems.

  • Gravity systems are extremely resource-- large-diameter steel pipes used for their installation.
  • Installation of heating systems with steel pipes technologically complex and time consuming.
  • systems with natural circulation are limited in the area of ​​heated rooms.According to the experts the total length of the horizontal sections (lounges) should not exceed 40 meters, and the total area of ​​150 m2.
  • high inertia - from the launch of the system to warm up all the radiators to the calculated temperature may take several hours.
  • Large temperature difference between flow and return can badly affect the heat exchanger of the boiler.
  • The coolant gravity system a large amount of dissolved oxygen, which affects the corrosion of pipes and radiators, so the only cast iron or bimetallic radiators can be used in such systems.

heating systems with forced circulation

Virtually all modern heating systems use only forced (artificial) circulation of the coolant, which gives significant advantages:

  • Using the circulation pumps helps to heat any area at any number of storeys of the building.
  • diameter pipes may be much smaller, since the pump allows you to pump the coolant at a higher speed.
  • Application of circulating pumps can reduce the temperature of the heating radiator in the same heat settings, and this, in turn, allows the use of cheaper plastic and metal pipes.
  • Possibility of both general and zonal adjustment in heating systems.

disadvantages of systems with forced circulation are:

  • dependence on electricity, which can be easily solved by the presence of generators or uninterruptible power sources.
  • higher noise of the heating system, but with the right calculation, he can not hear the human ear in heated rooms.

circulation pump is usually cut into the heating system return line to the boiler, because at this point the lowest temperature of the coolant.

Circulation pump : the heart of a modern heating system

circulation pump: the heart of a modern heating system

to forced circulation to work correctly, the selected pump model must meet the parameters of the system.There is a special method of calculating key performance - performance and create pressure.To utomlyat reader formulas propose to use built-in calculators.

pump capacity calculation calculator
Enter the requested value and press the "Calculate"
Specify power boiler
translate into watts
Specify the type of heat transfer equipment
Radiators convectors are concealed installation Radiant floor
water specific heat coefficient
water density
Calculator created pressure coolant
Enter the requested information and click "calculate"
Specify the total length of pipe loops (flow + return pipes)
Specify the type of use of stop and control valves
Standard fittings and ball valves Thermostatic controllers extensive system with a lot of stop and control valves
resistance tube

-pipe heating system house,

In one pipe systems of independent heating can be used as a natural circulation of coolant and forced.The heating medium from the boiler goes to feed riser, and then divided into two levels in the beds, which are connected in series to the radiators.