Build Daily

Latest

October 17, 2016 23:06

How to build a cellar in the street

Cellar in the backyard farm is a must - it will help save a large amount of products harvested in the winter that just will not fit in a conventional refrigerator.This room can be located under the house, or it is placed close to it, on the territory of the site.To know how to build a cellar in the street, you need to explore all the stages of this process , since digging excavation and finishing the roof device.

How to build a cellar in the street

How to build a cellar on the street

very important condition is to choose the time of year for the cellar of the device.Recommended carry out work in the summer when the weather is dry to the pit remains dry and dense construction.

Types cellars

Article Contents

  • 1 Types cellars
  • 2 Cellar on a flat plot
    • 2.1 Video: Tips for designing cellar
    • 2.2 Preparationpit
    • 2.3 building materials cellars
    • 2.4 Foundation
    • 2.5 Walling device ventilation and waterproofing
    • 2.6 Video: guidelines for the calculation of ventilation cellar
    • 2.7 Overlapping cellar
    • 2.8 roof over cellar
    • 2.9 cellar lighting
    • 2.10 Decorating the walls, floor and ceiling
    • 2.11 Video: stages of construction of a cellar options
  • 3 cellar with a sloping entrance and embankments
  • 4 installation finished designs for cellars
    • 4.1 Video: installation of the finished insulated cellar

cellar on the street, can be arranged in three main ways:

- wholly owned by ground ,in a dug pit and having a roof over the entrance;

Cellar entrance with a covered roof

Cellar closed-roof entrance

- dug in an elevated location area to which the top is a mound;

The cellar with an earthen embankment

cellar with an earthen embankment

- ready insulated housing, which is installed in a pit and covered with soil.

Ready enclosures for cellars

Ready enclosures cellars

purchasing a finished version of cellars housing, can not worry about the process of building walls and waterproofing them, you only need to prepare the pit and to strengthen its bottom.

To determine which of the available options to the maximum extent appropriate to the conditions of a particular area, and forthcoming volume of construction works, it is necessary to consider each of them in detail.

Cellar on a flat plot

This option built cellar quite laborious , but if there is no opportunity to purchase ready-made housing, and the plot of land has not expressed a hill, it will be the only one applicable in this case.

One of the easiest options for cellar

One of the easiest options cellar

resorting to this method to arrange a cellar, it is necessary to take into account the height ground waters in the area and at a specific site, where it will dig out the pit.If the site is not "dry", the soil water can ruin all the work done, or be delayed, result in unusable products are stored in the cellar.

Determine the approximate level of the waters, looking into a nearby well in the spring, when there is abundant snowmelt.In the summer in areas where the ground water are high, growing moisture-loving herb, such as sorrel horse , horsetail, sedge and other similar varieties - there is more juicy and high.

If there is a desire to more precisely define this option, you can call a specialist who professionally calculates the best place to dig the pit and its possible depth. Anyway , you do not need to choose a place in the lowlands, where water can stagnate.

Arranging cellar in this way, the depth of the excavation should be planned at least two, two and a half meters.With digging excavation process and the need to start work.

Video: Tips for designing cellar

Preparation excavation

selected under the cellar space must be thoroughly cleaned by removing fertile layer of sod, thereby , marking up a platform for the digging.Works are made by hand, as the technique will break the edge of the pit, which is undesirable precisely this option cellars device.To make it easier to dig the ground better extract layers, each loosening and carefully aligning the edge of the pit as far as possible.

When excavation is necessary to try as much as possible to align walls

When excavation is necessary to try as much as possible to align the wall

If the soil at the site itself loose, then digs a pit with a slope - then less land will crumble.In this case, the top of the pit is marked on 30 - 50 cm on each side more than it should be the bottom.

a sufficiently high level of groundwater, the pit also make broader and deeper 40 - 50 cm, and this space is filled with waterproofing material that will keep the walls from moisture.Waterproofing of cellar walls and floor can serve as a clay, extracted from the pit, her sleep at the bottom of the hole after digging around a complete and already erected walls.The upper layer of fertile soil suitable for transferring to a flower bed or vegetable garden beds, and the rest of the soil can be used, for example, for the application phase of the lower layer "alpine slide".

Building materials cellars

To build the walls of the cellar is best to use natural materials that will not give off harmful fumes.The explanation is simple - in this room will be closed not only canned food, vegetables and fruit in a special open boxes.They are able to perceive and absorb odors and various unwanted substances for the organism.Metal unencrypted used in cellar construction is also not recommended, as it will serve as a conductor of cold, violating the optimal temperature needed for food storage.

Therefore, everything should be the following:

- choose wall bricks, concrete blocks or concrete slabs;

- floor needs cement and sand for manufacturing solution reinforcement for strengthening poured screed, sand and gravel for "cushion";

- ready for covering required concrete slabs or boards for formwork and foundations under the pouring of concrete, as well as equipment for the creation of an appropriate reinforcing belt;

- waterproofing the outside of the clay can be supplemented with roofing material, securing it to the wall with mastic;

- roof bars and require wooden boards, etc. etc. ruberoi A waterproofing, roofing material;

- require plastic pipes for ventilation;

- manufacture hatch and doors are preparing timber;

- interior walls involves the use of a mixture of plaster or paneling boards.

All wooden parts must be built to handle antiseptic in order that they served a long time without rotting , damage by insects or microorganisms.

Foundation

to the cellar was reliable and dry, foundation-floor in it best to make concrete, but, before its fill, it is necessary to do under him good waterproofed basis.

Estimated total cellar diagram of the device

Estimated total cellar diagram of the device

  • At the bottom of the pit is filled with sand cushion 100 ÷ 120 mm, it must be well compacted.To do this, a little sand is moistened and compacted.
  • Top sand poured gravel , 60 ÷ 80 mm thick, it is spread and tamped.
  • Next on the perimeter of the pit good to make limiting the formwork and place the valve.Height -floor basement can range from 70 to 120 mm.
  • next stage in the formwork is filled with concrete and leveled.
  • , coming from the ground after its solidification and removal of the formwork, the sides of the basement can smear tar, which is well insulates it from moisture.

should be noted that cellar floor and sometimes leave earth.It possible in the event that the ground water located deep enough.Ground floor allow stored in the cellar of natural ventilation and soil temperature at a given depth.In this case, for the erection of walls on the bottom of the pit is filled around the perimeter strip foundation.

Walling, ventilation and waterproofing

  • on prepared foundation can erect walls.For masonry walls of brick cellars often use a mixture of clay and sand, but can be used and the usual cement.
  • If cellar ceiling will rely on masonry walls, their thickness must be equal to one brick.
  • When used for overlapping support not only walls, but also the soil surrounding the cellar, it is enough to them in a half-brick thickness.If
  • between the earthen walls of the excavation and masonry leaving room for waterproofing, then at least it reference, this space is filled with clay, and water is poured carefully compacted.
The construction of the cellar walls.Immediately provides ventilation pipe

Construction of the cellar walls.Immediately provides ventilation pipe

  • between backfill clay and brick wall can be fixed layer of roofing material.
  • After placing one or two rows of bricks, in the opposite corner from the entrance, in the wall on the entire height of the basement, in the ground cut through niche for the vent pipe.
  • In the second or third row of masonry, opposite niche, set the vent pipe with angled tap, which is build into the wall.Later this hole is shallow close bars , to inside cellars not get rodents.
  • pipe over cellars surface should not rise by less than half a meter.
  • walls erected to the top of the pit, with the constant supervision of their vertical and horizontal using plumb and level building.

Important - if ground water come close to the foundation, the floor, it is around the brick walls to arrange a drainage layer.It is usually poured from a gravel or broken bricks.The moisture on it will be given by cellar specially arranged near from cellar capacity or pit.

Video: guidelines for the calculation of ventilation cellar

Overlapping cellar

basement overlap can be done in different ways.The simplest of them is laying it on top of concrete slabs, which must, in addition to the walls, based on the soil around the cellar for 400 - 500 mm.But not every site can call equipment that can lift the plate and put it designed to place, so it is often necessary to do overlapping themselves.In addition to ready-made concrete slabs can get home-made concrete, wood or composite floor.The latter is useful in that between the wooden beams is convenient to lay the insulation inside the cellar, as well as to fix the ceiling board.

Installing cellar ceiling beams

Installing ceiling beams cellar

  • If you select this variant, then the top of the walls and the ground around them, plank roofing material on which stacked processed bars, of 150 × 100 mm - they will play the role ofbeams.The distance between them should be not more than 500 mm.
  • Top beam bars stuffed flooring from boards, thus provide an opening for the hatch.
  • Then, on top of wooden board plank waterproofing of thick polyethylene film . film must be on the ground, around the cellar.
Pouring reinforced concrete screed floors cellar .Be sure to leave an opening for the hatch

Pouring reinforced concrete screed floors cellar.Be sure to allow for the opening of the hatch

  • Top film keeps reinforcing grille , set limits formwork and then the resulting space is filled with a concrete solution, which is leveled and left to dry.The thickness of the concrete slab, poured on a wooden base should be 40 ÷ 50 mm.
  • After hardening of the concrete hole for the hatch, if necessary, raised to the desired height and the cover is installed on it.
Simple ladder with rungs for descent to the cellar

simple ladder with rungs for descent in

cellar stairs can only be the simple device of this entry.

roof over cellar

Above the hatch will be installed gable roof, and the rest of the space above the cellar is covered by the remaining film on the surface of and sprinkled with soil.

Since concrete pad will be more than the cellar room, gable roof installed on all its width.Thus, the above sunroof forms a small triangle barn, where you can even add up some firewood.

roof structure is assembled from high-quality lumber.rays rafters are fastened at the bottom of the bars, which will reliable basis for the roof.They need to be secured to the concrete base anchor elements.

Truss for the roof over the entrance to the cellar

truss for the roof over the entrance to the cellar

can proceed in another way.In concrete perimeter of the site must be added to a low wall in two - three rows of bricks, and on top of it install the roof structure.The brick part of the mini-barn it is necessary to cover the waterproofing.

front part of the roof is sheathed with boards, and on the slopes can be laid roofing felt, and the top slate or metal.Some people prefer to cover the slopes with plywood and then put the soft roof.On the one hand, the gable is sutured completely, and the other left opening to install the front door.

When the cellar will not afraid of rain, can be carried out inside lighting and make the walls and ceiling.

cellar lighting

interior decoration can course do and to overlap the device, but there is no guarantee that it not spoil who had gone suddenly rain.Therefore , conduct electricity and make the lighting better already after the hatch is closed roof.

In the cellar , be sure to provide coverage

The cellar should always provide coverage

Lighting should be done not only in the basement room, and the entrance into it under the roof.

From the house to the roof over the hatch into the cellar stretch of copper wire in reliable double insulation from the input of the space they have already carried down.Lamps must necessarily be positioned so that under no circumstances they can not be hurt while running to the basement.It is best to close the protective cap bulbs.

wiring needs to be done so that the bulbs lit simultaneously - under the roof and in the cellar.The switch should be placed under the roof at the entrance, at a convenient height, about 1,2 ÷ 1, 5 m from the floor.Install the socket in the cellar or basement prohibited safety.

If you have no experience with conducting and connecting the electricity, it is better to entrust qualified, as not knowing the wiring system, at best , can be left without light the entire house.

Decorating the walls, floor and ceiling

If cellar well waterproofed , then finish You can use any material.If the ceiling is arranged in the bars, in between is to lay insulation mats in - this will save even temperature in the room and the cellar during the winter frosts and summer heat.

To create the optimal temperature conditions should insulate the cellar ceiling

to create the optimal temperature conditions should insulate the cellar ceiling

To strengthen the insulation to the concrete ceiling, you can mount a lattice structure, which will be able to press the mats to the surface.