Build Daily

Latest

August 13, 2016 23:10

Saga of choosing an apartment 1. Types of houses and apartments selection .House of foam blocks and other buildings - are beginning to buy an apartment with this criterion

How to choose an apartment in the new building - the main danger

In this article we will discuss some important issues related to the fact, how to choose an apartment in the new building .Most of the points described below are important when buying any real estate - private "freshly baked" at home or cottage, and housing on the secondary market.It has special meaning for all buyers to read the section "Payment" on the deal. "

considering different types of houses when choosing an apartment, a lower cost of square meter in the new building accompanied by higher risks.Up to the possibility of losing all the money invested.Most often, you make money as a deposit - for the right to buy an apartment in the future - after the commissioning of the house under construction.Before the signing of the state act of reception of the object construction purchase and sale of apartments in it impossible.

So, the first very real risk.Option number one.You pay money to the developer or their direct representatives

.At this moment you sign the contract and get a document on prepay.However, on the transaction data is not recorded in any registry.And nothing prevents unscrupulous developers or his "representative" a few more times to conduct such an operation with "your" property.

And if you find yourself in the future "customers" list, not first, your driving license for an apartment in a brand new building will be more than illusory.The second option is what you share repurchase in a newly built house.This re-sale will be available from both the developer and by the previous shareholder.Next, consider the selection of apartments in the house, put into operation.

When choosing a suitable home in the area with apartments the desired area, try to find out:

  1. a long running builder of this house;
  2. how qualified its engineers and workers;
  3. ecological safety of the materials used;
  4. details of the progress of construction (in private).

his "mistakes" no one likes to advertise, so the details of the progress of construction actually find only in private.However, something about of materials used can be found without profound investigation.Granite and sandstone, lying above the dome of ore deposits, have an increased radiation background.

In addition, in our country there are a lot of places, artificially contaminated with radiation.Therefore, high radioactivity can sin almost all major construction materials:

  • w / w plates, including schebёnku and sand,
  • plasters,
  • bricks,
  • foam and aerated concrete blocks.

Norma additional radiation emission housing in our country is the 3rd micro-roentgen per hour.Natural background in lowland areas is 15-20 mR / h.Safe level - up to 50 mc / hr.Those.better once come to their future apartment with a dosimeter and make sure that the natural background exceeded acceptable limits and is 20-30 mR / h, than then to accumulate in your body unnecessary x-rays for many years.

Types of construction of houses on the basis of materials used

very conditionally among the new building can be following types of houses:

  • brick,
  • panel,
  • of foams,
  • monolithic.

This division is conditional, sincein any modern brick building used reinforced concrete hollow core slabs.In addition, monolithic house is sometimes more and foam.And due to the high thermal conductivity reinforced concrete building with monolithic w / w frame insulation of exterior walls can be made of brick (often - beautiful, finishing), panels of insulating material or aerated concrete blocks.All types of construction of houses made of these materials have their advantages and disadvantages.

brick house - the pros and cons of such buildings

Traditional (with Peter's times) material for housing construction - brick .It can be:

  • silicate, based on - lime and sand;
  • full-bodied ceramic obtained by firing clay;
  • ceramic hollow or porous, containing up to 50% of the internal void.

lime brick cheaper, but it can not withstand long exposure to moisture, so is used in masonry walls above plinth waterproofing mandatory.It may not be porous, so its thermal insulation and weight indices worse than those of ceramic hollow bricks.

Good Burnt ceramic bricks from clay seasoned properly and can be used for the manufacture of foundations and plinths, and masonry walls and building partitions.Hollow keramokirpich significantly less heat conductors and with less weight (keeping the same strength characteristics) exerts less pressure on the foundation and the ground.

Positive characteristics:

  • strong enough, using high quality made bricks, the binder composition and the material overlaps at correctly calculated and furnished the foundation can serve hundreds of years,
  • rightfully "fire-breathing birth" allow the gasket inside the walls of the ventilation and smoke channels,seamlessly adjacent to the furnaces,
  • have a high heat capacity, which allows tenants who inhabited brick houses do not suffer from heat in the summer and can withstand short-lived turn off the heating in winter.

Negative characteristics:

  • high heat capacity of the brick walls require more heat costs for occasional use of heating,
  • during the cold season in brick houses need to support above-zero temperature,
  • after construction for some time a house gives shrinkage,
  • because of the large weight of the walls, for example, 9-storey brick house requires everything to strengthen the foundations for low-rise buildings (2-3 floors), it can be a strip foundation, in-depth below the level of soil freezing,
  • to ensure sufficient thermal insulation in our latitudes,you need to equip the wall two bricks thick, and it is very significantly reduces the usable space - walls occupy a sixth part of the house a total of 200 m2.

Panel and houses of foam blocks - who inspires confidence?

Prefabricated panel houses most cheap, leading to their widespread construction in the Soviet era, is the most popular types of 9-storey houses.Now, however, they are not built because of their fragility and low strength.Therefore dwell on them will not.

foams for the construction may be in the form of:

  • foam blocks,
  • solid surfaces,
  • gazoblokov.

foam blocks produced in atmospheric conditions by adding to the cement-sand mortar blowing agents.Therefore, the process of construction of aerated concrete monolithic structures possible.Gazoblok manufactured in special autoclaves at elevated pressure.They have a somewhat better physical and mechanical properties compared to blocks, but they can not be produced in the construction site conditions, so the construction of these monolithic structures can not be.

these materials, and hence the types of houses made of them have:

  • low cost,
  • lightweight,
  • ability to pass small amounts of air that quality brings the home of aerocrete to wooden,
  • flame retardant,
  • high thermal and sound insulation properties,

also:

  • typical house of foam blocks do not rot, are easily handled, with a neat styling units require the use of small amounts of leveling compounds,
  • construction process is accelerated,
  • due to lower weightstructures simplified arrangement of the bases.

Thus they:

  • not withstand heavy loads (more than 25 kg / cm²), so you can not build a house out of foam blocks over two floors,
  • absorb atmospheric moisture, losing their strength characteristics, for this reason special attentiongiven their proofing.

Advertising texts about "improving the foam properties during their operation" burden the conscience of their authors and do not correspond to reality.Foams - a good solution in the construction of houses.Foam and aerocrete are used in fragments, like wall elements in the frame-monolithic skyscrapers.They can also insulate monolithic w / w frame.

Building type High - a bit of its history

Building type High - this building, in which all elements are made by pouring the cement-sand and crushed stone mixture into the mold on a frame made of metal reinforcement directly on site.In addition, each member continues to the next without any previous connecting seams.This also applies to the vertical and horizontal elements.Those.one-piece monolithic (single, continuously flooded) reinforced concrete frame structure must be obtained.

Some elements of this technology (concrete casting on a metal frame in a pre-requisite infrastructure formwork directly at the construction site) appeared in Germany in the twenties of the last century.However, existing at that time did not allow concrete mixtures builders all over the world to move in this direction.

fairness, we note that in Soviet Russia soon in the revolutionary impulse of the first monolithic building in the world were built after 1917.One of them - Kharkov Derzhprom - still amazes not only by its monumentality, but also the fact that during World War II it three times failed to blow up the German experts, at that time one of the best in the world (!).

After the war, engineer Rigel suggested the use of ready-made concrete elements - beams, which allowed to move to discrete precast concrete frame construction elements.The next step was filling solid load-bearing columns directly on site.

latest at the moment point to accepted international practice monolithic housing developments put great architect Le Corbusier.He refused bearing monolithic columns.Each monolithic reinforced concrete wall became flooded with vertically-bearing element.From this decision a half-step to a fully monolithic structures.These half-step made the same Le Corbusier.

Once again: now many frame-monolithic construction "give" as full of monoliths.These types of high-rise buildings still retain the pressure point of the vertical supports on the foundation.

Pros and cons of monolithic houses

Monolithic types of houses are quite tangible advantages:

  1. high strength structures.In Soviet times, they were erected in earthquake-prone areas.However, cheaper prefabricated panel construction drove solid types of houses in Moscow and in general of the practices of the Soviet serial construction (this has led to enormous sacrifices during the Spitak earthquake in Armenia).
  2. less (15-20%) monoliths weight compared with the brick buildings of the same size.
  3. load distribution around the perimeter retaining walls, avoiding point loads to the foundation.
  4. Relief everything foundations.
  5. Building type High does not give shrinkage after construction.
  6. Faster construction.
  7. No need to carry to the construction site three-dimensional structure.
  8. Possibility of "free" planning high-rise buildings and features unsupported extension of premises up to 150 m2.
  9. Seamless construction provides better insulation of premises in the building.
  10. Monolithic types of high-rise buildings - among centenarians building structures.Their term of life - 100 years.Provided, of course, high-quality materials and carrying out in full compliance with the technological process.

Cons monolithic buildings can be reduced to the following list:

  1. High thermal conductivity (bad insulation) concrete walls.They have to additionally insulate.
  2. Low soundproofed rooms, especially in relation to impact noise.
  3. necessary to provide channels for the service lines and chimneys, and only later in the redevelopment of monolithic buildings is almost impossible, especially without the permission of the housing service.
  4. complexities at work in winter conditions.The process of concreting should go at a temperature not below +5 ° C.At lower temperatures, heating the mixture applied in step preparation (solid and heated particulate fraction) or at the stage of solidification (which leads to deterioration of quality of concrete and requires significant energy consumption).spetsdobavki are used most frequently, which allows to conduct concreting at low temperatures.
  5. The need to conduct a continuous process of pouring concrete, with in many directions at once.
  6. necessarily very good seal drenched blend.Small deviations from this rule completely destroy all the advantages possessed by the construction of multi-storey monolithic houses.

Now there are two ways of monolithic construction:

  • with removable formwork,
  • with permanent formwork.

The first option allows you to use the formwork repeatedly.However, there is the need for additional insulation of external walls and internal insulation surfaces.Particular attention has to be paid to the external walls.Their insulated spetssostavami often leave an air layer, and draped a monolithic structure of brickwork or foams.Those.monoliths advantages in terms of high speed and cheapness of construction are unobtrusive.

The second option can be considered as a "two in one".The formwork of polystyrene foam allows concreting process and then remains as heat and sound insulation.Of course, it kind of does not allow to do without further finishing.But it is much faster and less time-consuming and expensive process compared with the previous version.After all, if the walls insulate more cheaper compared with finishing bricks, foams, they also need to decorate and carefully vodoizolirovat.

How to choose an apartment - determine the floor

consider this issue from a position of "yes" and "no" to determine, how to choose an apartment in terms of floor.

1. Ground floor is traditionally not love our fellow citizens.Damp cellar beneath it often becomes a supplier of mosquitoes and fleas.Not excluded and the option of collecting the apartment of the first floor entrance all wastewater if clogged sewer.It almost always happens in areas with small slope below the ground floor.There are, of course, a device called "check valve", but to establish and operate it - additional confusion.

And rob these apartments more often than others, and that it gets the lion's share of external noise and dust.Accordingly, the price of non-square meters on the ground floor of a 15-20% lower than in the other floors.

There is another important point.Almost anywhere from the ground stands a radioactive gas - radon.Very quickly it decays to form radioactive isotopes of lead, bismuth and polonium.gas himself seven times heavier than air, so it and its breakdown products are concentrated in the lower floors of the area, most of all - it is on the ground.On the other hand, to the ground floor apartment is the easiest to reach (especially in case of failure of lifts), and the easiest to leave in the event of an emergency.

2. The second floor has some problems in the first "truncated" form.Thus it is safer in terms of robbery, and can become a gathering place for waste water, only if the check valve will be on the first floor of the sewer pipe.

3. Prior to the third floor and is easy to get the mosquitoes and tenants.Not so difficult to escape and in the case of serious trouble.

4. 4-6 floors are much better than lower from the point of view of ecology.It is clear that in case of failure of the elevator ... Although some types of high-rise apartment buildings have two elevators.But of course, these floors in this sense, are better than the 16th, 30th, etc.

5. distinguish the 7th floor.