Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:06

How to make the roof with his hands

To find out how to make the roof of your hands properly, you need to learn a few instructions on how to perform this rather complex operation.It should immediately be noted that there are several types of roofs, each of which has its own circuit device and requires a special approach.In addition, the choice of type of roof will depend on the purpose of the building, which will be covered by it.

How to make the roof with his hands

How to make the roof with his hands

right erected elements of the roof will be able to protect the house, not only by precipitation, but also retain precious heat inside in winter construction.So well built and insulated roof is not less important than reliable warm wall.

Types roofs

Article Contents

  • 1 Types roofs
  • 2 Roof pitch
  • 3 components of the roof structure elements
  • 4 truss system
    • 4.1 Video: an exemplary structure truss system gable roof
    • 4.2 Naslonnaya system rafters
    • 4.3 Video: how to set mauerlat the walls
    • 4.4 Hanging truss system
    • 4.5 Video: example of installation of roof system
  • 5 Installation tiled roof

As mentioned above, there are several types of roofs.Choosing the appropriate structure for a particular option, it is worth considering some of them , to know what they look like.

Various types of roofs ...

Various types of roofs ...

To date, construction practice satisfied the following main types of roofs: gable, lean-, with slope gable, hipped, roof, hipped hipped, poluvalmovaya, mnogoskatnye .

... From the most simple to the highly complex

... from the most simple to the highly complex

Pent roof

This option is usually used to cover the garages or outbuildings, but sometimes a roof arrange for residential private homes.

Such a construction can be called one of the simplest of all the existing ones, especially in cases where a very small inclination ramp.If plans to build a roof still one room, the design is a bit more complicated.Nevertheless, this type of roof on the most economical consumption of roofing and lumber.

gable roof gable

variation nt cr yshi considered traditional houses and set more than any other species.Apparently, this is due to the fact that such a roof can be arranged in any building design.Sloping ramps will depend on the distance between the outer walls and the location of bearing walls inside the house.

Hip roof

This is a fairly complex structure, which is almost not used recently.However, if you decide to choose it , it is best to use for a device-girder system with protracted braces and struts.

roof consists of four isosceles triangles - their vertices converge at one point.Hip roof resembles a four-sided pyramid or tent , hence the its name.

gable roof with a bevel

This roof is arranged according to the scheme gable roof, but has a different slants in front of the slopes.

gambrel or hipped roof

This design is somewhat reminiscent of hip variation nt cr yshi, but, unlike him, it is present horse .The roof is quite complicated in the device, and most of all for its built using the scheme with double beams and puffs .

poluvalmovaya roof

This construction in recent years, hardly used, as is quite complicated device.If it selected, it is mainly satisfied by truss scheme with ties.


roof like the roof arrange in homes with complex layouts, or if made to the main building extension. design mnogoskatnoy roof - is quite complicated, and it used only in extreme cases.

mansard roof

Mansard roof in a simple design can not be called ...

mansard roof simple in execution will not name ...

Due to the fact that this design allows to solve two problems at once - get an extra room at the same time reliable roof, attic option can be called one of the mostsought after dual type.

... But under certain conditions, residential attic can be placed and under ordinary gable roof

... but under certain conditions, residential attic can be placed and under ordinary gable roof

Roof pitch

It is very important to make the right slope roof - of this durability is not only covering the design house will be affected, butand of the building.In regions with cold winters and lots of snow slope it is particularly important, since if it is insufficient, the surface will be collected in snowdrifts that at thawing can simply fail the roof.That is why the slope is recommended to do at least 40 ÷ 45 degrees.

Besides building location, the choice of roof pitch affects roofing material.So, if you plan to use to cover the tile or slate, the slope should not be less than 25 degrees, or at the junctions of the water can leak into the attic space, as it will be a little intensity drip.

When the device gable design, slope usually do from 30 to 45, and pent 25 ÷ 30 degrees.

components of the roof structure elements

Different systems roofing elements vary, but the basic still remain united.These include the following:

The main elements of the roof

Key elements of the roof

  • Skate - the upper part of the roof, a place where it joined rays.This item is not in the tent-and monopitch roof version.
  • Rays - these are the main plane of the roof covered with roofing material.
  • Endova - the inner corner of the roof, which is formed at the intersection of the two ramps.This ale nt etc. isutstvuet only in complex structures.In the valleys of the roof arrangement should be paid special attention in waterproofing works as a site - one of the most vulnerable structures in them is the largest concentration of snow.
  • eaves - a roof overhang on the sides of the house.These make the installation of drainage systems.
  • gables overhang - the protruding part rays over the front side of the roof.
  • Rafter system - design, which is the basis for the rays of the device.There are several varieties of these systems, but the most reliable one is a triangle, as it is this figure gives design stiffness .

truss system

Before installing any design, made of wood, the material must necessarily cover pre-antiseptic and flame retardants , which will protect it from fungal formations, insect colonies and ensure the improvement of fire safety of the entire system.

Key details of the construction of roof system

Basic design details roof system

main element in the rafter system are the rafters, put on mauerlat supported by the uprights, bonded sleepers and bongs.

At the top of the rafters are joined overlapped and sealed, the bottom is fixed on mauerlat or bars to be placed between the rafters.

Rafter system has different forms and is naslonnoy or hanging.

It is important to calculate the size of the rafters in the section. calculation is made taking into account distance between the walls and the installation step rafters.

Video: exemplary design of roof system gable roof

Naslonnaya system rafters

Naslonnye system most commonly used in buildings, which provides for the internal load-bearing walls, create a support base for the rafter system. Naslonny views much easier hanging, it is easier to install, and require less building material.The defining point of the system is to support horse , which are held together by paired rafters.

Schematic diagram of the system of rafters naslonnoy

Schematic diagram of the system of rafters naslonnoy

Naslonnaya system rafters bezraspornogo type mounted in three different versions:

1. In the first case, the rafters are joined on the ridge, and secured the support, which is called the moving,and the lower end is fixed to the rafters mauerlat by notching.Furthermore, additional rafters are fixed to the wall using the wire.

2. In a further embodiment, the rafters are fixed to each other on the ridge bolts with metal lining, and the bottom edge of the rafter connection to attach the movable mauerlat.

3. In the third case, the top of the rafter beams connected to the runs on the ridge, using hard mounting boards and bars arranged horizontally.The same method is used for fixing the bottom, as in the previous case.

Driving naslonnoy fastening system

scheme naslonnoy fastening system

Floating fixing rafters do not convey the design voltage of the roof on the structure of the walls, so the walls will be protected from damage.It is this type of fixing is an important difference naslonnyh from suspension systems.

But sometimes still have to use a spacer system, in such cases, the lower end is fixed to the rafters and walls mauerlat hard fastening and to remove the load from the walls used strengthening braces and bongs.

This option is no longer naslonny and suspension - rather, it can be called a combined or intermediate.

Before assembling truss system, it is best to built the wall joists put a temporary flooring from boards.On it will be more convenient and much safer to travel, arranging basis under roofing.Having made these preliminary works, you can begin the installation of roof system.

Since under private construction for the roof device is most often used naslonnuyu rafter system, you need to know more about how it is carried out installation.

  • on longitudinal plank house wall waterproofing material - usually used for this roofing.
  • Further, the upper end wall anchors placed and fastened mauerlat which is a timber having a size in section not less than 150 × 150 mm.

Video: How to install the walls mauerlat

  • This item set the rafters, which are fastened to the brackets mauerlat, and their upper part is connected overlapping , using overlays or attached to the ridge batten.
One option to mount the rafters mauerlat

One version of rafters fastening to maueratu

  • addition, roof needs to be fixed to the wall of the house with the help of lay.To do this, a wall, a distance of 30 ÷ 35 cm from the top, is driven crutch, wire meshes for it and attached to the rafter and its ends twisted.This manipulation will keep the roof intact during high winds.
  • Rafters and tightening necessary to withdraw beyond the outer edge of the wall to form an overhang, which will be protected to the wall in the rain.overhang length must be at least 550 ÷ 600 mm.
  • Next, braces reinforce the rafters, girders and struts.

Hanging truss system

In buildings where there are no internal capital partitions, and the distance between the opposed bearing walls is 6 ÷ 11 meters, the system applies the so-called hanging rafters.It is suitable for buildings in which the roof will be supported only on the wall along the perimeter.

The principle of the hanging roof system

principle hanging rafter

system should be taken into consideration that this design roof scheme gives large spacer load on the wall , and to its reduced using horizontal elements interconnecting the rafterswhich is called crossbars or tightening.Fastens these components of the system can be anywhere in the rafters at their height - they can even be used as joists for the attic floor, securing the very bottom.

Common schemes linking and fixing hanging rafters

Common schemes ligaments and strengthening of hanging rafters

Installation this system is using trusses made of timber, having a section of at least 50 ÷ 200 mm, but accurate calculations sizes still should conduct an expert architect.

  • When installing the hanging system on the perimeter of the building initially set mauerlat.
  • Next, prepared the first two pairs of rafters.Their upper and lower part is cut at the desired angle, while at the lower edge, in addition, cuts are made for greater stability.
  • two rafters go upstairs then installed on mauerlat while without fastening to it, and the upper parts are connected by the cut-off angle, but are not fastened.
  • is important to accurately fit the first two rafters among themselves, as they will be a template for the manufacture of other components truss system.The first pair is removed from the bottom wall, and the other elements are made to it.
  • When all the items will be procured and numbered, they are lifted up, install and fasten first only the extreme part of the roof system.Then they connect the upper corners of the stretched cord, it is thus the level at which the other elements are leveled.
  • After all the rafters at the top of their tie together beams, keeping the necessary distance between them - it should be exactly identical distance between them in the lower part thereof, with fastening on mauerlat.
The applied methods of mounting parts truss system

applied methods of attachment parts truss system

  • next stage mounted tightening, which is better to install the bottom of the system, overlapping .
Node fixing rafters to mauerlat

assembly fixing rafters to maueratu

  • basting connections of the whole system is carried out nails, but then all nodes is required to bolt through the metal plate and using metal parts.Such consolidation will provide stiffness and structural strength.
  • If necessary, the system strengthens escarpments and racks.

Video: example of installation of roof system

Installation tiled roof

After installing the rafters and associated elements, you can proceed to further work on the device of the roof.Roof "pie" can consist of different materials.In this case, you can consider the system used to cover the roof tiles.

can make easy option when packed to the rafters crate, and on her immediately placed on top of the roofing material.But the first winter show that the roof needs insulation.Therefore , it is best just to make things right and more to the issue return.

Примерное строение "сэндвича" утепленной крыши

exemplary structure of "sandwich" roof insulation

  • The first thing that is recommended to perform - this sheathe truss system inside vapor barrier film .Her stretched and fastened to the rafters using stapler and staples.
  • Further, the top film vapor barrier, roof from the attic sheathed gypsum board slabs - it screwed screws.Drywall will not only give loft space orderly, but also serve as a basis for insulation slabs .