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October 18, 2016 23:07

How to learn to work by electric

Welding - this is one of fairly complex, but highly demanded technologies work with metals.Wherever you look you will throw - always used welds.Without this process does not do any manufacturing, construction company, repair or service company.It becomes indispensable and welding in the construction and improvement of their own homes.

How to learn to work by electric

How to learn to work by electric

But here's the problem - welding jobs require a certain preparedness.You can, of course, if necessary, refer to the masters of welders on the ads or to someone you know who owns the necessary skills.But better still ask ourselves - how to learn to work on their own electric welding, so as not to be dependent on anybody.Today, when domestic welding equipment is no longer a problem, the ability to carry out such work, especially for the individual owner of property - an invaluable advantage, because a lot of problems will simply cease to exist.

However, do not think that learning techniques welding - simple and fast.By and lar

ge account , to learn how to cook quality metal, it is better to pass the appropriate courses of theoretical and practical training, which can be arranged at training and production centers or institutions of secondary vocational education.You can ask to share experience friend who owns this craft.If not - you probably will have to spoil a lot of metal blanks and burn more than one pack of electrodes until « cluttered » hand and you can say to yourself: "Yes, I have learned!»

But above all, you must understand the basic concepts of Electric andacquire the necessary equipment and gear.Welding - this is a process where by equipment workplace directly depends on the quality of work.

What kinds of Electric exist

Article Contents

  • 1 What kinds of Electric exist
  • 2 manual arc welding MMA - it will take to work?
    • 2.1 welding machine arc welding
    • 2.2 Video: how to choose a welding inverter
    • 2.3 welding wire, electrode holder, earth clamp
    • 2.4 welder equipment
    • 2.5 What use electrodes?
    • 2.6 Video: classification of electrodes for manual arc welding
    • 2.7 Workplace Preparation
  • 3 first practical steps
    • 3.1 Video: Master Class for manual arc welding
Electric

very essence is as follows.The power plant produces powerful welding current, which is fed through cables to the working position.Between the electrode and the surface of the welded metal created electric arc welding - sustained discharge, characterized by a high temperature behavior.This leads to the melting of the metal and the filler material.A so-called weld pool - an area of ​​the melt by controlling and directing that forms the seam welder.After removal of the arc is crystallized molten metal and creates solid monolithic connection details.

This very simplified this scheme is implemented in several welding technologies:

  • most common is a manual arc welding is that the existing terminology is the abbreviation MMA (from the English name « Manual Metal Ars »).The main feature - using fusible electrodes with a special daubing.Advantages - does not require a particularly complex technical ensure , LPG equipment.The disadvantage - the possibility of welding work only with black metal or stainless steel.
MMA welding MMA

manual arc welding MMA

In the majority of cases, if welding is considered at the household level, it is meant precisely this technology.

  • Welding by TIG technology allows to work with several alloy steels and non-ferrous metals.The term « Tungsten Inert Gas » speaks for itself: tungsten inert gas. Doug in this case created between the work piece and non-consumable tungsten electrode and as a filling inserted welding rod of a particular type.At the same time through a welding torch with a heat-resistant ceramic nozzle is constantly supplied protective inert gas which ensures the purity of the weld.
Welding by TIG technology

Welding technology TIG

Welding on for-like technology has many advantages, but it requires special equipment, and highly qualified employees.

  • MIG welding MIG-MAG ( Metal Inert Gas - Metal Astive Gas ) - one of the most advanced technologies, which are increasingly used andhandyman.Process with a cooking takes place in inert or reactive gases with automatic feed filler material (welding wire) which acts as an electrode.
Semi-automatic welding MIG-MAG

MIG welding MIG-MAG

This technology enables high quality welds in any plane, and with a very high productivity.To some extent it is even easier, Th m M MA , but requires a complex and rather bulky equipment - of the welding machine, wire feeder, gas-cylinder device, burner with special sleeve throughthat Paul wire and shielding gas.

Contact spot welding tongs for SPOT technology

Contact pliers SPOT

  • spot welding technology there is still and electric welding point - SPOT, which finds wide application in particular , on the bodywork parts of enterprises service center.It also will require special sophisticated equipment and is hardly ever used in the home.

manual arc welding MMA - it will take to work?

Any newcomer always starts with the development of techniques is manual arc welding ( MMA ), so all the issues discussed below will be devoted to her.

To start their own practice, is necessary to prepare certain equipment, facilities and supplies.

welding machine arc welding

to carry out welding work on the MMA technology uses one of three devices types:

  • Welding transformer - one of the simplest types of equipment.The principle of operation is elementary - mains voltage 220 In (or 380 for the three-phase network) becomes lower, about 25 - 50 In , but at the expense of this dramatically increases the value of the current strength. Advantages of such a scheme - its simplicity, high reliability and ease of maintenance, high power performance.These devices are inexpensive, that's probably largely determines their prevalence.

Welding transformer

same drawbacks from the transformer is much more - from the welding arc alternating current no different stability uncommon sticking electrodes, a large spatter, joints do not differ accuracy.In addition, it will require special electrodes for "recess".Welding transformers are not independent from the mains voltage, and themselves in the process can seriously «squander" network.Do not they differ compactness and ease .In short, to start training with the equipment - is undesirable.As a general rule, to work on these devices require good skills.

  • Welding MMA rectifiers differ on reflux ransformatorov that provide a constant current output.It works much easier with them, as "constant" the arc more stable, and the joints are more accurate.
Welding rectifier

Welding rectifier

However, shortcomings remain - the same massiveness and Overall , even more than that of welding transformers, dependent on the supply voltage and a large load on the network.For the price they are more expensive than transformer devices.

  • Without exaggeration we can say , literally a revolution in welding technology have produced devices that work on the inverter circuit.Mains AC voltage 220 In 50 Hz passes a cascade of frequency and amplitude transformation, and at the entrance to get the desired constant current with the highest degree of stabilization.All processes are controlled microprocessor assembly that allows the desired adjustment with a high degree of accuracy.
The most modern solution - welding inverter

most modern solution - welding inverter

This gives a "bouquet" of the merits of such a device:

- equipment safely transports enough serious fluctuations m = mains voltage, which is particularly is important in the country villages , where similar problems - very common.

- At the same time, at the inverter, as compared to other devices, minimum energy consumption - they practically do not overload the network.

- Stabilized current and the possibility of fine adjustment allow for precise and neat seams.Spraying is virtually absent.

- The device is compact and low weight.

A wide range of such devices - from consumer-class inverter to professional equipment.For novice welders - it most optimal solution. Prices for high-quality inverters are high enough, but, firstly, have a tendency to decrease, and secondly, such a one-time purchase of a fully justified.And there were many, and the sale of low-cost devices dubious assembly.Therefore, it is important to approach the issue of choice inverter - it is necessary to pay attention to some important nuances:

  • maximum welding current.If the machine is planned to be used in a household, then, as a rule, stop on models with the value of 150 - 200 A . it is enough to work with electrodes up to 4 mm.
  • stability of the electronic circuit to the power-line surges.Qualitative inverters must withstand fluctuations within ± 20 ÷ 25 % .
  • inverter must have a system of forced cooling, running continuously at turned nutrition or equipped automation, launching the ventilation when a certain heatsink temperature.
  • should not forget about the power consumption of the device - it can be about 2 ÷ 3 kW at the smaller models, but can reach and greater quantities in units or semi-professional class.
  • What about Th m m legged simply do not know: the parameter defining the permissible duration of the welding process - switching time (PT).No machine can not work without interruption, and the parameters must be indicated PV, expressed as a percentage of the total duration of the equipment.In domestic class of models it is usually about 40% - nothing to be done, such fee for compact apparatus.In practice, this means that during the "rest" in this case, 1.5 times longer than the time of welding, for example, one minute of continuous operation then require at least one and a half minute pause.
  • For novice welders will be very useful if the circuit apparatus implements some useful functions:

- « NotStart » facilitates the initial ignition of the welding arc.Pulse Electronics automatically increases the current value at the moment of ignition.

- « ArcForce » will help to cope with the perennial problem of beginners - sticking electrode to the metal surface.By reducing the required clearance current increases between the electrode and the metal to prevent this trouble.

- «AntiStick» - feature that prevents overheating of the machine, if you still have not managed to avoid sticking .In this case, the power will automatically shut off simply.

More one important piece of advice."Achilles heel" of the inverters is determined complexity of repair work in the event of circuit failure.When choosing a machine is better to give preference to models with multicard layout of the electronic circuit. Pkst such devices a bit more expensive, but the diagnosis of failures becomes easier maintainability - much higher.

Video: how to choose a welding inverter

welding wire, electrode holder, clip mass

Welding inverters are usually already equipped with wires, electrode holder and clamp mass.However, when buying these items, too, should pay close attention - sometimes you can run into a low-quality product.

  • Welding wires must be flexible rubber insulation, have reliable brass-pin, suitable for connectors specific device.Cable cross-section be not less than 16 mm², if product is designed for currents up to 150 A , 25 mm² - at 200 A and even 35 mm², if expected to work with the current 250 A above.Do not chase the high wire length or to lengthen their own - this can lead to overload and electronics inverter failure.
  • Electrode - an essential element of welding equipment, since it is the master manipulates them in the process.Do not use for home-made "plug» - is quite dangerous in terms of getting light eye burns or electric shock.The most common and convenient for today are the holders passatizhnogo type - "pegs".Some people are comfortable, allow you to easily and quickly replace the electrode well insulated from all sides and provide adequate security.
Одни из самых распространенных - держатели-"прищепки" пассатижного типа

Some of the most common - derzhateli- "clothespin" type passatizhnogo

holder must have a reliable clip electrodes that allows to place not only from the perpendicular, but under 45 º.It should not be too lazy to check the material contact parts - there must be a copper or brass, but not copper-plated steel. This is - a clear sign cheap fakes, which is easily detected by small magnets.It is necessary to check the reliability of electrode fixation, especially small diameter (2 mm) - with this often have problems at substandard holders passatizhnogo type.

important factor is the convenience of the holder, his balance, « weight distribution » - working with them should not be a quick hand fatigue.It should have a long enough lever, allowing take most comfortable hand position, grooved surface to prevent slippage in the palm of your hand, dressed in a mitten.Do not forget that for the holders as defined by the maximum value of the welding current.

  • clamp for connecting mass must have a strong spring, reliable connection with a wire, brass crimp contacts metal blank, connected copper bus.