Build Daily

December 12, 2017 00:17

Lightweight aggregate blocks : characteristics , advantages and disadvantages

Ceramsite concrete blocks are considered to be bioblocks. They consist of clay, cement, sand and gravel. They are used for the erection of buildings and structures, carcasses and garages. According to the characteristics and price policy, they represent a close competition with the brick.

Content

  • Characteristics of lightweight aggregate concrete blocks
  • Dimensions lightweight aggregate concrete blocks
  • Benefits claydite-concrete material
  • Disadvantages
  • lightweight aggregate concrete blocks Lightweight aggregate blocks with their hands
  • How to put lightweight aggregate blocks
  • recommendations for the design of masonry structures from blocks

Feature ceramsite

blocks of modern society is constantly builds new buildings undertheir needs. Years are spent on the search for the optimal variant of construction materials. For them, a high bar is set: reliability and durability, availability and ease of use.

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So, for brick, the alternative analogue is kera

msit-concrete blocks. They are widely used in Europe. In countries such as Austria, Germany, Denmark.

The material is made of environmentally friendly raw materials. The main elements of claydite concrete are burnt clay, water and concrete. When mixing the latter add sand and / or rubble for strength. The result is a hard and durable material. But which is characterized by a high level of thermal conductivity. So, he is not able to keep heat inside the room. Therefore, an additional material is used for the cladding and thermal insulation of claydite-concrete blocks is obtained.

Ceramsite is produced in special rotary kilns. It is characterized by the ability to quickly absorb moisture. What is important for the construction of greenhouses, for growing crops. And the hardness of the construction is achieved by the method of a semi-dry press and subsequent steaming. Each granule of the substance is covered with a crust and takes the form of a frozen foam.

So, the average density of the final block varies from 450 to 1750 kg / m³.

Ceramsite concrete blocks are used for the following purposes:

  • erection of exterior and interior walls of buildings,
  • foundation laying,
  • organization of ventilation shafts,
  • construction of interior partitions,
  • frame filling in monolithic construction.

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Properties of these units are regulated by GOST 6133-99 "Concrete wall stones. Technical conditions ».

The standard indicates that the surface of the material is rippled, chipped, ground and smooth.

And by design, stones are divided into ordinary and facial. The first require processing with additional lining material. The second - are made with one or two faces, which perform a decorative function.

Ceramsite concrete blocks are usually produced in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped. But in agreement with the customer, it is possible to fulfill other options.

Regardless of the size of the claydite-concrete block, its weight does not exceed 31 kg.

Dimensions of keramzit concrete blocks

According to GOST 6133-99 for the construction, blocks of certain sizes are made. Wall claydite-concrete blocks are produced using the following parameters:

  • height 13,8 cm,
  • width from 1,4 to 2,9 cm,
  • length from 0,9 to 2,9 cm.

And for the construction of partitions use expanded clay blocks withthe following dimensions:

  • height 18.8 cm,
  • width 9 cm,
  • length from 1.9 to 5.9 cm.

The corners of the blocks are made straight or rounded.

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Calculation of expanded clay blocks is carried out at the stage of drafting the construction project.

The material itself is solid and hollow. The latter form is formed with vertical through or through cavities, which are evenly distributed over the area of ​​the block. Full-bodied expanded clay blocks are characterized by a dense structure. They are without voids and holes. Usually they are used for laying the foundation.

The manufacturer makes the marking of the material, where the following designations are accepted:

  • K - stone,
  • C - application area for wall masonry,
  • P - use for internal partitions,
  • L and R - front or ordinary block type,
  • PS - material hollow.

For the strength of the brand of heavy concrete are divided by descending hardness from the marker 300 to 50. And from a lightweight analogue - from 100 to 25.

Also indicated is the level of frost resistance, where F200 is the maximum and F15 is the minimum.

Before buying claydite-concrete blocks, it is necessary to check the conformity of the symbol on them to the norms and actual parameters of the material.

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Advantages of claydite-concrete material

Any building element has its pros and cons. Proceeding from them, it is necessary to choose the optimal variant for the given type of work.

Specialists define a number of advantages of expanded clay blocks. Here are the main ones:

  1. Air permeability of material through granules.
  2. Environmentally friendly building material.
  3. Thermal insulation retains up to 70% heat indoors, compared to a concrete analog.
  4. Moisture resistance, unlike cementitious material.
  5. Minimum quantity of masonry mortar for building walls.
  6. Saving on the hourly wage of workers. Since the masonry with this material occurs 4 to 5 times faster than using brick.
  7. Houses made of expanded clay are distinguished by their durability. They are not susceptible to corrosion, rot and do not burn in case of fire.
  8. The material is characterized by a high level of noise insulation, in comparison with concrete analogues.
  9. Claydite concrete is chemically resistant to alkalis and sulfates.
  10. Relatively low price of expanded clay blocks with their large volume: one unit replaces 5 to 7 bricks.
  11. Unlike foam-aerated concrete, expanded clay concrete holds dowels well without special fasteners.
  12. Ease of production is available for self-fulfillment.
  13. The masonry lends itself to easy lining and sheathing with other materials.
  14. Strength up to 1800 kg / m³ and frost-resistance up to -40 ° С.
  15. Due to its strength, the material does not deform and does not crack during operation.

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The technology for manufacturing expanded clay blocks is set high requirements. Since of them erect bearing walls. Therefore, they are characterized by quality and reliability.

It is considered to be a good building material. It accounts for 7% of buildings in the post-Soviet countries and up to 40% abroad.

In general, domestic craftsmen give approving testimonials about keramzit-concrete blocks. With the emphasis on the fact that it will take another 10 to 15 years to consolidate their positions in the construction business.

Advantages of expanded clay blocks allow to reduce the price and save construction time. At the same time getting a reliable and durable construction.

Disadvantages of expanded clay blocks

With positive sides of claydite concrete, there are also relative disadvantages:

  1. Increased porosity, compared to solid monolithic concrete. Because of this, the physical and mechanical characteristics of the material are reduced. Including density. Therefore, when laying the foundation and building high-rise buildings, it is preferable to use pure concrete.
  2. The need for external thermal insulation to maintain comfort in the cold season.
  3. Unfair manufacture of blocks. Sometimes manufacturers use poor-quality raw materials and can not withstand the requirements of GOST.And in open access there is no complete technology for independent production.
  4. Despite the relatively low weight of the material, the building of expanded clay concrete requires a solid foundation. So, it will not be possible to save on the supporting structure.

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Ceramsite concrete blocks with their own hands

For economy of means, craftsmen produce keramzitobatonic blocks independently. You can also make good money on this. The process is not complex, but requires compliance with proportions and instructions.

For self-preparation, the following material is required:

  • sand 35 kg,
  • wooden boards for formwork,
  • claydite with fractions 5 - 7 mm weighing 70.85 kg,
  • cement 12 kg,
  • water 11.7 l,
  • metal plate for laying outmaterial,
  • capacity of 150 liters and a tool for mixing the mixture.

Please note that the ratio of raw materials for the production of 12 - 13 hollow blocks is given. Make the appropriate calculations for the amount of material you need.

First make a shape for blocks of wood or metal thickness of 4 - 5 mm. To form internal cavities, enough material is 3 mm.

Mix the mixture of expanded clay concrete to the state of plasticine. This can be done independently in the tank with a shovel. For large production it is better to rent a machine for expanded clay blocks, presented in the photo.

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Fill the form with a mixture.

For drying, the blocks are placed on a metal substrate. During the week, they should not be exposed to moisture and direct sunlight. In the heat they must be moistened with water and covered with polyethylene.

In fact, the material dries in 48 hours. But the masters say that only after 3 - 4 weeks keramzitobeton acquires maximum strength.

How to lay claydite concrete blocks

The process of laying claydite-concrete blocks in many respects is similar to the laying of bricks. But it has a number of features. For example, the need for dressing seams.

The following tools and material are required for laying:

  • measuring tape measure,
  • container and glue mixing tool, eg bucket and shovel,
  • level for leveling blocks,
  • plumb,
  • wooden slats,
  • expanded clay blocks,
  • ruberoid,
  • rope,
  • rubber or wooden hammer for styling,
  • water,
  • glue,
  • saw for building material carving.

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  1. The foundation is leveled using a leveling and cement mix. After not rubbing the ruberoid in two layers. It will perform the function of waterproofing. The surface is again aligned using a level or level.
  2. Start laying from the corners of the building. They place the leveling rails with a string attached to them, which will serve as a guide for the next series of blocks.
  3. The blocks are treated with water, after which an adhesive solution is applied on them. A layer of 2 cm is sufficient. This is done so that the porous material minimally absorbs the masonry solution.
  4. The next claydite-concrete block is placed at a distance of 4 - 5 cm from the end of the previous one. After pressing down and towards the joint, the blocks are leveled. The strength of their fastening is achieved by tapping the surface with a hammer.
  5. Every 4 - 5 rows of reinforcement mesh is attached to give the structure greater strength.
  6. If necessary, reduce the size of the material using a special saw.

Specialists recommend the parallel erect internal and external walls.

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After laying each row, the level is checked for its parallel to the ground.

Recommendations for the design of stone structures from blocks

  1. When building low buildings, it is necessary to use large porous expanded clay blocks. For external walls, their frost resistance must be at least F50.When building an additional internal series there is no such requirement.
  2. Thin layer masonry mortars are used for bonding blocks. In this case, the thickness of the joints is maintained at a rate of 1 - 2.5 mm.
  3. It is also possible to use heavy adhesive mixtures. The thickness of the joints between expanded clay blocks in this case reaches 1 - 1.2 cm.
  4. Walls 30 cm wide, it is necessary to design in one row of stone. With a larger size - in one or two blocks.
  5. The implementation of two-level masonry is a plugging and tying type of dressing. The size of the first type should be at least 1/5 of the wall thickness.
  6. Adjacent walls to each other must be made butt-end with rigid or sliding joints. For example, using metal guides and profiles.
  7. To ensure the required level of silence in the room, use a special soundproof material.
  8. Depending on the size of the load on the structure, equip it with a conventional or rigid fittings.
  9. It is better to design and erect a structure to a specialist. And for quality and timely implementation, monitor the process.
  10. Ensure that the technical documentation is correct, taking into account the safe construction standards.
  11. For the design and construction of stone structures, refer to the video reviews on the installation of expanded clay blocks.