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August 12, 2017 18:06

Rafters with their hands

System rafters - this support framing for the roof.That is why it must be reliable , since the durability of the whole structure depends on the quality of the material of which the elements of the system, and the professionalism of its assembly.

Rafters with their hands

rafters with his hands

rafters with his hands it is possible to produce and install, with a number of masters, who do not have time to engage in such business.Having no experience in this work and trusted adviser, to take dangerous - it is better to entrust this event team of skilled craftsmen.However, if still decided to try his hand, then go to the manufacture and installation of all system components necessary to responsibly and carefully, because the work is not only complex, but also quite dangerous.

requirements rafters

Article Contents

  • 1 to the rafters
  • 2 Requirements total roof system design
    • 2.1 Hanging system
    • 2.2 Naslonnaya system
    • 2.3 Video: the unit truss system gable roof
  • 3 installation of truss c
    onstruction
    • 3.1 gable roof
    • 3.2 Video: how rafters fixed to the mauerlat
    • 3.3 Video: installation of frame of roof gable roof
    • 3.4 Shed system
    • 3.5 roof system
    • 3.6 Video: example of mounting truss attic system

to whole house roof system lasts long service, for the manufacture of its elementsselected dried wood conifers.For rafters need timber having a size of 100 × 150 ÷ ​​50 ÷ 60 mm.

Softwoods - light in weight, which is beneficial for the entire construction of the house, as heavy truss system, creating a lot of pressure on the wall can cause damage and destruction.

Yet another advantage of coniferous material for the construction of the base under the roof of a high proce nt see olistosti in its structure, and thus - increased ability to resist atmospheric moisture.

For truss system is the best choice quality softwood

For truss system the best choice is a high-quality softwood

material for the manufacture of items truss system must meet certain requirements, which directly affect the durability of the whole structure:

  • Wood for rafters mounting system must be mature ,that will eliminate the risk its strain in the structure.
  • wood humidity should be no more than 2 - 2,5%.If
  • arranged hanging truss system, then puffs and rafters themselves necessarily take wood only first grade.
  • When erecting naslonnoy system suitable and second grade material.
  • for retaining elements - struts and braces can be used with third Hg etc. evesiny, however, trying to choose while raw materials, on which a minimum number of knots.
  • exact thickness workpieces is adjusted depending on the weight of the roofing material and the selected weather conditions this region.This is especially true of the maximum thickness of the snow cover in winter.For example, the middle zone of the Russian regions, it is necessary to calculate the load on 1 sq .m .Roof 180 ÷ 200 kg.
  • In addition, the parameters of rafters depend on the overall size of the roof system and its slope.
  • Before installing the wood must undergo fire and antifungal treatment.

Installation design need to know and kinds of loads, which is exposed to the whole system roof - they are also taken into account when selecting the parameters of the rafters and the mounting structure.

  • Loads - is a person's weight during repair works of the roof, the snow cover in the winter and the strength of wind gusts.
  • Permanent load - is the weight of roofing, insulation, and insulation materials.
  • to particular types of loads include seismic action, if the structure is located in earthquake-prone regions.

general construction

truss system most common truss system is triangular in shape and is designed for arrangement of a gable roof.It includes a few triangular elements consisting of two rafters and supporting struts and ties.Each such structure is called triangular rafter.Triangular elements of the system are located on certain distance from each other, and most of it is between 50 and 80 cm.

In most cases, the basis of truss system is a triangle

In most cases, the basis of truss system is a triangle

This form has become traditional since creates best rigidity and reliability design.It may be terminated at the wall to be continued or the device overhangs, which can have a length of 40 cm or more.Sometimes rafters ending on the walls, increasing their additional bars - "mare".

So, as mentioned above, the rafters - a triangular section, which includes:

The main elements of roof system

Key elements of roof system

  • Two rafters, connected on the ridge batten, or without its use directly oneto another.
  • struts or legs podstropilnye - it struts that support the truss leg and eases the burden falling on her .They rest on the sill and are fixed to it.
  • racks or vertical supports, consisting of bars.They are just as spacers, props truss leg, but closer to the center of the triangle.The reception is set on the sill.
  • Rigel - this board, which holds the two rafters.
  • Real - are two bolts, fixed on both sides of truss legs.It performs the same task as the bolt - gives rigidity of the structure.
  • pasterns - a vertical bar, which is booster and set in the middle of the triangle resting on the joists and supporting horse .This item is used in the suspension systems of the rafters.
  • Run - they connect individual rafters into the overall system.They are parallel to the wall.
  • Puff - this floor beams that connect the rafters, closing the triangle rafters.
  • mauerlat - powerful beams mounted on the upper end of the wall structure, which subsequently mounted elements of roof system.

There are three types of roof systems - is naslonnaya , hanging and combined, ie .incorporating elements as the one or the other.

Hanging system

system hanging trusses used for covering buildings without interior walls of the capital.Rafter laid on mauerlat, mounted on load-bearing walls.

Driving hanging roof system

scheme hanging truss system

Since such a system drops a big load, which is transmitted on the load-bearing walls, to relieve this stress and use these additional elements:

  • Tightening operate simultaneously as ceiling beams.It can be used when span up to 6 meters.If flight more, it lift up the rafters, and the lower portion of the closing reflux reugolnik still and beam ceilings.
  • Grandma, propping horse , established mandatory if span between bearing walls is more than eight meters.
  • struts extending from the headstock angle and supporting rafters.
  • Podmoga that enhances truss leg.
  • ridge beam in this system is required.

All elements are fastened together with metal corners, straps, or twist the screws.

Naslonnaya system

Naslonnaya system more stable and reliable , thanks to the additional support in the form of capital within the walls of the structure.Their presence gives you the opportunity to in the attic extra room.

Naslonnaya truss system has additional support to the inner main wall

Naslonnaya truss system has additional support to the inner main wall

When at nyatii this decision stands in the rafter system are set closer to the bearing walls, freeing up space.

This system is mounted on the rafters mauerlat that fixed to the side walls of the carrier.For reliability installation in rafters are cut grooves, and the elements are bonded to each other staples.

Fixing to rafter brackets mauerlat

Fixing to rafters mauerlat staples

ridge beam in this system is desirable in the event that formed a large span , and the attic is scheduled to arrange a dwelling between load-bearing walls.The same applies to the tightening, which in this case is fixed at the level of the ceiling of the room of the future.

is necessary to know also what mauerlat must be very reliable fixed to the wall with pins, leaving deep into the wall at 350 ÷ 400 mm, as it falls much weight and dynamic load of the whole roof system.

Sliding mounting on rafters mauerlat

Sliding fixing rafters to mauerlat

If it is assumed that the main walls structure can give a little shrinkage, the lower part of rafters attached to mauerlat sliding mounts, making it possible to element take desired position without bringing harmno walls, or all truss system.

Video: the unit truss system gable roof

Installation

truss construction prepare appropriate material and having a roof construction project, you can start it installation.

gable roof

In private residential construction is most often applied gable roof

In private residential construction is most often applied gable roof

on supporting walls are fixed to the bars mauerlat advance roofed waterproofing materials - roofing material , and they made counting the rafters installation.It is important to partition the two sides of the same installation, otherwise the rafters will be skewed.

  • first rafter and adjusted rigidly fastened directly on the height, so as not to make errors in mounts of the samples to be mounted on mauerlat.
  • then lowered them down, and all the other rafters made the first sample.On the ground, a lot easier and safer to fit all the elements of design to each other and make reliable fastening.
  • sawing bars under the rafters, it is necessary to leave a small margin, ie .make them a little longer than is required to be able to fit them in place.
  • To make it easier to navigate, exposing rafters first, take a timber with a length equal to the distance between the outer edges of the walls - it will be the future base or hypotenuse of the triangle.
  • Determined middle bar, and it temporarily nailed perpendicular to the board, which has a height of the front wall constructions to ridge - tops equilateral triangle.
  • Then, laid out and secured hand - legs of the triangle, they're rafters.
The scheme of installation of roof pairs

scheme of installation of roof pairs

  • If selected rafters hanging system, we immediately are marked and secured tightening.
  • If you intend to install additional fixing, they fix is ​​already in place, after the installation of rafters on the roof.
  • Next, first raised and temporarily established the first rafter.Each of them are marked places where sampling will be made rectangular to secure them mauerlat.
  • Then rafters dipped down again, and they cut out grooves with a right angle.
The sample slot to the rafters for the fixation on mauerlat

groove sample to the rafters for the fixation on mauerlat

  • In the first pair, taking her for sample vymeryat and cut the same groove, and the rest of the rafters.
  • Next, climb the walls of two triangles that set the beginning and end of the truss system of the future.If provided ridge beams, they immediately bind both set piece.

Video: how to secure the rafters mauerlat

  • Each ramp has mounted between the rafters stretched cords, which will also serve as a guide to align the rest of the construction details.
  • first set rafters once amplified struts, braces and other giving rigidity and reliability design elements of the system.
  • Further, rise and set the other truss pair.
  • If necessary, they are connected to each other runs and sleepers.
  • installing rafters system, all its elements are fixed temporarily, as may later have some of them customized and reinstall.Fundamentally they are fixed only after the reconciliation of the whole system.Then for fasteners used corners, staples, and if necessary - sliding elements.In different places of the compounds used screws, nails, screws, staples and pins.
При необходимости стропила могут удлиняться "кобылками"

If necessary, rafters can be extended "mare»

  • After system is basically set, the rafters can be extended "filly" in the eaves - this is done,to the structure of the walls were as much as possible sheltered from contact with moisture in the rain.
  • next stage of work is device crates on top of the rafters.The thickness and width of the boards for this part of the structure are selected taking into account technology mounting material chosen for the roof - it will depend on the width, length and weight of its leaves.
Crate according to the rafters for further work with the roofing material

Crate rafters for further work with roofing material

Video: Installation of frame of roof gable roof

Shed system

accepted that Shed system use onlywhen the device roofs of garages, sheds, gazebos and other non-residential buildings, but it is not so.This roof serves perfectly to cover the houses, and beneath it is even possible to arrange additional warm room, if properly calculate the slope of the structure.

Pent roof , though rarely , but it is also used in homes

Pent roof, though rarely, but is also used in homes

Shed system can be considered as half of a gable roof, but with some deviations. For example, if you install a gable roof gable part is the width of the structure, then the pent - its length.

The main elements of pent roof truss system

Key elements of roof system pent roof

Pediment can be raised from a brick or wooden beams and planks.Its height will depend on the selected slope of the roof.The gable roof is raised high, if the extra room will be arranged under it.

Rafters in the system stack is easier, but if the distance between the walls is large enough, all still need to stiffness install additional support elements.

To correctly determine the correct angle of inclination pent systems need to be based on the following factors:

  • thickness of the snow cover in winter, and the average rainfall in the other seasons.