Build Daily

December 12, 2017 00:14

SNIP 2.05.02-85 * - Highways

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 *.Automobile roads on all extent or on separate sites are subdivided on categories according to tab.1*.

1.2.The access roads of industrial enterprises include highways connecting these enterprises with public roads, with other enterprises, railway stations, ports, calculated for the admission of vehicles allowed for circulation on public roads.

1.3.Coefficients of driving intensity of various vehicles to a passenger car should be taken from Table.2.

Paragraph 1.4 is deleted.

1.5.Estimated traffic intensity should be taken in total in both directions on the basis of economic survey data. At the same time, the average daily traffic intensity for the last year of the prospective period should be taken as the calculation, and in the presence of data on the hourly traffic intensity, the greatest hourly intensity achieved( or exceeded) within 50 hours in the last year of the prospective period, expressed in unitscar.

Table 1 *

Purpose of the road

Road category

Estimated traffic intensity, pref.units / day

Main federal roads( for communication between the capital of the Russian Federation and the capitals of the independent states, the capitals of the republics within the Russian Federation, administrative centers of the territories and regions, and providing international road transport links)

Ia

St. 14000

( motorway)

I-b

St. 14000

( expressway)

II

St. 6000

Other federal roads

( for communication between capitals of the republics within the Russian Federation, administrative centers of the regionand areas, and also these cities with the nearest administrative centers of autonomous entities)

St. 14000

( expressway)

II

St. 6000

III

St. 2000 to 6000

Republic, regional, regional roads and roadsautonomous formations

II

II

SV 6000 to 14000

III

SV 2000 to 6000

IV

SS 200 to 2000

Local roads

IV

SS 200 to 2000

V

Up to 200

Notes: 1. The category of access roadsroads to industrial and agricultural enterprises, accessin to airports, sea and river ports, railway stations, entrances to major cities, bypass and ring roads around major cities are appointed in accordance with their significance and estimated traffic intensity.

2. When applying the same requirements for roads I-a and I-b categories in the text of the standards, they are assigned to category I.

Made
Soyuzdornii
Mintranstroya


Approved by Decree of the USSR State Committee on affairs

construction on December 17, 1985 № 233

term administration

effective January 1, 1987 Table 2

Vehicle types

reduction coefficient

Carscars

1

Motorcycles with stroller

0,75

Motorcycles and mopeds

0,5

Lorries with load-carrying capacity, t:

2

1,5

6

2

8

2,5

14

3

st.14

3,5

Truck-type load-carrying capacity, t:

12

3,5

20

4

30

5

over.30

6

Notes.1. With intermediate values ​​of the carrying capacity of vehicles, the reduction factors should be determined by interpolation.

2. Coefficients for buses and special vehicles should be adopted for both the base cars of the appropriate load-carrying capacity.

3. Coefficients of reduction for trucks and road trains should be increased by 1.2 times with crossed and mountainous terrain.

In cases when the average daily intensity of the most stressful year of the month is more than 2 times higher than the average daily average established on the basis of economic studies or calculations, the latter for the assignment of the road category( paragraph 1.1) should be increased by 1.5 times.

1.6.Projects should take a higher category of road in cases where the calculated traffic intensity( 1.1 *) requires different categories.

1.7.A promising period in the designation of road categories, the design of plan elements, longitudinal and transverse profiles should be taken equal to 20 years. Access roads to industrial enterprises should be designed for a design period corresponding to the year when the enterprise or its turn reaches the full design capacity, taking into account the volume of traffic during the construction of the enterprise.

A promising period in the design of pavements should be taken in view of the overhaul periods of their service.

For the initial year of the estimated prospective period, the year of completion of the development of the road design( or an independent road section) should be adopted.

1.8.Public roads are designed for the admission of vehicles with dimensions: length of single cars up to 12 m and road trains up to 20 m, widths up to 2.5 m, in height up to 4 m for roads I-IV categories and up to 3.8 m forroads V category.

1.9.The main technical solutions for the application of roads in the terrain, the elements of the plan, the longitudinal and transverse profiles and their basic combinations, types of intersections and road junctions, the construction of road clothes and the roadbed should create prerequisites for ensuring the growth of labor productivity, saving of basic building materialsand fuel and energy resources. They should be justified by the development of options with a comparison of technical and economic indicators: the cost of construction, the costs of repair and maintenance of roads, losses associated with environmental impact during construction and operation, transportation costs, traffic safety, changes in production conditions of roads serviced by roads and adjacentto the roads of territories and other factors. When designing new roads with the inclusion of existing roads or their individual sections, the costs of bringing the land occupied by existing roads, but not used subsequently for traffic, to a condition suitable for agriculture, should be taken into account.

1.10.In the construction of roads in difficult engineering and geological conditions, when the period of stabilization of the roadbed is much higher than the specified construction time, it is allowed to provide for the stage construction of pavement,

1.11.Automobile roads of I-III categories should, as a rule, be laid out bypassing populated areas with the construction of entrances to them. In order to ensure the further possible reconstruction of roads, the distance from the edge of the roadway to the settlement construction line should be taken in accordance with their master plans, but not less than 200 m.

In some cases, when feasibility studies have been made for the feasibility of I-III categories through settlements, they should be designed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.07.01-89 *.

1.12.Number of lanes of roads with a multi-lane carriageway, measures for the protection of the natural environment, selection of solutions for intersections and junctions of roads, construction of road clothes, elements of the environment, engineering devices( including fencing, bicycle paths, lighting and communications)and structures of road and motor transport services with a view to reducing non-recurrent costs should be taken in consideration of the staginess of their construction as the traffic intensity increases. For motor roads of the first category in mountainous and rough terrain, as a rule, separate tracing of the carriageways of counter directions should be envisaged, taking into account the stepwise increase in the number of lanes and the preservation of large independent forms of landscape and natural monuments.

1.13 *.When designing roads, it is necessary to provide measures for the protection of the natural environment, which ensure a minimum violation of existing ecological, geological, hydrogeological and other natural conditions. When developing measures, it is necessary to take into account the careful attitude to valuable agricultural lands, to recreation areas and places of location of medical and preventive institutions and sanatoriums. The location of bridges, constructive and other solutions should not lead to a drastic change in the regimes of rivers, and the construction of a roadbed - to a drastic change in the regime of groundwater and surface water runoff.

The requirements for ensuring the safety of traffic, buildings and structures of road and motor transport services should be met, taking into account the presence of prohibited( dangerous) zones and areas in facilities for the manufacture and storage of explosives, materials and products based on them. The size of the prohibited( dangerous) zones and areas is determined by special regulatory documents approved in accordance with the established procedure, and in agreement with the state supervision bodies, ministries and departments in charge of these facilities.

The impact of vehicle movement( noise, vibration, gas contamination, blinding effect of headlights) on the environment should be considered. The choice of the road should be based on a comparison of options with consideration of a wide range of interrelated technical, economic, ergonomic, aesthetic, environmental and other factors.

Note. The valuable agricultural lands include irrigated, drained and other reclaimed lands occupied by perennial fruit plantations and vineyards, as well as areas with high natural fertility of soils and other lands that are equated to them.

1.14 *.The allotment of land plots for the allocation of roads, buildings and structures of road and motor transport services, drainage, protective and other structures, and lanes for the location of roads running along the roads is carried out in accordance with the current normative documents on land allocation for the construction of highways and road structures.

The land plots allocated for the period of construction of highways for off-road careers and reserves, placement of temporary camps for builders, production bases, access roads and other construction needs are subject to return to land users after bringing them into a state corresponding to the provisions of the current regulatory documents.

2. ORGANIZATION AND SAFETY OF MOVEMENT

2.1.Design solutions of highways should provide: organized, safe, convenient and comfortable traffic of vehicles with design speeds;homogeneous traffic conditions;observance of the principle of visual orientation of drivers;convenient and safe location of junctions and intersections;necessary grip of car tires to the surface of the carriageway;the necessary arrangement of motor roads, including protective road structures;necessary buildings and structures of road and motor transport services, etc.

2.2.When designing the elements of the plan, longitudinal and transverse road profiles according to the norms permitted by 4.21, it is necessary to evaluate design decisions on speed, traffic safety and throughput, including during unfavorable periods of the year.

2.3.When designing roads, it is necessary to develop schemes for arranging road signs with the designation of places and methods for their installation and road marking schemes, including horizontal marking for roads with capital and lightweight road clothes. Marking should be combined with the installation of road signs( especially in areas with long snow cover).When developing schemes for placing technical means for organizing traffic, you should use GOST 23457-86.

To ensure traffic safety, installation of advertising on highways is not allowed.

2.4.Clarified coatings are recommended for the allocation of pedestrian crossings( such as "zebra"), bus stops, transitional-speed lanes, additional lanes on lifts, lanes for car stops, roadways in tunnels and underpasses, railway crossings, small bridges and other sections, where the obstacles are poorly visible against the background of the road surface.

2.5.Stationary electric lighting on highways should be provided on sites within settlements, and if there is a possibility of using existing electrical distribution networks - also on large bridges, bus stops, intersections of roads I and II categories between themselves and with railways, at all connecting branchesnodes of intersections and approaches to them at a distance of not less than 250 m, at ring intersections and on access roads to industrial enterprises or their sectionsand the corresponding feasibility study.

If the distance between adjacent illuminated areas is less than 250 m, it is recommended to arrange continuous road lighting, excluding alternating illuminated and unlit areas.

2.6.Outside built-up areas, the average brightness of coverage of road sections, including large and medium bridges, should be 0.8 cd / m2 on Category I roads, 0.6 cd / m2 on Category II roads, and on connecting branches within traffic interchanges- 0,4 cd / m2.

The ratio of the maximum brightness of the carriageway to the minimum should not exceed 3: 1 on sections of roads of the I category, 5: 1 on the roads of the remaining 'categories.

The indicator of blindness of outdoor lighting installations should not exceed 150.

The average horizontal illumination of driveways up to 60 m under viaducts and bridges in the dark should be 15 lux, and the ratio of maximum illumination to average - no more than 3: 1.

Lighting of road sections within populated areas should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 23-05-95 *, and lighting of road tunnels - in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 32-04-97.

Lighting installations of intersections of roads and railways in one level must comply with the norms of artificial lighting, regulated by the system of safety standards for rail transport.

2.7.Supports of luminaries on the roads should, as a rule, be located behind the edge of the roadbed.

It is allowed to locate the supports on a dividing strip with a width of at least 5 m with the installation of fences.

Light and light signals located on bridges across navigable waterways shall not interfere with skippers in orientation and impair the visibility of navigable signal lights.

2.8.Inclusion of illumination of road sections should be performed with a decrease in the level of natural illumination up to 15 - 20 lux, and disconnection - at its increase to 10 lux.

At night, the level of outdoor illumination of extended sections of motor roads( length over 300 m) and approaches to bridges, tunnels and intersections of highways with roads and railways should be reduced by turning off not more than half of the lamps. In this case, it is not allowed to switch off two luminaires in succession, as well as those located near the branch;abutments, tops of the curve in the longitudinal profile with a radius of less than 300 m, pedestrian crossing, stopping public transport, on a curve in plan with a radius of less than 100 m.

2.9.The power supply to lighting installations of roads must be carried out from the electrical distribution networks of the nearest settlements or networks of the nearest manufacturing enterprises.

The power supply to lighting installations of railway crossings should, as a rule, be carried out from the electrical networks of railways, if these sections of the railway track are equipped with longitudinal power lines or electric lock lines.

Management of outdoor lighting networks should be provided by a centralized remote control or use the capabilities of outdoor lighting control facilities of the nearest settlements or production facilities.

2.10.The projects of highways of I-IV categories in terms of traffic safety should be coordinated with the bodies of the State Traffic Inspectorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

3. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENT

3.1.When choosing route options and road design, in addition to technical and economic indicators, it is necessary to take into account the degree of road impact on the environment both during construction and during operation, as well as the combination of the road with the landscape, preferring solutions that have minimal impact on the surrounding natural environmentWednesday.

When comparing route variants and design solutions, the value of occupied land should be taken into account, as well as the costs of bringing the temporarily allocated areas for construction purposes into a state suitable for use in the national economy.

3.2.The construction of roads, the allocation of artificial and roadside facilities, production bases, access roads and other temporary structures for construction needs should be carried out taking into account the conservation of valuable natural landscapes, forests, and breeding, feeding and migration routes for wild animals, birdsand inhabitants of the aquatic environment.

On the agricultural land of the route, if possible, it should be laid along the boundaries of crop rotation fields or farms.

It is not allowed to lay trails on state reserves and wildlife preserves, protected tracts and zones classified as monuments of nature and culture.

Along the rivers, lakes and other waterways of the route should be laid, as a rule, outside the specially designated protective zones for them.

In the areas of accommodation of resorts, holiday homes, boarding houses, pioneer camps, etc., the tracks must be laid outside the sanitary zones around them, or protective measures should be developed in the projects.

3.3.For forest tracts, motorways should be laid, if possible, using glades and fire breaks, the boundaries of enterprises and forestries, taking into account the category of forest protection and environmental survey data.

The direction of motor roads of I - III categories in forest areas should, as far as possible, coincide with the direction of the prevailing winds in order to ensure natural airing and reduce snow cover.

3.4.From the lands occupied under the road and its construction, as well as temporarily occupied for the period of the construction of the road, the fertile layer of the soil must be removed and used to increase the fertility of low-productivity agricultural lands or objects of forestry enterprises.

3.5.The fertile layer of soil that possesses favorable physical and chemical properties( GOST 17.5.1.03-86), with granulometric composition from clay to sandy loam, without clearly expressed gleying, with a density of no more than 1.4 g / cm3, is subject to removal. The presence of solonets and solonchaks on the soil cover should not exceed the values ​​established in GOST 17.5.1.03-86.

The fertile soil layer is not removed if the terrain does not allow it to be removed, as well as in areas with access to the surface of rock outcrops, boulders, large( over 0.5 m) stones.

3.6.On the roads within the water protection zones, an organized collection of water from the surface of the carriageway should be provided, followed by its cleaning or removal to places that exclude contamination of water supply sources.

3.7.When laying roads through populated areas and agricultural lands, especially in arid areas with broad-leaved crops( cotton), pest-affected( spider mites) multiplying on plants in conditions of heavy dust, it is necessary to cover road clothes and the type of roadside reinforcement that exclude dust formation.

3.8.When designing roads, it is necessary to provide for linking their construction with reclamation works.

3.9.When traversing settlements, motor roads should, if possible, be laid on the leeward side, focusing on the direction of the wind in especially unfavorable autumn-winter periods of the year from the point of view of air pollution, and in order to protect the population from traffic noise, provide a buffer zone between the motorway and buildings, taking into accountmaster plan for the development of the settlement.

In cases when the road noise level in the built-up adjoining territory exceeds the permissible sanitary standards, it is necessary to provide for special noise protection measures( the laying of roads in the excavations, the construction of noise-protecting earth walls, barriers and other structures, planting of special green plantations, etc..), providing a reduction in the noise level to the values ​​regulated by the sanitary norms, and also to provide road coverings, when driving cars bytorym noise has the smallest value.

3.10.If the erection of the roadbed( irrespective of the height of the embankment) creates the danger of flooding with surface waters and swamping of adjacent lands, the project should provide for drainage structures that guarantee the existing conditions for the growth of crops or forest plantations before construction( or better).

3.11.When designing embankments through bogs with a transverse( in relation to the road route) movement of water in the water-saturated horizon, the project should provide for measures that exclude the increase in the water level and the bogging area in the upper part of the swamp by filling the embankment or its lower part from drainage materials,liners of longitudinal ditches, and in lowered places, if necessary, - artificial structures, etc.

3.12.In the presence of soil that can not be used to fill embankments, they should cover the tops of the ravines( with their simultaneous fixation), erosion rills, dumps and other inconveniences, followed by sealing and surface planning.

3.13.When laying the route of roads III-V categories for arable land irrigated or drained by land, as well as for lands used for valuable crops( orchards, vineyards, etc.), the roadbed should be designed without the provision of reserves and cavaliers.

3.14.When determining the places of passage through waterways, the choice of structures and openings of artificial structures, especially on sloping sections of roads, along with the technical and economic feasibility of construction, it is necessary to address the protection of fields from erosion and siltation, waterlogging, disturbance of vegetation and turf cover, disturbance of the hydrological regime of the watercourse andnatural groundwater level, protection against erosion and destruction.

3.15.When constructing roads, maximum use should be made of dumps and industrial solid waste from mining, processing industry, thermal power plants( granulated slags, ash and ash-and-slag mixtures of thermal power plants, coal cleaning waste, phosphorite "tailings", belite sludges, etc., located in the construction zone.).When using industrial waste, one should take into account their aggressiveness and toxicity in relation to the natural environment.

3.16.For places of unstable and particularly sensitive ecological systems( perennial frozen water-saturated soils, marshes, floodplains, landslide slopes, etc.), the project should provide for measures that ensure minimal disruption of the ecological balance. The list of measures is established by individual feasibility studies.

3.17.When crossing roads by the ways of animal migration, it is necessary to develop special measures to ensure their safe and unhindered movement.

3.18.When designing production bases, buildings and structures of road and motor transport services, it is necessary to develop measures ensuring compliance with the maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants in ambient air, water bodies, soil, etc.

4. BASIC TECHNICAL STANDARDS
AND TRANSPORT-OPERATIONAL
INDICATORS

DESIGN SPEEDS AND LOADS

4.1 *.Estimated speed is considered the highest possible( in terms of stability and safety) speed of single vehicles under normal weather conditions and the adhesion of car tires to the surface of the carriageway, which in the most unfavorable sections of the track corresponds to the maximum permissible values ​​of road elements.

Note. The normal condition for the adhesion of car tires to the surface of the carriageway is provided on a clean dry or wetted surface having a coefficient of longitudinal adhesion at a speed of 60 km / h for a dry state of 0.6, and for a humidified surface, in accordance with Table.46 - in the summer season at an air temperature of 20 ° C, a relative humidity of 50%, a meteorological visibility range of more than 500 m, no wind and an atmospheric pressure of 1013 MPa( 760 mm Hg).

Estimated speeds for the design of plan elements, longitudinal and transverse profiles, as well as other elements that depend on the speed of movement, should be taken from Table.3.

Table 3

Road category

Estimated speeds, km / h

basic

allowed on difficult
terrain areas

crossed

mining

I

150

120

80

120

100

60

II

120

100

60

III

100

80

50

IV

80

60

40

V

60

40

30

The design speeds set inTable.3 for difficult sections of the crossed and mountainous terrain, it is allowed to take only with the appropriate feasibility study taking into account local conditions for each specific section of the projected road.

Estimated speeds on adjacent sections of roads should not differ by more than 20%.

When developing projects for the reconstruction of highways in accordance with the norms of categories I and II, it is permissible, with the appropriate technical and economic justification, to preserve the elements of the plan, longitudinal and transverse profiles( except for the number of lanes) in some sections of existing roads, if they correspond to the design speed established forroads of the III category, and according to the norms of III, IV categories - accordingly to the category below.

When designing access roads to industrial enterprises in accordance with the norms of I-b and II categories, if there are more than 70% of trucks in the traffic, or when the road is less than 5 km, the design speeds corresponding to category III should be taken.

Notes: 1. The relief, cut by often alternating deep valleys, with a difference in marks of valleys and watersheds of more than 50 m at a distance of no more than 0.5 km, with lateral deep beams and ravines, with unstable slopes belongs to difficult sections of rough terrain. The difficult sections of the mountainous terrain include sections of passes through mountain ranges and areas of mountain canyons with complex, heavily-cut or unstable slopes.

2 *.In the presence of capital high-cost structures and forest tracts along the highway, as well as in cases where roads intersect lands occupied with particularly valuable crops and gardens, with the appropriate feasibility study( according to § 1.9), it is permissible to take the design speeds established in Table 1.3 for difficult sections of rough terrain.

4.2 *.The load on the single most loaded axle of a biaxial vehicle for calculating the strength of pavement should be taken for roads:

I-II categories

115 kN( 11.5 tons)

III-IV categories

100 kN( 10 tc)

V category

60 kN(6 tons)

If vehicles with axial loads of more than 60 kN( 6 ton-force) are not expected to travel on Category IV roads, they should be designed for a load of 60 kN( 6 tons).

4.3.Calculation of the strength of road clothes for the loads indicated in clause 4.2 * should be made according to the instructions for the design of the structures and the calculation of the pavement and the directions of section.7.

BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE
CROSS-SECTION PROFILE

4.4.The main parameters of the transverse profile of the roadway and the roadbed of motor roads, depending on their category, should be taken from Table.4*.

Table 4 *

Road Element Parameters

Road Categories

I-a

II

III

IV

V

Number of lanes

4;6;8

4;6;8

2

2

2

1

Width of lanes, m

3.75

3.75

3.75

3,5

3

-

Width of the roadway, m

2'7,5;

2'7.5;

7.5

7

6

4.5

2'11.25;

2'11.25;

2'15

2'15

Width of the roadside, m

3.75

3.75

3.75

2.5

2

1.75

The smallest width of the reinforced curb strip, m

0.75

0.75

0,7

0,5

0,5

-

The smallest width of the separation strip between different directions of movement, m

6

5

-

-

-

-

The smallest width of the reinforced strip on the dividing strip, m

1

1

-

-

-

-

Width of the roadbed, m

28,5;36;43.5

27.5;35;42,5

15

12

10

8

Note - In justified cases, on roads of category II, a four-lane carriageway with a lane width of 3.5 m is allowed with a design speed of not more than 100 km / h.

4.5.On road sections Ia, I-b and II, where the traffic intensity for the first five years of road operation reaches 50% or more of the estimated prospective, in the areas identified and justified by the project, as well as in intersections, junctions and ramps from roads Ia, I-b and II categories( on which there is no provision for transitional-speed strips) on the roadsides at a distance of not less than 100 m in both directions, provision should be made for stopping strips 2.5 m wide in accordance with paragraph 7.31.

Coatings on the roadsides and reinforced strips of dividing strips should differ in color and appearance from the roadway coverings or be separated by marking. The side of the road must have access to vehicles for its strength.

4.6 *.The number of lanes on the roads of the I category should be set depending on traffic intensity and terrain according to Table.5.

The construction of roads with a multi-lane carriageway should be justified by comparison with road construction options in separate directions.

If data are available, the number of lanes can be set depending on the estimated hourly traffic intensity( § 1.5), the traffic load factor of the road and the estimated lane capacity.

Table 5

Terrain

Intensity
movement,
pref.unit / day

Number of lanes

Plain and cross

St 14000 to 40000

4

»40000» 80000

6

»80000

8

Mining

St 14000 to 34000

4

» 34000 »70000

6

» 70000

8

4.7.Additional lanes of the carriageway for freight traffic in the direction of ascent with a mixed traffic stream composition should be envisaged in the sections of roads of the II category, with a traffic intensity exceeding 4000 arrivals.unit / day( achieved in the first five years of operation), as well as category III, with a longitudinal slope of more than 30 ° / o and a length of the section exceeding 1 km, and with a slope of more than 40 ° / °, for a length of the section exceeding 0.5 km.

The width of the additional lane should be taken equal to 3.5 m throughout the climb.

The length of the additional strip after the lift should be taken from Table.6.

The transition to the broadened roadway should be carried out on a 60 m long section.

4.8.The width of the roadway within the middle part of the concave curves in the longitudinal profile that mate the sections of longitudinal slopes with an algebraic difference of 60 ° / °° or more should be increased on each side for roads of II and III categories by 0.5 m, and for roads IV and IIIV categories - by 0.25 m in comparison with the norms given in Table.4*.

The length of the sections with the broadened carriageway must be at least 100 m for roads II and III, for roads of IV and V categories - not less than 50 m.

The transition to the broadened roadway should be carried out on a 25 m section for roads II and IIIcategories and on a site of 15 m - for roads of IV and V categories.

Table 6

Intensity of movement in the direction of rise, pref.unit / day

4000

5000

6500

8000 or more

Total length of the strip outside the lift, m

50

100

150

200

4.9.On sections of roads of category V with slopes of more than 60 ° / ° o in places with unfavorable hydrological conditions and with easily eroded soils, with a reduced width of roadsides, a device for traveling should be provided. The distances between the detours must be taken equal to the visibility distance of the oncoming vehicle, but not more than 1 km. The width of the roadway and the roadway at the crossings should be taken according to the norms of the roads of the IV category, and the shortest length of the crossing is 30 m. The transition from the single-lane roadway to the two-lane roadway should be carried out for 10 m.

4.10.The width of roadsides in particularly difficult parts of the mountainous terrain, in areas passing through particularly valuable land, as well as in places with transitional-speed lanes and with additional lanes on the rise, with the appropriate feasibility study, with the development of arrangements for the organization and safety of traffic, is allowedreduce to 1.5 m - for roads Ia, I-b and II categories and up to 1 m - for roads of other categories.

4.11.The width of the dividing strip on road sections, where in the future may require an increase in the number of lanes, should be increased by 7.5 m against the standards given in Table.4 *, and accept equal;For Roads Ia category - not less than 13.5 m, for roads of the I-b category - not less than 12.5 m.

The surfaces of the dividing strips, depending on their width, applied soils, type of strengthening and climatic conditions, are given a slope to the middlethe dividing strip or towards the roadway. When sloping Surface of the dividing strip to the middle for tap water should be provided for the arrangement of special collectors.

4.12.The width of the dividing strip on the sections of roads laid along valuable lands, on particularly difficult sections of roads in the highlands, on large bridges, in the construction of roads in built-up areas, etc., with appropriate feasibility studies, may be reduced to a width equal to the width of the stripfor fencing installation plus 2 m.

The transition from the reduced width of the dividing strip to the width of the strip adopted on the road should be carried out on both sides with a 100: 1 run-off.

Separation strips should be provided with breaks of 30 m in length through 2 to 5 km for the organization of traffic passes for vehicles and for the passage of special vehicles during road repair periods. In periods when they are not used, they should be closed with special removable enclosing devices.

4.13.The width of the embankments of motor roads on top of the length of at least 10 m from the beginning and end of bridges, overpasses should exceed the distance between the railings of the bridge, the overpass to 0.5 m in each direction. If necessary, the corresponding broadening of the subgrade should be carried out;the transition from the broadened subgrade to the normative should be carried out at a length of 15 - 25 m.

4.14.The carriageway should be provided with a gable cross profile on straight sections of roads of all categories and, as a rule, on curves in plan with a radius of 3000 m or more for Category I roads and a radius of 2000 m and more for roads of other categories.

On the curves in the plan with a smaller radius, it is necessary to provide for the device of the carriageway with a single cross-sectional profile( bends) based on the conditions for ensuring the safety of the vehicles with the highest speeds at given radii of the curves.

4.15.The transverse slopes of the carriageway( except for the sections of the curves in the plan, on which the device is designed for bends) should be assigned depending on the number of lanes and climatic conditions according to Table.7.

Table 7

Road category

Transverse slope

Road climatic zones

I

II, III

IV

V

Ia and Ib:

a) for the gable cross-section of each carriageway

15

20

25

15

b) for the single-skin profile:

first and second bands from the

15

20

20

15

separation strip third and subsequent strips

20

25

25

20

II-IV

15

20

20

15

Note. On gravel and crushed stone, a transverse slope takes 25-30 o / oo, and on coverings of soils reinforced with local materials and on pavements made of crushed and cobblestone - 30-40 o / oo.

4.16.The transverse slopes of the curbs with a gable cross profile should be taken at 10-30 o / oo greater than the transverse slopes of the roadway. Depending on the climatic conditions and the type of strengthening of the roadside, the following values ​​of the transverse slopes are allowed, o / oo:

30 - 40 - with strengthening with the use of binders;

40 - 60 - when reinforced with gravel, crushed stone, slag or paving stone materials and concrete slabs;

50 - 60 - with strengthening by sowing or sowing of grasses.

For areas with a short duration of the snow cover and the absence of ice for the roadsides, strengthened by sodding, a slope of 50 to 80 ° / °° may be allowed.

Note. When the earth is made from coarse and medium-grained sands, as well as from heavy loamy loams and clays, the slope of the roadsides, strengthened by the sowing of grasses, can be assumed equal to 40 ° / °°.

4.17.Crosswise slopes of the carriageway on bends should be assigned depending on the radii of the curves in the plan according to Table.8.

If two adjacent curves in a plan facing one side are located close to each other and there is no straight insert between them or the length is small, the single-track cross-section should be taken continuously throughout.

Table 8

Radii of curves in plan, m

Transverse slope of the roadway on bends,

main / most common

in areas with frequent ice

on roads I - V of categories

on access roads to industrial enterprises

From 3000 to 1000 for roadsI category

20-30

-

20-30

From 2000 to 1000 for roads of II-V categories

20-30

-

20-30

1000 to 800

30-40

-

30-40

»800 »700

30-40

20

30-40

» 700 »650

40-50

20

40

» 650 »600

50-60

20

40

» 600 »500

60

20-30

40

»500» 450

60

30-40

40

»450» 400

60

40-60

40

»400 and less

60

60

40

Note. The smaller values ​​of the transverse slopes in the bends correspond to the larger radii of the curves, and the larger ones to the smaller.

In areas with insignificant duration of snow cover and rare cases of ice, the maximum transverse slope of the roadway on bends can be taken up to 100 ° / °°.

In particularly difficult areas, according to the conditions of construction or terrain, it is allowed to develop individual projects of bends with variable transverse slopes( such as a "step-turn") and a broadened roadway.

4.18 *.The transition from a two-track road profile to a single-track profile should be carried out during the transition curve, and in the absence of it( in road reconstruction) - on the straight line adjacent to the curve, equal to the length of the transition curve.

The bends on multi-lane roads of the first category, as a rule, should be designed with separate transverse slopes for the carriageways of different directions and with the necessary measures for diversion of water from the carriageways and dividing strip.

The transverse slope of the roadsides on the bend should be assumed to be the same with the slope of the roadway. The transition from the normal slope of the roadside with a gable profile to the slope of the roadway should be made, as a rule, for 10 m before the start of the bend.

The additional longitudinal slope of the outer edge of the carriageway in relation to the projected longitudinal slope in the sections of the turnaround should not exceed, for / roads:

I - II categories

5

III - V categories in the plain

10

III - V categories in the highlands

20

4.19.At radiuses of curves in the plan of 1000 m and less it is necessary to provide for the widening of the carriageway from the inside by the roadsides so that the width of the roadsides is not less than 1.5 m for roads of the I and II categories and not less than 1 m for the roads of other categories.

The values ​​of the full broadening of the two-lane roadway on the rounds should be taken from Table.9.

Table 9

Radii of curves in plan, m

The value of the broadening, m, for cars and road trains
with the distance from the front bumper to the rear axle
of a car or road train, m

of cars - 7 or less,
of road trains - 11 or less

13

15

18

1000

-

-

-

0,4

850

-

0,4

0,4

0,5

650

0,4

0,5

0,5

0,7

575

0,5

0,6

0,6

0,8

425

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.9

325

0.6

0.8

0.9

1.1

225

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.5

140

0.9

1.4

1.5

2.2

95

1.1

1.8

2.0

3.0

80

1.2

2.0

2.3

3.5

70

1.3

2.2

2.5

-

60

1.4

2.8

3.0

-

50

1, 5

3.0

3.5

-

40

1.8

3.5

-

-

30

2.2

-

-

-

In case of insufficient width of the roadside to accommodate the widening of the carriageway, in accordance with these conditions, appropriate broadening of the roadbed should be provided. The widening of the carriageway must be carried out proportionally to the distance from the beginning of the transition curve so that the values ​​of the total broadening are reached at the beginning of the circular curve.

The size of the full width of the roadway for roads with four lanes and more should be increased according to the number of lanes, and for single-lane roads - to be reduced by 2 times compared to the norms of Table.9.

In a mountainous area, as an exception, it is allowed to place the roadway widening on the curves in the plan, partly from the outside of the rounding.

The expediency of applying curves with roadway broadenings of more than 2 to 3 m should be justified in the project by comparison with the variants of increasing the radii of the curves in the plan, in which no device for such broadening is required.

PLAN AND LONGITUDINAL PROFILE

4.20 *.Planning of the plan and longitudinal profile of roads should be made from the condition of least restriction and speed change, ensuring safety and convenience of movement, possible reconstruction of the road beyond the prospective period in accordance with 1.7.When assigning plan elements and longitudinal profile, the main parameters should be as follows:

longitudinal slopes - no more than 30 o / oo;

the distance of visibility for stopping the car is at least 450 m;

radiuses of curves in the plan - not less than 3000 m;

radiuses of curves in the longitudinal profile:

convex - not less than 70 000 m;

concave - not less than 8000 m;

length curves in the longitudinal profile:

convex - at least 300 m;

concave - not less than 100 m.

Fractures of the project line in the longitudinal profile should be conjugated with curves.

In all cases where it is possible to get to the road from roadside lanes of people and animals by local conditions, it is necessary to provide lateral visibility of the strip adjacent to the road at a distance of 25 m from the edge of the carriageway for roads I - III categories and 15 m for roads IV and Vcategories.

4.21.If it is not possible to meet the requirements of 4.20 * according to the conditions of the locality, or their implementation is associated with significant work volumes and the cost of road construction, it is allowed to reduce the standards on the basis of a technical and economic comparison of options when designing, taking into account the instructions in paragraphs.1.9 and 2.2.In this case, the maximum permissible standards should be taken from Table.10 based on the estimated speed of movement by road category, given in Table.3.

Notes: 1. In cases where there is a need to drastically change the direction of roads of II-V categories in mountain conditions, a serpentine device is allowed.

2. In especially difficult conditions of mountainous terrain( except for places with absolute marks more than 3000 m above sea level) for sections with a length of up to 500 m, with the appropriate justification, taking into account clause 1.9, the greatest longitudinal deviations against the norms of Table 1 are allowed.10, but not more than 20 o / oo.

3. When designing the roadway of the first category of roads in mountainous terrain and rugged terrain, for the direction of climbing and descent, longitudinal slopes for the directions of descents are allowed to be increased in comparison with the slopes for upward movement, but not more than 20%.

4. When designing road sections for tunnels in a mountainous area, the maximum allowable length of a longitudinal slope should not exceed 45 ° / °° within 250 m from the portal of the tunnel.

4.22.Transitional curves should be provided for the radiuses of the curves in terms of 2000 m or less, and on access roads of all categories - 400 m or less. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the instructions of the subsection "Landscape Design".The smallest lengths of the transition curves should be taken from Table.11.

4.23.The greatest longitudinal slopes on the sections of the curves in terms of small radii should be reduced in comparison with the norms of Table.10 according to Table.12.

4.24.The width of the clearing strips of the forest and shrubbery, the amount of cut off of the slopes of the excavation and the distance of the transfer of structures on the sections of the curves in the plan from the inside in order to ensure visibility should be determined by calculation;while the cutting level of the slopes of the recess should be taken equal to the level of the edge of the roadbed.

Estimated speed, km / h

Maximum longitudinal slopes, km / h

The shortest visibility distances, m

The smallest radius of the curves, m

for stopping the

on the

oncoming vehicle

in the

longitudinal profile

main

in the highlands

convex

concave

basic

in the highlands

150

30

300

-

1200

1000

30000

8000

4000

120

40

250

450

800

600

15000

5000

2500

100

50

200

350

600

400

10000

3000

1500

80

60

150

250

300

250

5000

2000

1000

60

70

85

170

150

25

2500

1500

600

50

80

75

130

100

100

1500

1200

400

40

90

55

110

60

60

1000

1000

300

30

100

45

90

30

30

600

600

200

Note. The smallest visibility distance for stopping should ensure the visibility of any objects having a height of 0.2 m and more, located in the middle of the lane, from the height of the driver's eyes 1.2 m from the surface of the carriageway.

4.25.The length of the section with a long slope in the mountain conditions is determined depending on the slope, but not more than the values ​​given in Table.13.


Table 10


Table 11

Radius of the circular curve, m

30

50

60

80

100

150

200

250

300

400

500

600-1000

1000-2000

Length of the transition curve, m

30

35

40

45

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

100


Table 12

Radius of the curve in the plan, m

50

45

40

35

30

Reduction of the maximum longitudinal slopes against the norms indicated in Table.10, о / оо, not less

10

15

20

25

30

Table 13

Longitudinal slope, о / оо

Length of the section, m, at altitude, m

1000

2000

3000

4000

60

2500

2200

1800

1500

70

2200

1900

1600

1300

80

2000

1600

1500

1100

90

1500

1200

1000

-

4.26.On difficult sections of roads in the highlands, long slopes( more than 60 ° / °°) are allowed with mandatory inclusion of areas with reduced longitudinal slopes( 20 о / оо and less) or sites for stopping cars with distances between them no longer than the lengths indicated in the tables.13.

The dimensions of the stopping areas for cars are determined by calculation, but they must be assigned to at least 3 to 5 trucks, and the choice of their location is determined from the safety conditions of the parking lot, which excludes the possibility of talus, rockfalls, and, as a rule, water sources.

Regardless of the presence of sites on long descents with slopes of more than 50 ° / °°, emergency shuttles should be provided, which are arranged in front of curves of small radii located at the end of the descent, as well as in direct descent sections every 0.8-1.0 km. Elements of emergency shutdowns are determined by calculation from the condition of safe stopping of the road train.

4.27.The design rules for serpentine should be taken from Table.14.

Table 14

Parameters of serpentine elements

Design rules for serpentine at the estimated speed, km / h

30

20

15

The smallest radius of the curves in the plan, m

30

20

15

Transverse slope of the roadway on the bend, as /

60

60

60

Transitional curve length, m

30

25

20

Roadway widening, m

2,2

3,0

3,5

The greatest longitudinal slope within serpentine, о / оо

30

35

40

Note. Serpentines with a radius of less than 30 m are allowed only on the roads of IV and V categories with the prohibition of the movement of road trains with a length exceeding 11 m.

4.28.The distance between the end of the conjugate curve of one serpentine and the beginning of the conjugate curve of the other should be taken as large as possible, but not less than 400 m for roads of II and III categories, 300 m for IV roads and 200 m for V roads.

4.29.The roadway on serpentines can be widened by 0.5 m due to the outer roadside, and the remaining part of the broadening should be provided due to the inner shoulder and additional broadening of the roadbed.

LANDSCAPE DESIGN

4.30.The roadway should be designed as a smooth line in the space with the interconnection of the elements of the plan, longitudinal and transverse profiles between each other and the surrounding landscape, with an assessment of their influence on traffic conditions and visual perception of the road.

To ensure the smoothness of the road, the principles of landscape design and the use of rational combinations of plan elements and longitudinal profile are necessary.

The smoothness of the road should be checked by calculation through the apparent curvature of the leading line and the apparent width of the carriageway at the extreme point in the picture plane. To evaluate the visual clarity of the road, it is recommended to build perspective images of the road.

For roads of the 1st and 2nd categories, the combination of longitudinal slopes, curves in plan and longitudinal profile with such values ​​that give the impression of failures is not allowed.

4.31.Curves in the plan and longitudinal profile, as a rule, should be combined. In this case, the curves in the plan should be 100-150 m longer than the curves in the longitudinal profile, and the displacement of the vertices of the curves should be no more than 1/4 of the length of the smaller of them.

The conjugation of the ends of the curves in the plan should be avoided with the beginning of the curves in the longitudinal profile. The distance between them should be at least 150 m. If the curve in the plan is located at the end of the descent with a length of more than 500 m and with a slope of more than 30 ° / °, its radius should be increased by at least 1.5 times in comparison with the values ​​givenin Table.10, with the alignment of the curve in the plan and the concave curve in the longitudinal profile at the end of the descent.

4.32.The length of straight lines in the plan should be limited according to Table.15.

The total length of the lines that are conjugated to the short curve in the plan should also be limited.

Table 15

Road category

Limit length of the straight line in plan, m, in terrain

plain

crossed

I

3500-5000

2000-3000

II, III

2000-3500

1500-2000

IV, V

1500-2000

1500

Note. Large lengths of straight lines are permissible for predominantly passenger traffic, while smaller lengths for freight.

4.33.The radii of adjacent curves in the plan should differ by no more than 1.3 times. Parameters of adjacent transition curves when conjugating curves are recommended to be assigned the same.

4.34.At small angles of road turn in the plan it is recommended to apply the following radii of circular curves.

Angle of rotation, degree

1

2

3

4

The smallest radius of the circular curve, m

30000

20000

10000

6000

Turning angle, m

5

6

7-8

The smallest radius of the circular curve, m

5000

3000

2500

4.35.It is not recommended to have a short straight insert between two curves in a plan directed to one side. With a length of less than 100 m, it is recommended to replace both curves with one curve of a larger radius, with a length of 100-300 m it is recommended to replace the straight insert with a transition curve of a larger parameter. Direct insertion as an independent element of the route is allowed for roads of I and II categories with a length of more than 700 m, for roads of III and IV categories - more than 300 m.

4.36.Do not allow long straight inserts in the longitudinal profile. The limiting lengths are given in Table.16.

Table 16

Radius
concave
curve
in the longitudinal
profile, m

Algebraic difference
longitudinal slopes,

20

30

40

50

60

80

100

Maximum length of the straight insert
in the longitudinal profile, m

For roads of the I and II categories

4000

150

100

50

0

0

0

-

8000

360

250

200

170

140

110

-

12000

680

500

400

350

250

200

-

20000

-

850

700

600

550

-

2000

120

100

50

0

0

0

0

6000

550

440

320

220

140

60

0

10000

-

-

-

-

900

800

-

For Category III and IV roads,

2000

120

100

50

0

0

0

0

6000

550

440

320

220

140

60

0

10000

-

-

680

600

420

300

200

15000

-

-

-

-

-

800

600

BICYCLE TRACKS AND SIDROOMS

4.37.Bicycle lanes should be designed along the constructed or reconstructed roads in areas where traffic intensity reaches at least 4000 bells.unit / day, and the intensity of cycling or mopeds in the first five years of road operation will reach 200 bicycles( mopeds) in one direction and more in 30 minutes with the most intensive traffic or 1000 units per day.

Bicycle lanes, as a rule, should be designed for unilateral movement of at least 2.2 m wide on an independent earthen cloth, at the base of embankments or outside the slopes of excavations, and also on specially arranged berms( in exceptional cases - at a distance of not less than 1 mfrom the edge of the roadway).

Single-lane bicycle lanes should normally be located on the windward side of the road( in relation to the prevailing winds in summer), and two-lane bike lanes on both sides of the road.

In cramped conditions and approaches to man-made structures, it is permissible to install bicycle paths on the roadside. In these cases, the curbs should be separated from the roadway by a curb height of 0.20-0.25 m, and the track should be located at a distance of at least 0.75 m from the vertical border of the curb.

4.38.Coverings of bicycle paths should be provided from materials treated with astringents, as well as from gravel, gravel, dirt, brick, burnt rocks and slag, and in the absence of these materials, with appropriate technical and economic justification, from asphalt concrete and cement concrete.

4.39.On road sections within populated areas, and with a calculated traffic intensity 4000 pref.units / day and more, also on the approaches to them should be provided for sidewalks, placing them, as a rule, outside the roadbed.

Sidewalks should be designed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.07.01-89 *.

5. INTERFERENCE AND CROSSING

AUTOMOBILE ROAD TRANSPORT AND LOCATION 5.1.Crossings and junctions of highways, as a rule, should be located on free areas and on straight sections of intersecting or adjoining roads.

The longitudinal slopes of roads on approaches to intersections over distances of visibility for stopping the car( according to Table 10) should not exceed 40 о / оо.

5.2 *.Crossings of roads and junctions in different levels( traffic junctions) should normally be taken in the following cases:

on roads I-a category with roads of all categories and on roads I-b and II categories with roads of II and III categories;

at the intersections of roads of the III category among themselves and their junctions with the prospective traffic intensity at the intersection( in the sum for both crossing or adjoining roads) more than 8000 pref.units / day with the appropriate feasibility study.

Transport interchanges should be designed in such a way that on the roads of the first and second categories there are no left turns, as well as entrances and exits with left turns, at which the flows of the main directions of traffic intersect at one level.

Note *.On the roads of the I-b and II categories, with the appropriate feasibility study, a third-class road junction is allowed in one level( with mandatory left-hand drive or traffic light regulation).

5.3.Pedestrian crossings in different levels( underground or aboveground) through roads I-b and II categories should be designed with a traffic intensity of 100 man-hours and more - for roads I-b category and 250 man-hours and more - for roads of category II.Pedestrian fences should be provided at the location of such crossings.

5.4.The number of intersections and junctions on the roads of I-III categories should be as small as possible. Crossings and junctions on roads l-a category outside the limits of settlements should be provided, as a rule, not more often than 10 km, on the roads of I-b and II categories - 5 km, and on roads of III category - 2 km.

5.5.All congresses and entrances on approaches to roads of I - III categories should have coatings:

with sandy, sandy loam and light loamy soils - for 100 m;

for chernozems, clay, heavy and silty loamy soils - 200 m.

The length of the coverings of the entrances to the roads of the IV category should be two times less than the entrances to roads of I-III categories.

Sides at the congresses and entrances on the length established in this paragraph should be strengthened by a width of at least 0.5 - 0.75 m.

5.6.Field roads and cattle passages at the intersection with roads of I - III categories should be assigned to the nearest artificial structures with their appropriate arrangement.

In case of absence of such structures on sections of roads with a length of more than 2 km, if necessary, provision should be made for their arrangement.

Dimensions of man-made structures for field roads and cattle trails in the absence of special requirements of interested organizations should be taken from Table.17.

Table 17

Assignment of structures

Width, m

Height, m ​​

For field roads

6

4,5

For cattle run

4

2,5

5.7.Traffic separation schemes at intersections and junctions at the same level as islets and safety zones should be taken with the total prospective traffic intensity from 2000 to 8000 pref.unit / day.

Simple intersections and junctions in the same level should be designed with a total prospective traffic intensity of less than 2000 pref.unit / day.

Circular crossings in one level are allowed to be designed in cases where the dimensions of traffic on intersecting roads are the same or differ by not more than 20%, and the number of cars left-turn traffic is at least 40% on both intersecting roads.

5.8.The allocation of lanes on the main roads by guide islands without elevation above the carriageway should be provided in the form of a marking of the corresponding zones.

5.9.Crossings and junctions of roads in one level, irrespective of the intersection scheme, are recommended to be carried out at a straight or a close angle to it. In cases where traffic flows do not intersect but branch out or merge, it is allowed to arrange intersections of roads from any angle, taking into account visibility.

5.10.The smallest radius of the curves for road junctions at intersections or junctions in the same level should be taken according to the category of the road from which the congress takes place, regardless of the angle of intersection and abutment: at congresses from roads of I and II categories not less than 25 m, from roads of III category -20 m and from the IV, V routes - 15 m.

When calculating for the regular movement of road trains( more than 25% in the composition of the stream), the radiuses of the curves at the congresses should be increased to 30 m.

The mating of roads in one level should be carried out using transitional curves.

5.11.At intersections and junctions of highways in one level, visibility of the crossing or abutting direction to the distance indicated in Table 1 should be provided.10.

The location of junctions on sections of convex curves in the longitudinal profile and from the inside of the roundings in the plan is allowed only in exceptional cases.

5.12.Elements of connecting branches of traffic interchanges in order to reduce the total area of ​​their accommodation should be designed based on variable speed.

The right-hand traffic congresses at intersections at different levels should be designed from the condition of providing design speeds of at least 60 km / h for the congresses from the I and II category roads and at least 50 km / h from the road of the III category, and at sharp corners of the road junctionThey should be performed with a single curve without direct insertion. Conjugations using inverse curves are allowed only in exceptional cases.

The radiuses of the curve of left-hand junctions of intersections and junctions with elements of cloverleaf interchanges should be taken equal to at least 60 m for roads of the I and II categories and not less than 50 m for roads of the III category. Left-handed congresses must be mated with sections of direct directions through the transition curves.

Note. In particularly cramped conditions, when crossing or abutting motor roads of IV and V categories, a device of "crimped" traffic junctions( "cloverleaf" type) is allowed, with a reduction in the radius of the left-hand driveways to 30 m.

Roads of I-III categories and entrances to them should beTo carry out with the device of transitional-high-speed strips according to subitems.5.22 - 5.26.

5.13.The width of the roadway along the entire length of the left-hand congresses of intersections and junctions in different levels should be taken at 5.5 m, and the right-hand ramps - 5.0 m without additional widening on the curves.

The width of the roadside should be at least 1.5 m from the inner side of the rounding, and 3 m on the outer side.

The full width should be covered with the materials specified in 7.53 *.

Longitudinal slopes at the congresses should be taken no more than 40 o / oo. On one-side congresses, it is necessary to envisage the arrangement of bends with a transverse slope of 20-60 o / oo, taking into account the general instructions for their design.

The minimum radii of convex curves in the longitudinal profile at the congresses should be taken in accordance with the design speeds in Table.10.

Two-lane congresses should be designed for roads of the 1st category from the condition that each lane has a width of 3.75 m, and provide for broadening on the curves in accordance with Table.9.

5.14.Roads of transport interchanges through roads of all categories should be designed according to SNiP 2.05.03-84 *.

With the appointment of approaching structures, the possibility of a future road development should be taken into account.


ROAD TRANSPORT WITH
RAILWAY AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

5.15.Crossings of highways with railways should be designed, as a rule, outside the limits of stations and ways of shunting, mainly on the straight sections of intersecting roads. The sharp angle between intersecting roads in one level should not be less than 60 °.

5.16.Crossings of highways of I - III categories with railways should be designed at different levels.

The intersections of highways IV and V of railroads should be designed at different levels from the condition of ensuring traffic safety at:

crossing three or more major railway tracks or when crossing is located on sections of railways with a high speed( over 120 km / h) traffic orat a traffic intensity of more than 100 trains per day;

for the crossing of railroads in the recesses, as well as in cases where visibility standards are not provided in accordance with 5.17;

traffic on the roads of trolleybuses or the arrangement of combined tramways on them.

5.17.On unprotected intersections of highways with railways in one level, visibility should be provided in which the driver of a car located at a distance not less than the distance of visibility for stopping( according to Table 10) could see the train approaching the crossing not less than 400m, and the driver of the approaching train could see the middle of the crossing at a distance of not less than 1000 m.

5.18.The width of the roadway at the intersections at the same level with the railways should be taken equal to the width of the carriageway on the approaches to the intersections, and on the V road of the category - not less than 6.0 m at a distance of 200 m in both directions from the crossing.

The road for at least 2 m from the edge rail must have a horizontal section in the longitudinal profile, a large radius curve or a slope caused by the excess of one rail over the other when the intersection is located at the railroad round-off point.

Approaches to the intersection for 50 m should be designed with a longitudinal slope of no more than 30 ° / °°.

Enclosed pedestals and barrier posts at the intersections should be located at a distance of at least 0.75 m, and the gates of the gates - at least 1.75 m from the edge of the roadway.

5.19.When designing overpasses over railway tracks, along with the requirements for ensuring the dimensions of approaching buildings to the railway tracks, the

must provide the visibility of the path and signals required by the safety of train traffic;

provide for a drainage system taking into account the stability of the roadbed of railways.

5.20.Crossings of motor roads with pipelines( water supply, sewerage, gas pipeline, oil pipeline, heating pipelines, etc.), as well as with communication and power transmission lines should be provided in compliance with the requirements of the relevant regulatory documents for the design of these communications.

Crossings of various underground communications with highways should be designed, as a rule, at right angles. The laying of these communications( except for intersections) under the embankments of roads is not allowed.

5.21.The vertical distance from the wires of telephone and telegraph lines to the roadway at the intersections of highways should be at least 5.5 m( in the warm season).Elevation of wires at crossing with power lines should be, m, not less:

6 -

at voltage up to 1 kV;

7 -

»» »110»;

7,5 -

»» »150»;

8 -

»» »220»;

8,5 -

»» »330»;

9 -

»» »500»;

16 -

»» »750»;

Note. The distance is determined at a higher air temperature without taking into account the heating of the wires by electric current or in the case of ice without wind.

The distance from the edge of the roadbed to the base of the supports of telephone and telegraph lines, as well as high-voltage transmission lines at the intersection of roads should be taken no less than the height of the supports.

The shortest distance from the edge of the roadbed to the supports of high-voltage power lines parallel to the roads should be taken equal to the height of the supports plus 5 m.

The supports of overhead power lines, as well as telephone and telegraph lines, may be located at a lower distance from the roads if located incramped conditions, in built-up areas, in gorges, etc., while the horizontal distance for high-voltage transmission lines should be:

a) when crossingfrom any part of the support to the bottom of the embankment of the road or to the outer edge of the side ditch:

for roads of the I and II categories at a voltage of up to 220 kV - 5 m and at a voltage of 330 - 500 kV - 10 m;

for roads of other categories at voltage up to 20 kV - 1,5 m, from 35 to 220 kV - 2,5 m and at 330 - 500 kV - 5 m;B) with parallel follow-up from the end wire at undeflected position to the edge of the roadbed at a voltage of up to 20 kV - 2 m, 35-110 kV - 4 m, 150 kV - 5 m, 220 kV - 6 m, 330 kV - 8 mand 500 kV - 10 m.

On the roads at the intersections with overhead power lines 330 kV and above, road signs should be installed to prohibit the stopping of vehicles in the guard zones of these lines.

Protected areas of electrical networks with voltages above 1.0 kV are installed:

a) along overhead transmission lines in the form of a land plot or airspace bounded by vertical planes spaced on both sides of the outermost wires at undeflected position at a distance, m:

10

-at voltage up to

20 kV;

15

- »

»

»

35 kV;

20

- »

»

»

110 kV;

25

- »

»

»

150, 220 kV;

30

- »

»

»

330, 500, ± 400 kV;

40

- »

»

»

750, ± 750 kV;

55

- »

»

»

1150 kV;B) along underground cable power lines in the form of a land plot bounded by vertical planes spaced on both sides of the line from the outer cables at a distance of 1 m.

In security zones, construction and reconstruction are carried out on the basis of written consent of the enterprises( organizations) in charge of whichthere are these networks.

TRANSITION-SPEED BANDS

Road categories

Longitudinal slope, o / oo, on

Length of full width strips, m, for

Acceleration and deceleration ramp length, m

descending

lifting

acceleration

braking

I-b and II

40

-

140

110

80

20

-

160

105

80

0

0

180

100

80

-

20

200

95

80

-

40

230

90

80

III

40

-

110

85

60

20

-

120

80

60

0

0

130

75

60

-

20

150

70

60

-

40

170

65

60

IV

40

-

30

50

30

20

-

35

45

30

0

0

40

40

30

-

20

45

35

30

-

40

50

30

30

Note. When pairs of transitional-speed strips are connected with congresses having independent carriageways for turning cars, the length of full-width transitional-speed bands may be reduced in accordance with the design speeds at the congresses, but not less than 50 m for roads of I-b and II categories andup to 30 m for roads of the III category.

5.22.Transit-speed bands should be envisaged at intersections and junctions in one level at the places of congresses on the roads of I-III categories, including buildings and structures located in the roadside zone: on Category I roads at an intensity of 50 pref.units / day and more moving or entering the road( respectively, for the deceleration or acceleration);on roads II and III categories - at an intensity of 200 pref.unit / day or more.

At transport interchanges in different levels, transitional-speed lanes for congresses adjacent to roads of I-III categories are an indispensable element regardless of traffic intensity.

Passing-speed strips on the roads of I-IV categories should be envisaged in the places of the sites for buses and trolley bus stops, and on the roads of I-III categories also at gas stations and recreational areas( at sites not combined with other service facilities,overclocking is allowed not to arrange).

The traffic police posts and control posts in accordance with clause 4.5 should provide stopping strips in length for the standards for acceleration and deceleration.

5.23.The length of the transitional-velocity bands should be taken from Table.18.

The deceleration of the deceleration lanes should be started from a ledge of 0.5 m. When exiting the exit, the end of the crossing-speed strip should be provided.

Table 18

5.24.Transitional-speed strips for left-handed roadways of roads of I and II categories of cloverleaf interchanges should be designed in the form of uniform along the length of lanes for adjacent exits, including the overpass section.

The length of the deceleration bands should be determined on the basis of Table I close to the horizontal and straightforward stretch of highways of the I-a category.19.

Table 19

Elements of deceleration bars

The shortest length of the element of the deceleration bars, m, depending on the design speed, km / h

150

120

80

Stripping line

120

120

100

Full width band at the calculated speed on the ramp, km / h, not less:

80

150

40

0

60

230

120

0

40

280

170

50

Note. In the case of the location of the deceleration bars on curves in the plan or on sections with longitudinal slopes, the length of the full-width braking band should be set by calculation.

5.25.The width of the transitional-velocity bands should be taken equal to the width of the main strips of the carriageway.

The reinforced strips on the roadsides adjacent to the transitional-speed strips should be carried out in accordance with Table.4*.

5.26.The crossing-speed strips in the intersection and junction zone before the mating curves and in the places of bus stops on the roads of I-III categories outside the stopping areas at a length of 20 m should be separated from the main lanes by a 0.75 m dividing strip for roads of I and II categoriesand 0,5 m - for roads of III category. These dividing strips should be provided at the same level as adjacent lanes and be marked out.

Brake bands for left turns at intersections and junctions in the same level of roads of II and III categories are recommended to provide with the device of guide islands, located in one level with adjacent bands and allocated by marking.

6. LAND LOAD

6.1.The roadbed should be designed taking into account the road category, the type of pavement, the height of the embankment and the depth of the excavation, the properties of the soils used in the earthen linen, the conditions for the construction of the canvas, the natural conditions of the construction area and the features of the engineering and geological conditions of the construction site,in the given area, proceeding from maintenance of demanded durability, stability and stability both the earthen cloth, and a road clothes at the least expenses at stages the builderand exploitation, as well as with the maximum preservation of valuable land and the least damage to the natural environment.

6.2.The roadbed includes the following elements:

top of the subgrade( working layer);

the body of the embankment( with sloping parts);

foundation of the embankment( see reference annex 3);

groove base;

sloping parts of the recess;

devices for surface drainage;

devices for lowering or withdrawing groundwater( drainage);

supporting and protective geotechnical devices and structures designed to protect the roadbed from dangerous geological processes( erosion, abrasion, mudflows, avalanches, landslides, etc.).

6.3.The natural conditions of the construction area are characterized by a complex of weather and climate factors, taking into account the division of the territory of the Russian Federation into road and climatic zones in accordance with Table.20 and mandatory application 1.

Table 20

Road climatic zones

Approximate geographical boundaries and a brief description of the road and climatic zones

I

North of the Monchegorsk-Ponoy-Nes-Oshkurya-Dry-Tunguska-Kanssk-state border-Birobidzhan-Castries. Includes the geographic zones of the tundra, forest-tundra and the northeastern part of the forest zone with the spread of the permafrost soils

II

. From the boundary of the 1st zone to the line Lviv-Zhytomyr-Tula-Gorky-Ustinov-Kyshtym-Tomsk-Kansk to the state border. Includes the geographic area of ​​forests with excessive soil moisture

III

From the boundary of Zone II to the line Kishinev-Kirovograd-Belgorod-Kuybyshev-Magnitogorsk-Omsk-Biysk-Guran. Includes a forest-steppe climate zone with significant soil moisture in some years

IV

From the border of the III zone to the Julfa-Stepanakert-Buinaksk-Kizlyar-Volgograd line, then passes south to 200 km from the Uralsk-Aktyubinsk-Karaganda line and to the northern coast of Lake Balkhash. Includes a geographical steppe zone with insufficient moistening of the soils

V

Are located to the south-west and south of the boundary of the IV zone. Includes desert and desert-steppe geographic zones with arid climate and distribution of saline soils

. Notes: 1. The Kuban and the western part of the North Caucasus should be referred to the III road-climatic zone.

2. When designing road sections in frontier zones, when justifying data on groundwater and soil conditions, and also based on the practice of operating roads in the district, design decisions for the adjacent( northern or southern) zone are allowed.

3. In mountainous areas, road and climatic zones should be determined taking into account the altitude location of design objects, taking into account the natural conditions at a given altitude.

Features of the geotechnical conditions of the site should be determined by the type of terrain according to the conditions of moistening of the upper thickness of the soils and the nature of the surface runoff( Table 1 of the mandatory annex 2), the properties and conditions of occurrence of the soils within the strata taken into account in the design, geological, hydrological and permafrostconditions and processes, including the impact of technogenic factors( taking into account the development of the territory), geomorphological features( relief), etc.

According to the humidification conditions of the upper soil thickness, three types of terrain are distinguished:

1st dry plots;

2nd - green areas with excessive moisture in certain periods of the year;

3rd - wet areas with constant excessive moisture.

6.4.When designing the roadbed, standard or individual solutions should be used, including standard solutions with individual binding. Individual solutions, as well as individual binding, typical solutions should be applied with appropriate justifications:

for embankments with a slope height of more than 12 m;

for embankments in temporary flooding areas, as well as for crossing permanent reservoirs and streams;

for embankments constructed in swamps with a depth of more than 4 m with a hatching or in the presence of transverse slopes of the mire bottom more than 1:10;

for mounds constructed on weak substrates( see clause 6.24);

when used in embankments of soils of high humidity;

when the surface of the coating is raised above the calculated water level less than specified in clause 6.10;

when using interlayers of geotextile materials;

for the application of special layers( heat-insulating, waterproofing, draining, capillary interrupting, reinforcing, etc.) to regulate the water-heat regime of the upper part of the roadbed, as well as special transverse profiles;

for the construction of embankments on subsidence grounds;

for excavations with a slope height of more than 12 m in non-clay soils and more than 16 m in rock formations with favorable engineering geological conditions;

for grooves in stratified strata having slopes in the direction of the roadway;

for excavations opening aquifers or having an aquifer in the base, as well as in clay soils with a consistency coefficient of more than 0.5;

for excavations with a slope height of more than 6 m in silty soils in areas of excessive moisture, as well as in clay soils and rocky softened soils that lose strength and stability in slopes under the influence of weather and climate factors;

for grooves in swelling soils under unfavorable moistening conditions;

for embankments and ditches constructed in complex engineering geological conditions: on steep slopes 1: 3, on sites with the presence or possibility of development of landslide phenomena, ravines, karst, landslides, screes, mudflows, snow avalanches, ice, permafrost and t. P.;

when erecting a roadbed with the use of explosions or hydromechanization;

for the design of periodically flooded roads when crossing watercourses;

when applying heat-insulating layers in areas of permafrost.

Individually it is also necessary to design drainage, drainage, supporting, protective and other structures that ensure the stability of the roadbed in difficult conditions, as well as the areas of interface of the roadbed with bridges and overpasses.

GROUNDS

6.5.Soils used in road construction, by origin, composition, condition in natural occurrence, swelling, subsidence and degree of carburizing by ice should be subdivided in accordance with GOST 25100-95.Types of soils by nature and degree of salinity are given in Table.3 of the mandatory Annex 2.

Primers for the upper part of the roadbed should be further subdivided by composition( clayey soils), swelling, relative subsidence and propensity to frost heave, and by ice and subsidence during thawing, in accordance with Table.2, 4 - 10 of the mandatory annex 2.

Soils for the construction of embankments and the working layer are subdivided according to the degree of moistening in accordance with Table.11 of the mandatory annex 2. In this case, to soils with permissible moisture should be attributed soils, the moisture content of which corresponds to the requirements of Table.12 of the mandatory annex 2.

6.6.To special grounds should be attributed: peat and tarred;sapropels;sludge;ioldic clays;loess;argillites and siltstones;marls, clay marls and marly clays;trembling;talc and pyrophyllite;pre-Quaternary clay soils, clayey shales and shale clays;chernozems;sand barchan;technogenic soils( industry waste).

6.7.To weak, it is necessary to refer cohesive soils having a shear strength under natural conditions of less than 0.075 MPa( when the rotor shear is tested by the instrument) or a sedimentation module exceeding 50 mm / m at a load of 0.25 MPa( strain modulus below 5.0 MPa).In the absence of these tests, peat and hacked soils, silt, sapropels, clay soils with a consistency coefficient of more than 0.5, ioldic clays, and soils of wet solonchaks should be classified as weak soils.

6.8.To draining should be attributed soils that have a maximum density at standard compaction according to GOST 22733-2002, the filtration factor is not less than 0.5 m / day.

6.9.Sands with a degree of heterogeneity( according to GOST 25100-95) less than 3, as well as fine sands with a mass content of not less than 90% of particles of size 0.10-0.25 mm should be referred to as homogeneous.

TOP OF THE LAND STRENGTH( WORKING LAYER)

6.10.To ensure the stability and strength of the upper part of the roadbed and pavement, the elevation of the surface of the cover above the calculated level of groundwater, perch or long( more than 30 days) surface water, and above the ground in areas with unsecured surface runoff or above the level for a short time30 days) of standing surface water must meet the requirements of Table.21.

6.11.The elevation of the surface of the coating on sections of embankments designed with steep slopes less than 1: 1.5, as well as with berms, may be specified on the basis of calculation.

6.12.The minimum elevation of the surface of the coating in the I road-climatic zone is established on the basis of thermal engineering calculations( paragraph 6.47), but not less than the norms for the II road-climatic zone.

6.13.If there are various soils in the working layer, the elevation should be assigned to the ground, for which the required elevation is of greatest importance.

6.14.The working layer to a depth of 1.2 m from the surface of cement concrete and to a depth of 1 m of asphalt concrete coverings in the II road and climatic zone and at 1 and 0.8 m respectively in the III road and climatic zone should consist of non-heaped or weakly hedged soils( Table 6and 7 of the mandatory annex 2).If the depth of soil freezing of III-V soil categories is used within 2/3 of the depths, the frost heave should be determined by calculation based on the test results. When designing roads in the II and III zones with a freezing depth of up to 1.5 m, the amount of frost heave can be determined from the table.8 of the mandatory Annex 2.

Under conditions IV and V of the road-climatic zones, the working layer should consist of non-swelling and non-shrinkage soils( Tables 4 and 5 of compulsory Annex 2) to a depth of 1 and 0.8 m from the surface, respectively, of cement-concrete and asphalt-concrete coatings.

Table 21

Primer primer

The lowest surface elevation of the coating, m, within the road and climatic zones

II

III

IV

V

Sand fine, sandy loam light coarse, sandy loam

1,1
0,9

0,9
0,7

0,75
0,55

0,5
0,3

Sandy, silty sandy loam

1,5
1,2

1,2
1,0

1,1
0,8

0,8
0,5

Light loam, heavy loam, clay

2,2
1,6

1,8
1,4

1,5
1,1

1,1
0,8

Sandy loamheavy loadsilty, light loamy loam, loam, heavy silty

2,4
1,8

2,1
1,5

1,8
1,3

1,2
0,8

Notes: 1. Above the dash is an elevationsurface of the cover above the level of groundwater, perch water, or for long( over 30 days) standing surface water, under the same line above the ground in areas with unsecured surface runoff or above short-term( less than 30 days) standing surface water.

2. For the calculated level of groundwater, the maximum possible autumn( before freezing) level should be taken during the period between restoring the strength of road clothes( major repairs).In areas where frequent prolonged thaws are observed, the maximum possible spring level of groundwater for the period between capital repairs should be taken as the settlement level. In regions with a depth of freezing less than the thickness of the pavement, the maximum possible groundwater table should be taken as the maximum possible level of groundwater over the required probability of exceeding during its seasonal maximum. The location of the calculated groundwater level should be determined from the data of one-time short-term measurements for the period of surveys and forecasts made by the VSEGINGEO Institute. In the absence of the specified data, and also in the presence of perchage for settlement, it is allowed to take a level determined by the upper line of gleying of soils.

3. The elevation of the surface of the pavement over the groundwater level or the level of surface water with low- and medium-saline soils should be increased by 20%( for loams and clays - 30%), and in highly saline soils - by 40-60%.

4. In the areas of permanent artificial irrigation, the elevation of the surface of the cover over the winter-spring level of groundwater in IV, V zones should be increased by 0.4 m, and in the third zone by 0.2 m.

6.15.The degree of compaction of the soil of the working layer, determined by the value of the compaction factor( see reference annex 4), should meet the requirements of Table.22.

6.16.While maintaining the stable density and humidity of the soil in the II and III road and climatic zones, a more significant seal of the upper part of the working layer of the roadbed is allowed for justification as a lower structural pavement layer.

6.17.In the IV and V zones, when designing a roadbed, the issue of increasing the density of soils should be considered in comparison with the norms of Table.22 with the appropriate feasibility study and subject to protection of the cohesive swelling soil from pre-moistening during operation. For the V zone, increase the degree of compaction( up to 1 - 1.05) in the upper part of the working layer 0.2-0.3 m thick. The same should be provided on Category I roads in all road and climatic zones.

6.18.The required degree of compaction of coarse clastic natural and technogenic soils in the working layer should be established by the results of a test seal.

6.19.It is not allowed to use special soils within the working layer without special feasibility studies that take into account the results of their direct tests.

6.20.Subject to the requirements of paragraphs.6.10 - 6.15, 6.18 and 6.19, the use of standard constructions of road clothes without frost protection layers and the use of tabulated values ​​of calculated humidity( with account of the calculation scheme of humidification, Table 13 of the mandatory annex 2) and indicators of the mechanical properties of the soils of the working layer in the calculation of road clothes are allowed.

If it is impossible or impractical to meet the requirements of these points, measures should be provided to ensure the strength and stability of the working layer or to enhance pavement:

device frost protection layer;

regulation of the water-thermal regime of the subgrade with the help of waterproofing, heat-insulating, draining or capillary interlayers;

strengthening and improving the soil of the working layer using astringent, granulometric additives, etc.;

application of reinforcing interlayers;

lowering the groundwater level by means of drainage;

application of special widths of the subgrade to protect it from surface water( laid slopes, berms);

construction of road clothes with a technological break or in two stages.

The specified measures should be appointed on the basis of technical and economic calculations.

Table 22

Elements of the road surface

Depth of the layer from the surface of the coating, m

The lowest coefficient of soil compaction for type of road clothes

capital

lightweight and transitional

in the road and climatic zones

I

II, III

IV, V

I

II,

IV, V

Working layer

Up to 1.5

0.98-0.96

1.0-0.98

0.98-0.95

0.95-0.93

0.98-0.93, 95

0.95

Unsinkable part of the mound

St 1,5 to 6

0.95-0.93

0.95

0.95

0.93

0.95

0.90

St. 6

0.95

0.98

0.95

0.93

0.95

0.90

Flooded part of the mound

St 1.5 to 6

0.96-0.95

0.98-0.95

0, 95

0.95-0.93

0.95

0.95

Grade 6

0.96

0.98

0.98

0.95

0.95

0.95

In the working layerseizures below the seasonal freezing zone

Up to 1.2

-

0.95

-

-

0,95-0,92

-

»0,8

-

-

0,95-0,92

-

-

0,90

Notes: 1. Large values ​​of the soil compaction factor should be taken with cement-concrete coatings and cement mortarbases, as well as with lightweight travel clothes, smaller values ​​- in all other cases.

2. In areas of irrigated lands, if wetlands can be wetted, the requirements for soil density for all types of pavements should be assumed to be the same as indicated in columns for II and III road and climatic zones.

3. For the roadbed to be constructed in the areas of high temperature permafrost, the compaction factors should be the same as for road and climatic zone II.

6.21.The working layer should be designed in conjunction with road clothing to obtain the most economical solutions.

The design characteristics of the soils of the working layer should be determined taking into account the design scheme of moistening, established according to Table.13 of the mandatory annex 2.

FISHING 6.22.For embankments in all conditions, it is allowed to apply without restrictions soil and industrial wastes that do not change the strength and stability under the influence of weather and climate factors. Soils, as well as industrial waste, which change the strength and stability under the influence of these factors and loads over time, including special soils, can be applied with limitations, justifying in the project their application with test results. Where necessary, special constructive measures should be envisaged to protect unstable soils from exposure to weather and climate factors.

When using coarse-grained soils, an equalizing layer between embankment and road clothing with a thickness of at least 0.5 m should be provided from a soil with a debris size of not more than 0.2 m.

6.23.At the interface with the bridges of the embankment at a length on top of at least the height of the embankment plus 2 m( counting from the stand) and a bottom of at least 2 m, it is necessary to design from non-hedging drainage soils.

6.24.Mounds should be designed taking into account the bearing capacity of the substrate. The grounds are divided into strong and weak.

To the weak should be attributed the grounds in which within the core there are layers of weak soils with a capacity of at least 0.5 m( clause 6.7).

Note. The thickness of the core should be assumed to be approximately equal to the width of the mound below.

If the layers of weak soils are located at depths greater than the width of the embankment below, and also for embankments with a height of more than 12 m, the core power should be set by calculation.

6.25.The steepness of the slopes of embankments on a solid foundation should be assigned in accordance with Table.23.

6.26.The steepness of the embankments of embankments up to 3 m high on the roads of I-III categories should be assigned taking into account the provision of safe congress of vehicles in emergency situations, as a rule, not steeper than 1: 4, and for roads of other categories, with the height of the embankment slope up to 2 m - not steeper1: 3.On valuable lands, the steepness of the slopes can be increased to the limiting values ​​given in Table.23, with the development of measures to ensure traffic safety.

6.27.Cited in pp.6.25 and 6.26 the steepness of embankment slopes assumes their strengthening by the method of grass-sowing or otnevki. If other more capital methods of strengthening are used, the steepness can be increased with the appropriate feasibility study.

6.28.With weak bases, the use of clayey soils of high humidity in embankments, as well as submerged embankments, the steepness of the slopes is determined on the basis of calculations or the possibility of using a typical transverse profile is checked by calculation.

6.29.When designing the soil reserves, the actual volume of the required soil for embankments Vf should be determined by the formula

Vf = Vk1.

( 1)

where V is the volume of the projected embankment, m3;

k1 is the coefficient of relative compaction( the ratio of the required soil density in the embankment, set taking into account Table 22, to its density in the reserve or quarry to be established in the survey).Approximately the coefficient of relative compaction can be taken from Table.14 of the mandatory annex 2.

Table 23

Soil tops

Maximum steepness of slopes at embankment slope height, m ​​

Up to 6

up to 12

at the bottom of
( 0-6)

at the top of
( 6-12)

Slabs from weakly weathered rocks

1: 1-1: 1.3

1: 1.3-1: 1.5

1: 1.3-1: 1.5

Coarse-grained and sandy( excluding fine and silty sands)

1: 1.5

1: 1, 5

1: 1,5

Sand fine and silty, clayey and loess

1: 1.5
1: 1.75

1: 1.75
1: 2

1: 1.5
1: 1,75

Notes: 1. Below the line are the values ​​for the silicateSoils in the II and III road-climatic zones and for one-dimensional fine sands.

2. The height of the embankment of the embankment is determined by the difference in the marks of the upper and lower slopes of the slope. In the presence of slanting, the height of the embankment of the embankment is determined by the difference in the marks of the upper and lower rivets of the lower slope.

3. The greatest steepness of slopes of mounds from shallow barkhan sands in areas with arid climate should be assigned 1: 2 regardless of height.

6.30.To the mounds on weak grounds additional requirements are laid:

, lateral extrusion of weak soil at the base of the embankment during operation should be avoided;

, the intensive part of the basement deposit must be completed before the covering device( the exception is allowed when using prefabricated coatings in conditions of two-stage construction);

, the elastic vibrations of embankments on peat grounds when moving vehicles should not exceed the value permissible for this type of pavement.

Forecast of stability and settlement of the base of the embankment, as well as its elastic oscillations, should be carried out on the basis of calculations.

Notes: 1. For the completion of the intensive part of the sediment, it is allowed to take the time to reach 90% consolidation of the base or sediment intensity no more than 2.0 cm / year for road clothes of the capital type and 80% consolidation or sediment intensity of not more than 5.0cm / year with lightweight road clothes.

2. Permissible rainfall intensity is allowed to be specified on the basis of experience of operating roads in various natural conditions.

6.31.When designing embankments from soils with a moisture content exceeding the permissible level( Table 12 of compulsory Annex 2), it is necessary to provide measures to ensure the necessary stability of the roadbed. Such measures include:

drainage of soil both naturally and by treatment with active substances such as quicklime, activated fly ash, etc.;

acceleration of the consolidation of soils of high humidity in the lower part of the embankment( horizontal drains from granular or synthetic materials, etc.) and prevention of deformations of embankments associated with their spreading( laying of slopes and protecting them from erosion, the arrangement of horizontal interlayers of granular or synthetic materials andetc.).The arrangement of coatings of road clothes of capital and light types on such embankments is provided after the consolidation of the soil of the embankment is completed.

If the soil moisture content is below 0.9 optimum, special measures should be envisaged in the design for their compaction( moistening, sealing with thinner layers, etc.).

6.32.When designing embankments with a slope height of more than 12 m, depending on the specific conditions, in order to ensure the stability of the embankment and its slopes, it should be determined by calculation:

the possible draft of the embankment due to its compacting under its own weight and the course of this deposit in time;

outline of the transverse profile, providing stability of embankment slopes;

safe load on the base, excluding lateral extrusion processes;

the value and the course in time of the settling of the base of the embankment due to its compaction under load from the weight of the embankment.

6.33.The height of the embankment on the sections of roads passing through the open terrain, according to the condition of snow-unconstrained snowstorm, should be determined by calculation using the formula

h = hs + Dh,

( 2)

where h is the height of the unbearable embankment, m;

hs is the estimated height of the snow cover at the point where the embankment is being built, with a probability of exceeding 5%, m. In the absence of these data, a simplified definition of hs using meteorological directories is allowed;

Dh - elevation of the edge of the embankment above the calculated level of snow cover, necessary for its intangibility, m.

Note. In cases where Dh is less than the elevation of the edge of the mound above the estimated level of the snow cover under the snow blowing conditions Dhsc( see below), in formula( 2) Dhsc is introduced instead of Dh.

The height of the embankment above the calculated level of the snow cover should be assigned, m, not less than:

1,2

- for roads of the I category

0,7

- »» II

0,6

- »» III

0,5

- »» IV

0,4

- »» V

6.34.In areas where the estimated height of the snow cover exceeds 1 m, it is necessary to check the adequacy of the elevation of the embankment above the snow cover by the condition of unobstructed placement of snow that is thrown off the road during snowblowing using the formula

,

( 3)

where - elevation of the embankment above the calculated levelsnow cover according to the snow removal conditions, m;

b - width of the roadbed, m;

a - snow throw distance from the road by a snow blower, m;for roads with a regular winter maintenance regime, it is allowed to take a = 8 m.

PICKS

6.35.The steepness of the slopes of excavations not related to the objects of individual design should be assigned in accordance with Table.24.

Table 24

Soil slopes, m

The greatest slope of the slopes

Rocky:

slightly weathering

Up to 16

1: 0.2

easily weathering

non-softening

Up to 16

1,05-1: 1,5

softenable

Up to 6

1:1

6 to 12

1: 1.5

Coarse-grained

Up to 12

1: 1-1: 1,5

Sandy, clayey, homogeneous hard, semi-solid and tough plastic consistency

Up to 12

1: 1.5

Sands of small barkhan

Sv. 2

1: 4

2 to 12

1: 2

Lesser

Up to 12

1: 0,1-1: 0,5
1: 0.5-1: 1.5

Notes: 1. Above the slope is the steepness of the slopes in the arid zone, below the line - outside the arid zone.

2. Vertical slopes are allowed in rocky weakly weathered soils.

3. In areas with vegetated lines, the greatest steepness is allowed at a slope height of up to 12 m, taking 1: 2.

4. The height of the slope of the recess is determined by the difference in the marks of the upper and lower slopes of the slope. In the presence of slanting when using this table, the horseback is taken into account.

6.36.Dredging depths of up to 1 m in order to protect against snowdrifts should be designed open with a steepness of slopes from 1: 5 to 1:10 or divided into a mound. Dredging depths from 1 to 5 m on snow-covered areas should be designed with steep slopes( 1: 1.5 - 1: 2) and additional shelves or curbs with a width of at least 4 m.

6.37.Depressions of more than 2 m in depths in shallow and silty sands, wetlands of clayey soils, easily eroded or fissured rocks, in silty loess and loess rocks, as well as in permafrost soils that undergo thawing into a soft plastic state, should be designed with zakyouvetnymi shelves. The width of zakyovetnyh shelves should be taken with fine and silty sands - 1 m, with the remaining specified soils with a slope of up to 6 m - 1 m, with a slope of up to 12 m( for rocky rocks - up to 16 m) - 2 m. For roads I- III categories when designing excavations in easily eroded rocky grounds, it is allowed to provide a cuvette-trench with a width of not less than 3 m and a depth of at least 0.8 m.

The surface of the zakyovletnyh shelves is given a slope of 20-40 o / oo towards the cuvette. Inclination can not be envisaged for rocky rocks, as well as for sands in conditions of arid climate.

6.38.When designing excavations relating to individual design objects, calculations should be made to assess the overall and local stability of the slopes, develop measures to ensure it, including the designation of an appropriate transverse profile, the installation of drains, protective layers, such as strengthening slopes, and the like.

EARTH LEAVE IN COMPLEX CONDITIONS

6.39.The structures of the roadbed on the slopes should be justified by appropriate calculations, taking into account the stability of the slope in both the natural state and after the construction of the road.

On stable mountain slopes greater than 1: 3, the roadbed should generally be placed on a shelf that is embedded in a hillside. On slopes with a steepness of 1:10 - 1: 5, the earthen canvas should be designed, as a rule, in the form of a mound without the construction of ledges at the base. When the steepness of the slopes is from 1: 5 to 1: 3, the earthen canvas should be arranged in the form of a mound, half-napping-semi-excavation or on a shelf. At the base of the embankment and half-burrow-half-pit, it is necessary to arrange ledges 3-4 m in width and 1 m in height. The ridges do not settle on slopes from draining soils, and also from rocky weakly weathered soils.

If necessary, measures should be envisaged, as a rule, complex, ensuring the stability of the roadbed and the slope on which it is located( drainage devices, surface drainage, retaining structures, changing the shape of the slope, etc.).

6.40.The design of the subgrade in the marshes should be assigned on the basis of a technical and economic comparison of options for the removal of wetlands( including the explosive method) or their use as a foundation of the embankment, with special measures to ensure stability, reduce and accelerate sediment, and eliminate unacceptable elasticfluctuations.

With a swamp depth of up to 6 m and a mound height of up to 3 m, the design is allowed to be based on the binding of typical solutions to the type of swamp( see reference annex 5).

When marsh grounds are used at the base of the embankment, in addition to the general requirements for the roadbed, the requirements of No. 6.30 must be met.

The lower part of mounds in marshes, submerging below the marsh surface level by 0.2-0.5 m, should be provided, as a rule, from drained sandy or coarse clastic soils. The use of other soils, including peat, should be based on individual calculations.

When applying structures with hatching, the required volume of soil for the embankment should be assigned taking into account the compensation of lateral deformations of the walls of the trenching of the trimming, determined by calculation.

6.41.Mounds on flooded flood plains, the intersection of reservoirs and approaches to bridge structures should be designed taking into account the wave action, as well as hydrostatic and erosive effects of water during the flooding period. To ensure the possibility of repair and strengthening of slopes during the operation in such areas, with a feasibility study, it is allowed to provide a berm device with a width of at least 4 m.

6.42.When designing embankments on weak grounds, special measures substantiated by calculations should be assigned to ensure the possibility of using weak soils at the base( the assumption of slopes, the arrangement of side prisms, temporary overload, the regulation of the fill regime, the vertical drainage, the ground piles, the pile foundation,embankments, reinforcement of embankments with geotextile interlayers, etc.).

6.43.When designing excavations in special soils or embankments with the use of special soils, the project should provide for measures to protect the roadbed from deformations( restrictions on the location and thickness of layers from these soils, the arrangement of protective layers from resistant soils, reinforcing, waterproofing and other interlayers,etc.).

6.44.In areas where saline soils are distributed, the roadbed should be designed taking into account the degree of salinity determined in accordance with Table.3 of the mandatory annex 2.

Weak and medium saline soils are allowed to be used in embankments of standard structures, including for the working layer, while observing the norms for unoccupied soils, and for use in individual embankments, the use is based on calculations.

Strongly saline soils can be used as a material of embankments, including the working layer, in areas of the 1st type of terrain according to the conditions of moistening, with mandatory application of measures aimed at protecting the working layer from greater salinity.

Application of excessively saline soils should be justified by special calculations with taking the necessary measures to neutralize their negative properties.

The earth canvas on the sections of wet solonchaks should be designed in compliance with the requirements for embankments on weak substrates( paragraph 6.30).

6.45.The construction of the roadbed in the areas of mobile sand should ensure the condition of minimum deposition by sand. At the same time, measures should be envisaged to protect the roadbed from blowing and formation of sand drifts on a strip not less than 50-150 m wide, taking into account the terrain, wind speed and direction, the degree of sands mobility, depending on the fixation of the surface by vegetation( Table 15 of compulsory Annex 2), grain composition of sand and other factors.

With an uneven and slightly overgrown surface of sands, the roadbed should be designed mainly in the form of embankments 0.5-1.6 m high, built from reserves of depths up to 0.2 m. Within the plains and interbarchanic depressions, the following should be provided:

a strip layout with a width of 15- 40 m from each side of the canvas;

fastening of mobile forms of relief for a width of up to 200 m outside the right-of-way.

Mounds greater than 1 m in height should be designed using sand from excavations or quarries located on the leeward side at a distance of at least 50 m from the road.

Recesses up to 2 m deep should be designed open with slopes no steeper than 1:10.If it is necessary to install a drainage system in the recess, it must be divided into a mound with slopes not steeper than 1: 4.

Recesses with a depth of more than 2 m should be designed to be divided into mounds with a height of 0.3 to 0.4 m. The distance between the soles of the inner and outer slopes should be taken equal to 10-20 m, depending on the strength and direction of the wind and the composition of the sand.

On sites with semi-overgrown and overgrown surface it is necessary to ensure maximum preservation of vegetation and natural relief of the surrounding area. For this purpose, embankments should be designed to a minimum height, without reserves. The recesses should be designed to a minimum width with slopes of 1: 2.If necessary, the required amount of soil for the embankments should be provided from the excavation by widening the notch.

To ensure the passage of technological transport along the roadbed, provision should be made for a protective layer made of clay soil or sand reinforced with binding or other methods with a thickness of 0.15-0.2 m, or laying a geotextile layer with piling of the lower pavement layer.

6.46.The earth canvas on irrigated territory should be designed taking into account the impact of the irrigation system on its water-heat regime, usually in the form of embankments.

The distance between the canals of the catchment and drainage canal and the reserve or drainage canal should be at least 4.5 m. The use of cuvettes, upland and drainage ditches as distributors is not allowed.

As the calculated groundwater level, the highest multi-year level should be taken, and in the newly developed territories - according to the perspective data of the water management bodies.

6.47.The structures of the roadbed in the I road-climatic zone should be assigned taking into account the temperature regime of the soil thickness and their physico-mechanical properties that determine the value of the sedimentation of the base of the embankment during thawing during operation.

As a rule, the roadbed should be designed on the basis of heat engineering calculations based on the principles of directed regulation of the level of the upper horizon of permafrost soils( HHPS) at the base of the embankment during the operation of the road.

6.48.The earth canvas on the areas of occurrence of permafrost soils must be designed, guided by one of the following principles:

is the first - to ensure the raising of HHHMG not below the bottom of the embankment and keeping it at this level during the entire period of road operation;

second - the assumption of thawing of the active layer in the base of the embankment during the road operation, subject to the limitation of the sediment by the permissible limits for a specific type of coating;

the third - provision of preliminary thawing of the permafrost soils and dehumidification of the road strip to the erection of the roadbed.

6.49.According to the first principle, it is necessary to design in areas of low-temperature permafrost, composed of highly permeable soils and clay soils with a moisture content above the yield point in the active layer with the capital type of road clothes.

6.50.The second principle should be applied as the main one from competing design options, estimated by technical and economic indicators.

6.51.The third principle should be used in areas of high-temperature permafrost island distribution, where advance thawing of permafrost soils and dehumidification of the roadway are possible.

6.52.On sites with rocky coarse-grained and sandy rocks that do not contain interlayers and ice lenses, including high-temperature permafrost( usually island spread), as well as in areas of seasonal freezing( without the presence of permafrost soils), the roadbed should be designed according to the norms of IIroad and climatic zone.

6.53.When designing in accordance with the first principle, the position of the HHMG in the foundation should be ensured by assigning the appropriate embankment height when using traditional road-building materials and installing special layers of heat-insulating materials( peat, foam, slag, etc.) at the base.

6.54.When designing in accordance with the second principle, the height of the embankment should be established according to the results of thermophysical calculations and calculation of the total sedimentation of the base and unstable layers of the embankment( see reference annex 6).

The permissible total sediment is given in Table.25.

Table 25

Type of pavement and conditions of its construction

Permissible total sedimentation of the base and unstable layers of the embankment during operation, cm, at a thickness of stable layers, m

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

Overhead traveling clothes with prefabricated reinforced concrete coverings, arranged in one stage without technological break

2

4

6

10

Capital road clothes with asphalt pavements, arranged in one year with a roadbed

4

8

12

20

Lightweight road clothes

6

12

18

30

Transitional roadIn applying

8

16

24

40

garment design mound geotextile layers permissible precipitation can be increased by 20% at a thickness of stable layers up to 1.5 m and 25% when its thickness to 2.0 m.

6.55.In areas of predicted ice in areas of island distribution of permafrost soils and deep seasonal freezing, the earthen canvas should be designed so that the depth of freezing of the base of the embankment does not exceed the freezing of the soil strata under natural conditions. With the continuous spread of permafrost soils, the roadbed must be designed in conjunction with anti-ice devices( a frozen ground belt, a waterproof screen, etc.) that activate the ice process away from the roadway.

6.56.Excavations may be envisaged in areas with favorable permafrost-soil and hydrogeological conditions( rocky and crushed rocks) in the absence of lenses and ice layers. If it is necessary to design excavations in complex permafrost soils and hydrogeological conditions( bedding of heterogeneous soil, variable level of aquifers, manifestations of permafrost processes, strong subsidence soils), thermal insulation of slopes, layers of geotextile, replacement of wetlands of silty clayey soils with sandy or other qualitativematerials, frost protection layers in the base of the pavement, and reliable removal of water from the cavity. The decisions made should be justified by calculations. Small cuts should be opened or cut under the mound.

6.57.Depending on the relief, hydrogeological and permafrost conditions, surface and subsoil subterranean waters must be diverted from the roadway by means of drainage ditches, upland permafrost rollers and upstream berms, the parameters of which are set by calculation.

6.58.The design of the roadbed( including protective, retaining and retaining structures) on landslide and landslide areas, as well as in areas of spreading mudslides, talus, avalanches, karst, weak soils, subsidence and swelling soils and in areas of influence of abrasion and river erosion should be based onspecial regulatory documents.

6.59.With a proper feasibility study, interlayers from geotextile materials that perform reinforcing, draining, filtering or separating roles can be used in the structures of the subgrade.

Interlayers are provided for:

at the base of embankments on weak soils;

in the body of embankments: to increase the stability of slopes;as a protective filter in drainage structures;as drains, ensuring the drainage of water from the water-saturated soil massif;as a separating layer on the contact of soil layers or granular materials with different granulometric composition( preventing mixing of bed materials);

in the base of technological driveways on soils with low bearing capacity.

When designing excavations in unfavorable soil and hydrological conditions to ensure the passage of construction equipment, it is advisable to envisage the arrangement of technological interlayers from geotextiles with backfilling with draining soil. Depending on the ground conditions, the thickness of the backfill layer is assumed to be 0.2 - 0.6 m.

6.30.To protect the subgrade from surface water overmoistening and erosion, and to provide for the construction of the roadbed, surface drainage systems should be provided( area planning, ditching, trays, rapid flows, evaporative pools, absorbing wells, etc.).The bottom of the ditch should have a longitudinal slope of at least 5 ° / °° and, in exceptional cases, not less than 3 ° / °°.

The probability of exceeding the estimated floods in the design of drainage ditches and cuvettes should be taken for roads of Category I and II 2%, III category - 3%, IV and V categories - 4%, and for the design of drainage structures from the surface of bridges and roads should be taken for roadsI and II categories - 1%, III category - 2%, IV and V categories - 3%.

The greatest longitudinal slope of drainage devices should be determined depending on the type of soil, such as the strengthening of slopes and the bottom of the ditch, taking into account the flow velocity allowed for erosion. If it is not possible to ensure permissible deviations, rapid flows, swings and water wells should be envisaged.

In a terrain with a transverse slope less than 20 ° / o with an embankment height of less than 1.5 m, in areas with variable lateral slope bias, as well as in marshes, drainage gutters should be designed from both sides of the subgrade.

Evaporation basins may be provided for in IV and V road and climatic zones. As evaporation basins, it is allowed to use local depressions, developed quarries and reserves not more than 0.4 m in depth. In areas where a reserve is used for the evaporation pool, a mound with a berm should be provided.

6.61.Groundwater and surface water, which can affect the strength and stability of the roadbed or the conditions of production, should be intercepted or lowered by drainage devices.

6.62.The height of embankments and protective dams near medium and large bridges and approaches to them, as well as embankments on floodplains, should be assigned in such a way that the edge of the road bed should be raised by at least 0.5 m, and the edge of the unshelled regulatory structures and berms notless than 0.25 m above the design water horizon taking into account the backwater and the height of the wave with its incline to the escarpment.

6.63.The curb of the roadbed on approaches to small bridges and pipes should rise above the design water level, taking into account the backwater, not less than 0.5 m in the case of a non-pressure operating mode of the structure and not less than 1 m under pressure and semi-pressure conditions.

The probability of flood excess when designing the embankment on approaches to bridges should be taken for roads of I-III categories - 1%, IV and V categories - 2%, and on the approaches to pipes should be taken for roads of the 1st category - 1%, II and III categories- 2%, IV and V categories - 3%.

STRENGTHENING THE
EARTHQUAKE AND
WATER TREATMENT STRUCTURES AND SPECIAL GEOTECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

6.64.Types of reinforcement of slopes of the roadbed and drainage structures should meet the conditions of the work of fortified structures, take into account the properties of soils, the features of weather and climate factors, the structural features of the roadbed and provide the possibility of mechanization of work and a minimum of the given costs for construction and operation. When appointing a type of reinforcement, options should be developed and the conditions and time of the construction of the roadbed and its strengthening should be taken into account.

Table 26

Slope ground

Slope steepness at wave height without forrun, m

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

Sand fine

1: 5

1:7

1:10

1:10

1:10

1: 20

1:25

1: 20

1: 20

1: 10

1: 10

1:

1: 5

1: 5

1: 7,5

1:10

1:15

1:15

Flooded embankment slopes should be protected against wave action by appropriate types of fortifications depending on the hydrological regimeriver or pond.

With the appropriate feasibility study, instead of the fortifications, it is permissible to apply the slope of the slopes( beach slope).The steepness of the slope resistant to the water impact should be determined by calculation, depending on the hydrological and climatic conditions and the type of soil of the embankment. Approximately the steepness of the beach slope can be taken on the table.26.

6.65.With the feasibility study, geotextiles can be used to strengthen slopes. Geotextile layers with strengthening slopes serve as a cover protecting the escarpment from erosion, improving the development of the grass cover and reinforcing the sod, fencing limiting the deformation of the soil in the surface zone of the slope, the reverse filter in the supports of flooded slopes with prefabricated elements or with a stone outline.

On the geotextile canvas facing the surface, it is necessary to arrange a protective coating by treatment with an organic binder( bitumen emulsion) at a flow rate of 0.5 - 1.0 kg / m2.If it is necessary to significantly increase the rigidity and reduce the permeability of the geotextile coating in the attachments of the drainage structures, two-three-time treatment of the geotextile web with a binder with sanding should be envisaged.

6.66.Protective and retaining structures used in erecting a roadbed should be designed individually on the basis of special regulatory documents. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the conditions of their construction and operation.

7. ROAD CLOTHES

7.1.Roadwear must meet the general requirements for the road as a transport facility. These requirements should be ensured by the choice of the design of all pavement, the corresponding roadway coverings, the construction of the roadway mating with the roadside and the dividing strip and the types of roadside reinforcement, the creation of an even and rough surface of the carriageway, etc.

7.2.The design of the pavement and the type of coverage should be taken on the basis of the transport-operational requirements and the category of the road being designed, taking into account traffic intensity and composition of vehicles, climatic and soil-hydrological conditions, sanitary and hygienic requirements, as well as provision of road construction area with local building materials.

7.3.Traveling clothes can consist of one or more layers. If there are several layers, the road clothes consist of a coating, a base and additional layers of the base - frost-protective, heat-insulating, draining, etc.( see reference annex 7).

For resistance to vehicle loads and for reactions to climatic influences, road clothes should be divided into clothes with hard covers and base layers( conditionally further - hard road clothes) and clothing with non-rigid coatings and base layers( non-rigid road clothes).

7.4.Types of road clothes, the main types of coatings and the area of ​​their application are given in Table.27.

Table 27

Types of pavement

Basic types of coatings

Road categories

Used in accordance with clause

Capital

Cement-concrete monolithic

I-IV

7.8;7.16;
7.33

Reinforced concrete or reinforced concrete prefabricated

I-IV

7.10;7.13

Asphalt

I-IV

7.34 *

Lightweight

Asphalt

III, IV, and in the first stage of two-stage construction of roads II category

7.34 *

tarmacadam

7.34 *

From crushed stone, gravel and sand, treated astringent

IV and V

7.34 *;7.36

Transitional

Crushed and gravel from soils and local low-strength stone materials treated with astringents

IV, V and at the first stage of two-stage construction of roads of category III

7.46;7.47

7.37 - 7.39;
7.41

Lower

From soils reinforced or improved with additives

V and at the first stage of two-stage construction of roads of the IV category

7.39;7.41

7.5.The total thickness of pavement and the thickness of individual layers should ensure the strength and frost resistance of the entire structure.

7.6.When calculating road clothes for strength, it is necessary to take into account the prospective intensity of traffic of various types of cars, which should lead to the intensity of the effect of the calculated load on one of the busiest sections of the carriageway.

Only lighter loads are to be calculated. Reduction to the calculated heavier loads is allowed for roads of the IV category, provided that the driven load exceeds the estimated load by no more than 20% and the number of vehicles with such loads in the composition of freight and bus flows is not more than 5%.Otherwise, a heavier load should be taken for the settlement, or it should be possible to regulate its passage during unfavorable periods of the year.

For roads with a multi-lane carriageway, the traffic clothing of all lanes should be designed for the same highest design load.

HARD ROAD CLOTHES

7.7.To rigid road clothes should be attributed to clothes that have:

cement-concrete monolithic coatings;

asphalt-concrete coatings on cement concrete bases;

prefabricated coverings of reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs.

7.8.The thickness of concrete coatings should be assigned according to the calculation, taking into account the bases, but not less than that given in Table.28.

7.9.In the concrete coating, cross and longitudinal seams should be designed. The sutures of expansion, compression, warping and working are referred to transverse. Longitudinal and transverse seams should, as a rule, intersect at a right angle. The distance between the seams of compression( the length of the plates) is determined by calculation.

It is allowed to designate the length of the slabs depending on the thickness of the coating and taking into account the climate according to table.29.

7.10.On the roads of I - IV categories, prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs should be covered in difficult natural conditions or at high embankments where it is difficult to ensure the stability of the roadbed.

7.11.To ensure the crack resistance of asphalt concrete pavement at a traffic intensity of more than 10 000 pref.unit / day the thickness of concrete bases and asphalt concrete pavements should be designated as calculation.

7.12.In the bases of concrete of class B 12.5 and above, it is necessary to provide longitudinal and transverse joints of compression and expansion.

7.13.The construction of road clothes with a prefabricated coating of reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs is allowed on the basis of feasibility studies in areas with complex engineering, geological, hydrogeological and climatic conditions, where there are no local road construction materials suitable for equipping other types of coatings.

7.14.The plates of the prefabricated coating should be taken according to standard designs or designed according to the conditions of strength and crack resistance to the action of the wheel load and the weight of the slabs when they are raised for mounting devices and when stacked on piles and on vehicles.

7.15.On the roads of the IV category under the prefabricated cover laid on the sand base, it is advisable to provide interlayers of geotextile material for the entire width of the cover with a margin of 0.5 m on each side and 0.75 m in width from the transverse seams of the coating to the slopes.

In the case of the device of coatings from slabs with a width of more than 1.5 m, it is allowed to arrange interlayers in the form of strips with a width of at least 0.75 m under the seams and edges of the coating.

With the feasibility study, it is possible to provide a similar design for the third category roads.


Table 28

Substrates

Coating thickness, cm, for roads with estimated traffic intensity, pref.by the road category

I

II

III, IV

20000 and more

14000 - 20000

10000 - 14000

6000 - 10000

4000 - 6000

1000 - 4000

Stone materials and soils treated with inorganic binder

24

22

22

20

18*

18 *

Crushed and gravel

-

-

22

20

18

18

Sand, sand and gravel

-

-

-

22

20

18

* Allowed for feasibility studies.


Table 29

Climate

Plate length, m, with coating thickness, cm

18

20

22

24

Moderate

4,5-5

5-6

5-6

5,5-7

Continental

3,5-4

4-5

4-5

4,5-6

Note. The continental climate is characterized by the difference between the maximum and minimum air temperature over 24 hours over 12 ° C with a frequency of more than 50 times a year.

7.16.On the roads of I - III categories with embankments of rocky grounds with a height of more than 3 m, embankments in swamps with partial hulling of more than 5 m in height from any ground, overpasses through railways within 200 m, regardless of the height of the embankment, as well as on sections of roadsindividual design, where uneven precipitation of the roadbed is expected, it is recommended to arrange cement-concrete coatings reinforced with grids.

7.17.Calculation of the thickness of a monolithic cement-concrete coating should be carried out taking into account the magnitude and frequency of total stresses from vehicle loads and temperature.

7.18.Calculation of the thickness of the base of rigid road clothes with monolithic and prefabricated coatings should be carried out by the condition of maximum equilibrium with shear in each layer of pavement and roadbed. On the roads of III and IV categories, rigid pavement may be allowed to work beyond the elastic limit, in this case, the calculation of the thickness of the base by the condition of maximum equilibrium under shear is not required.

The thickness of the foundation should be calculated on the basis of the strength condition separately for the periods of pavement construction( for the purpose of using the base for the traffic of construction vehicles) and the operation of the road. As a result of the calculation, a large thickness of the substrate is assumed.

7.19.Calculation of asphalt concrete pavements on concrete bases should be carried out under two conditions:

crack resistance of asphalt concrete in the coldest month of winter;

strength - the ultimate resistance of the coating and the substrate to the effect of repetitive loads from vehicles.

Asphalt-concrete pavement and cement-concrete base by the condition of strength should be calculated for the most unfavorable period of the year - hot summer months, when the modulus of elasticity of asphalt concrete is minimal.

HEAVY ROAD CLOTHES

7.20.Lightweight road clothes on roads I and II categories should be designed from the condition that the accumulation of residual deformations during the period of their operation before the first overhaul( or reorganization) is prevented.

Road clothes( on roads III-V of categories) should be designed taking into account the possible occurrence of residual deformations, limited by tolerances for the smoothness of the carriageway.

Road garments on the roads of IV and V categories in certain cases in order to reduce construction costs, with appropriate justification, it is allowed to design with due regard to traffic restrictions in terms of intensity and carrying capacity of vehicles during unfavorable periods of the year.

7.21.Lightweight road clothes on the carriageways of the carriageway should be counted for strength, taking into account the short-term multiple action of mobile loads. The duration of the load should be taken equal to 0.1 s and the calculation of the values ​​of the elastic moduli and the strength characteristics of the materials and soil corresponding to this duration should be introduced.

Clothes on parking lots and roadside roads should be counted on a prolonged load action( at least 10 minutes).Repeat loading is allowed to be ignored.

Clothes at public transport stops, on approaches to road junctions and to intersections with the railway, should be counted as for repeated action of short-term load, and for long-term loading, taking a more powerful design.

7.22.Calculation of non-rigid road clothes under short-term load action should be carried out by three criteria of strength: the elastic deflection of the entire structure, the resistance to shear in the ground and in loosely-connected layers of clothing, stretching when bending clothing layers from soils and stone materials treated with inorganic binders.

Calculation of non-rigid pavements for long-term load action should be carried out by shear in the ground and in loosely connected layers of clothing.

7.23.Stresses and deformations of non-rigid road clothes and a roadbed under the action of the design load should be determined using elasticity theory methods for a layered half-space, taking into account the worst possible conditions for conjugation of layers at a contact. It is allowed to bring multilayer road clothes and roadbed to two- and three-layer design models.

7.24.Regardless of the results of calculating the strength of the pavement, the thickness of the structural layers in the compacted state should be taken at least as given in Table.30.

Table 30

Coating materials and other layers of pavement

Thickness of layer, cm

Asphaltic concrete or coarse-grained bitter

6-7

Asphaltic concrete or fine-grained bitter

3-5

Asphaltic concrete or sandy grit

3-4

Crushed gravel materials treated with organic binder

8

Crushed stone treated with organic binder according to the method of impregnation

8

Crushed stone and gravel materials not treated with binders:

on sandy foundation

15

on a solid foundation( stone or from Ukeplennogo soil)

8

Stone materials and soils treated with organic or inorganic binders

10

Notes: 1. make greater thickness of asphalt concrete pavements for roads should be I and II categories and lower - for roads III and IV categories.

2. The thickness of the structural layer should be taken in all cases not less than 1.5 times the size of the largest fraction of the mineral material used in the layer.

3. In the case of laying stone materials on clay and loamy soils, an interlayer with a thickness of at least 10 cm should be provided from sand, siftings, reinforced soil or other waterproof materials.

ADDITIONAL LAYERS,
STRENGTHENED STRIPS
SECTIONS AND SEPARATE BANDS

7.25.In areas of seasonal freezing of soils on roads I-IV categories with rigid and non-rigid road clothes in unfavorable soil and hydrological conditions, along with ensuring the required strength, anti-tubercular measures should be provided to ensure sufficient frost resistance of pavement and roadbed.

7.26.No special anti-tuberculosis measures are required:

in areas with a freezing depth of less than 0.6 m;

with an earthen cloth, the working layer of which meets the requirements of Nos.6.11 - 6.15, 6.18 and 6.19;

in cases where the thickness of the pavement required for strength conditions exceeds 2/3 of the freezing depth.

7.27.On sections of roads that do not meet the conditions of paragraph 7.26, anti-cannibal measures should be envisaged in accordance with paragraph 6.31.

7.28.The thickness of heat-insulating layers for different purposes( to completely prevent the freezing of the roadbed or to limit the depth of freezing of its permissible limits) should be determined by heat engineering calculation.

7.29.On sections of the roadbed of clayey soils and dusty sands, drainage layers with drainage devices should be provided at the bases and additional layers made of traditional granular( porous) materials in the following cases:

in the II road-climatic zone for all schemes of wetting the working layer of earthpaintings( paragraph 6.21);

in the III road-climatic zone with the 2nd and 3rd schemes of wetting the working layer;

in the IV and V zones under the 3rd scheme of wetting the working layer.

The need for draining layers on road sections where the bases or additional layers of pavement are made of soils and stone materials treated with binders is established by calculation for dehumidification.

The thickness of the draining layer, the required filtration coefficient, the particle size distribution and other requirements for the materials used for its construction should be determined by calculation, depending on the amount of water entering the carriageway base, the way it is withdrawn, the length of the filtration path and other factors.

7.30.When calculating the pavement on the stopping strips, at least 1/3 of the calculated intensity or other load justified in the design should be taken, in which rapid accumulation of residual deformations is excluded.

7.31.Coatings on the fortified strip of roadsides( 0.5-0.75 m) and on the stopping strip( 2.5 m) are recommended to be made of cement or asphalt concrete using crushed stone of predominantly large sizes( up to 25 - 45 mm), as well as from treatedknitting of local stone, gravel, slag and other mineral materials.

The surface of the remaining part of the roadside should be strengthened depending on the intensity and nature of the movement, the soils of the road bed and the climatic characteristics of the grass, the scattering of gravel, gravel, slag and other low-cost local coarse-grained materials.

To protect the roadsides and slopes of the roadbed from erosion on sections of roads with longitudinal slopes of more than 30 o / oo, with mounds exceeding 4 m in height, in places of concave curves in the longitudinal profile, the device of longitudinal trays and other structures for collecting and drainingthe roadway of water.

7.32.Separating strips should be mated with the roadway by placing on the dividing strip reinforced strips. The rest of the dividing strip should be strengthened by sowing grass and, depending on local conditions, planting shrubs( solid or in the form of transverse strips - wings), located at a distance of not less than 1.75 m from the edge of the roadway.

MATERIALS FOR ROAD SAFETY

7.33.Cement-concrete coatings and substrates should use heavy and fine-grained concrete in accordance with GOST 25192-82.

Concrete for coatings and substrates must comply with the requirements of GOST 26633-91 and table.31.

7.34 *.Asphalt and concrete mixtures and stone materials treated with organic binders for coatings should be applied in accordance with Table.32.

To ensure increased crack resistance and extend the life of asphalt-concrete pavements, under conditions of low negative temperatures in the construction area, polymer-bituminous concrete using polymer-bitumen binders( PBBs) based on block copolymers of butadiene and styrene type SBS( grades DST 30-01 and DST 30R-01, as well as their foreign counterparts) with the temperature of brittleness required for the given area of ​​construction.


Table 31

Road category

Assignment of concrete

Minimum design grade grades of concrete for tensile strength in bending

Minimum design concrete classes for compressive strength

Minimum design concrete grades for frost resistance for areas with average monthly air temperature of the coldest month, ° C

from0 to
minus 5

from minus 5
to minus 15

below
minus 15

I, II

Single-layer or top layer of double-layer coating

Bbtb 4,0( Pu50)

B30

100

150

200

Bottomlayer of a two-layer coating

Bbtb 3,2( Pu40)

B22.5

50

50

100

III

Single-layer or top layer of a two-layer coating

Bbtb 3,6( Pu45)

B27,5

100

150

200

Bottom layer of a two-layer coating

Bbtb 2,8( Pu35)

B20

50

50

100

IV

Single-layer or top layer of double-layer coating

Bbtb 3,2( Pu40)

B25

100

150

200

Bottom layer of double-layer coating

Bbtb 2,4( Pu30)

B15

50

50

100

IV

Base

Bbtb 1,2( Pu15)

B5

25

50

50

Notes: 1. With a suitable feasibility study for a single-layer or top layer, duhsloynogo road pavement Category I and II may be used as a heavy concrete for roads of III category.

2. Concrete classes for compressive strength should be used only in the design of reinforced concrete and prestressed coatings.

3. The average monthly temperature of the coldest month for construction areas is determined in accordance with SNiP 23-01-99 *.

4. Coatings for roads of IV category are allowed with the appropriate feasibility study.

Table 32

I, II

hot and warm mix types A, B, B and G, type I,

Hot and warm mixes for porous asphalt concrete grade I

II

Hot mixesfor compact type B degreton, grade I

Hot mixes for porous bituminous concrete of grade I

III

Hot and warm mixtures for compact asphaltic concrete types A, B, C, G and D of grade II

Hot and warm mixtures for porous asphalt concrete grade II

ColdAsphalt mixes of types Bx, Bx and Gx of grade I

Hot and warm mixes for high porosity asphalt concrete of grade I

Hot mixes for compact degtebetone of types B and B of grades I and II, and also sandy mixtures of grade I

Hot mixes for porous degtebetona of grades Iand II

IV

Hot and warm mixes for dense asphaltic concrete types B, B, G and D of grade III

Hot mixes for porous asphalt concrete and degtebetone of grade II

Cold asphalt mixtures of types Bx, Bx, Gx and Dx of grade II

Stone materials,processedorganic binder

Hot and warm mixes for high porosity asphalt concrete of grade I

Hot mixes for dense bituminous types B and B and sand mixtures of grade II.

-

Cold bituminous and sandy mixtures of grade II

IV and the first stage of two-stage construction of roads of III category

Stone materials treated with organic astringent mixing methods in the installation, impregnation, mixing on the road, surface treatment( wear layer).

-

Notes:1. Asphalt-concrete mixtures must meet the requirements of GOST 9128-97, degtebetone - GOST 25877-83.

2. In regions IV and V of road and climatic zones, it is not necessary to envisage the arrangement of coatings from warm asphalt-concrete mixtures.

3. For single-layer coatings, the materials specified for the top coat are used.

4. In regions I of the road and climatic zone, it is not necessary to envisage the installation of coatings from cold asphalt concrete mixtures.

In districts I and V of road and climatic zones, it is not necessary to envisage the installation of coatings from tar mixtures.

5. In settlements with the application of coal tar coatings and resins, a protective layer of asphalt concrete mixture with a thickness of at least 4 cm or double surface treatment with the use of bitumen must be installed on them.


7.35.Asphalt-concrete and tar-concrete mixes and stone materials treated with organic binders for bases should be applied in accordance with Table.33.

7.36.Materials of crushed stone, gravel and sand, treated with inorganic binders, for coatings and bases must comply with the requirements of GOST 23558-94 and table.34 *.

7.37.Coatings and bases from the soils, strengthened with mineral binders, should be applied according to table.35.

7.38.Coatings and substrates of grounds reinforced with bituminous emulsions, liquid bitumens or coal tar binders( tar, resins) together with cement or lime, as well as bitumen emulsions or crude oil together with carbamide resins or carbamide resins together with technical lignosulfonate additivesapply according to Table.36.

7.39.Coatings and bases from the ground, fortified with bituminous emulsions, liquid bitumen or coal-bearing binders with or without the addition of active and surface-active substances( surfactants), should be applied according to Table.37.

Table 33

Road category

Material

I, II

Hot and warm mixtures for porous asphalt concrete grade II, high porosity asphalt concrete grade I. Hot mixes for porous bituminous concrete grade II.

III

Hot mixes for high porosity asphalt concrete grade II.Hot mixes for porous degtebetona brand II.

II, III

Stone materials treated with organic astringent mixing methods in the installation, impregnation, mixing on the road

7.40.In I road-climatic zone, it is necessary to use coarse-grained and sandy soils reinforced with cement or cement with additives of surface-active or active substances or with carbamide-formaldehyde resins with additives of crude oil or LST.

7.41.When designing road clothes with thin-layer bituminous mineral coatings( 3 - 5 cm) or wear layers in the form of double surface treatment for the underlying layers, reinforced soils should be provided in accordance with Table.38.

7.42.When designing road clothes of the capital type, as the bases, reinforced soils should be used according to Table.39.

7.43.When designing road clothes with additional heat-insulating( frost-protective) layers on roads of I-III categories in I-III road-climatic zones, reinforced II and III grade soils should be used for these layers( see Table 35).

Table 34

Properties of treated materials

For coatings
with wear layer
from black mixtures

For bases

Road category

IV, V

I, II

III

IV, V

Compressive strength of water-saturated samples hardened 28 days, MPa

6.0-7.5

4,0-7,5

4,0-7,5

2,0-6,0

Brand frost resistance for areas with average monthly temperature of the coldest month, ° С, not less than:

from 0 to minus 5

10

15

10

-

»minus 5 to minus 15

25

25

15

10

» »15» »30

50

25

25

15

below minus 30

75

50

50

25

Table 35

Properties of fortified soils

Index value for strength classes of fortified soils

I

II

III

Compressive strength of water-saturated samples, MPa

6.0-4.0

4.0-2.0

2, 0-1,0

Tensile strength at bending of water-saturated samples, MPa, not less

1,0

0,6

0,2

Coefficient of frost resistance, not less

0,75

0,7

0,65

Note. Indicators of physical and mechanical properties for strengthening the soil Portland cement or slag Portland cement are given for samples hardened 28 days;when the soils are strengthened by inorganic, slowly hardening binders( ashes of dry runoff), and also when dry cement mixtures are used, the indices are given for samples hardened 90 days.

Table 36

Properties of fortified soils

Strength index of reinforced soils

I

II

III

Compressive strength of water-saturated samples at 20 ° C, MPa

4,0-2,5

2,5-1,5

1, 5-1,0

Tensile strength at bending of water-saturated samples at 20 ° С, MPa, not less

1,0

0,6

0,4

Coefficient of frost resistance, not less

0,85

0,8

0.7

Note. Indicators of physico-mechanical properties are given for samples hardened for 28 days.

Table 37

Strength properties of

Strength indicator

for top layer
or

for lower base layer

Compressive strength of water-saturated samples at 20 ° C, MPa, not less

1,2

Not determined

Same, at 50 ° С, MPa, not less

0,7

Same

Compressive strength at bending of water-saturated samples at 20 ° С, MPa, not less than

0,6

0,4

Swelling,% volume, notmore

5

Not defined

frost coefficientspine, at least

0,6

same

Note. Parameters of physical and mechanical properties are given for samples hardened for 7 days, with the exception of the coefficient of frost resistance, which is determined on samples hardened for 28 days.

Table 38

Types of fortified soils
for the lower
device of the

coating layer Road category

Road surface climatic zone

Primers reinforced with bituminous emulsions or liquid bitumen, or with coal cement together with cement or lime, as well as bituminous emulsions or crude oil together withcarbamide resins or carbamide resins together with LST additives( see Table 36)

III, IV

II-V

Primers reinforced with mineral binders with or without surfactant additives

III - V

II - V

Primers reinforced with organic binders with or without the addition of surfactants or active substances( see Table 37)

IV,V

IV, V

Table 39

Construction layer
of pavement

Number of freeze-thaw cycles( above the bar),
temperature under the dash for the water saturation degree of
samples from fortified soils for road and climatic zones

I

II

III

IV

V

Top layerbases for two-layer asphalt-concrete coating;

50
-22 ° C

25
-22 ° C

25
-22 ° C

15
-10 ° C

10
-5 ° C

Complete

Complete

Complete

Capillary

Capillary

Base layer for two-layer asphalt pavement;

25
-22 ° C

15
-10 ° C

15
-10 ° C

10
-5 ° C

5
-5 ° C

Complete

Complete

Capillary

Capillary

Capillary

Top layer for single-layer coating of mineral materials, reinforced with organic binders

30
-22 ° C

15
-22 ° C

15
-22 ° C

15
-10 ° C

10
-5 ° C

Complete

Complete

Complete

Complete

Capillary

Base layer for single-layer coating of mineral materials,strengthened body

-

10
-10 ° C

10
-10 ° C

5
-10 ° C

-

Complete

Capillary

Single-layer coating of reinforced primer with double surface treatment

-

15
-22 ° C

10
-22 ° C

10
-5° C

5
-5 ° C

Complete

Capillary

Capillary

-

-

Complete

Complete

Complete

Notes: 1. Coefficient of frost resistance for fortifiedSoils used in the upper and lower layers of the bases should be at least 0.75, and for additional layers - not less than 0.65.

2. In the V road-climatic zone, tests are carried out for road construction areas located north of the Baku-Nukus-Kzyl-Orda-Frunze line.

Types of fortified soils
for foundation of

Road category

Roads for climatic zones

Primers reinforced with mineral binders of Classes I and II for strength( see Table 35) for bases of cement concrete monolithic or prefabricated coatings

I - III

I -V

Primers reinforced with bituminous emulsion together with cement or urea-formaldehyde resin together with crude oil or sulphite-yeast mash, strength classes I and II( see Table 36) for the upper layers of asphalt-concrete bases coveredI, III

I - III

I - V

Primers reinforced with mineral binders with or without additives of surfactants or active substances, Class I and II strength classes for the lower layers of asphalt concrete bases

I - III

I - IV

The thickness of the frost protection layer, obtained by calculation with respect to granular materials, should be reduced by 25-40%, taking into account the decrease in the degree of frost heaving of the upper layer of the roadbed during the device of the frost protection layer from fortified soils.

7.44.When testing hardened soils for frost resistance by the water saturation method, the number of freeze-thaw cycles and freezing temperature is assigned depending on the road-climatic zone and the location of the layer of reinforced soil in road clothing in accordance with Table.40.

7.45.When designing crushed stone bases reinforced with a sand-cement mix, crushed granules of fractions 40-70( 70-120) and 5-40 mm should be used.

Strength and frost resistance of crushed stone must comply with the requirements of GOST 8267-93, GOST 3344-83 and table.41.

The properties of the sand cement and the consumption of the cement mixture must comply with the requirements of GOST 23558-79 and Table.42.

7.46.In the design of crushed stone coatings and bases arranged by the jamming method, crushed stone should be used in accordance with GOST 8267-93, GOST 3344-83 of fractions 40-70 and 70-120 mm as the main material, and fractions of 20-40, 10-20 and 5-10 mm - as a wedge. When installing the bases for the incineration, mixtures No. 7, 8 and 9 according to GOST 25607-94 are allowed.

Stamps for strength and frost resistance of stone materials should meet the requirements of Table.43. The strength of the proppant may be lower than the primary grade.


Table 40


Table 41

Characteristics of crushed stone

Road category

I, II

III

IV, V

Mark for crush strength in a cylinder in a water-saturated state, not lower than:

of igneous, metamorphic rocks, phosphor slag, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy

800

600

600

of sedimentary rocks

600

600

200

Brand on abrasion, not lower

IIII

IIII

IIV

Brand frost resistance for areas with average monthly air temperature of the coldest month, ° С:

from 0 to minus 5

15

-

-

»minus 5 to minus 15

25

15

-

»» 15 »» 30

50

25

15

below minus 30

75

50

25

Table 42

Indicators

Road category

I

III

IV, V

Mark for the strength of the compression cement

60-100

60-75

40-60

Depthreinforcement, cm

10-15

5-10

5-10

Flow rate of sand cement mixture, m3 / 100 m2

4-9

3-6

3-6

Construction of base layers made of rubble of carbonate rocks grades 400 and below is allowed withoutuse of proppant.

7.47.When designing crushed stone and gravel coverings and bases of dense mixtures, the materials used must meet the requirements of GOST 25607-94( mixtures No. 3 and 5 for coatings and No. 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 for bases).

The grades of strength and frost resistance of crushed stone and gravel, which are part of mixtures, must meet the requirements of Table.44.

In gravel material of grade Др12 and above, containing more than 50% of grains with a smooth surface, it is recommended to add crushed stone( crushed stone from gravel) in an amount of at least 25% by weight for better compaction and increase of bearing capacity of the coating.

7.48.In the rubble of igneous and metamorphic rocks of grades of 800 and higher and sedimentary rocks of grades 600 and higher for crushed stone coatings of roads of IV, V categories, the content of grains of lamellar and needle-shaped forms should not exceed 15% by mass, and for bases of roads I-IIIcategories - 35%.

Crushed stone( gravel) for crushed stone and gravel coatings for water resistance should be of the 1st grade, and for bases - not lower than the 2nd grade.

Rubble( gravel) for gravel and plastic gravel should be of Pl1 grade, and for bases on roads of I-III categories - not lower than grade Pl2 and on roads IV, V of categories - not lower than grade Pl3.

7.49.Sand-gravel( sand-gravel) mixtures for additional layers must meet the requirements of GOST 25607-94 and table.45.

The filtration coefficient of mixtures for additional base layers should be at least 1 m / day.

Crushed stone( gravel), contained in mixtures for additional base layers on roads of I-III categories, must have a grade of strength not less than 200( Др24 for gravel or rubble from gravel).

For draining and frost protection layers of road clothes, sands in accordance with GOST 8736-93, containing grains less than 0.14 mm in size not more than 25% by weight, dust-clay particles not exceeding 5%, including clay particles for natural sandnot more than 0.5% and for crushed - no more than 1% by weight. The filtration coefficient at the maximum density should be not less than 1 m / day.

For frost-protective layers it is allowed to apply loosely-hewn sandy soils that meet the requirements for the size of the coefficient of sheeting and the shearing characteristics established by calculation for strength and frost-resistance of pavement, and have a filtration factor of at least 0.2 m / day.

7.50.Coatings should have a time-constant evenness and surface roughness, necessary to ensure design speeds and traffic safety.

Tolerances on the smoothness of the carriageway and the surface of the bases, as well as the compaction of structural pavement layers, must comply with the requirements of SNiP 3.06.03-85.

7.51.Rough coatings with the use of stone materials that are resistant to grinding under the influence of movement should be envisaged to achieve a stable in time high values ​​of the adhesion coefficients of the tires of cars with the surface of the carriageway.

The required values ​​of the coefficients of adhesion for roads of I - III categories depending on the features of their sections and driving conditions with a wetted surface of coatings are given in Table.46. ​​

.46 the values ​​of the adhesion factors should be provided:

by the device of a rough surface by the surface treatment method or by the injection of crushed stone of the grade by strength not less than 1000;

by the device of coatings from asphalt-concrete mixtures of types A and G, and also B when using crushed stone of the brand for strength not less than 1000 and crushed sand or screenings of crushing of igneous rocks;

special finishing of cement concrete surfaces.

Table 43

Characteristics of stone materials

Characteristics of stone materials

For

coatings For

bases

IV

I-III

IV, V

grade for crush strength in a cylinder in a water-saturated state, not lower than:

crushed stone from igneous and metamorphic rocks

1000

800

800

600

from sedimentary rocks

800

600

600

300

from slags of phosphoric, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy

800

600

600

300

rubble from gravel

Dr12

DR16

Dr16

Dr24

Abrasive grade

IIII

IIII

IIII

IIV

Brand frost resistantfor regions with average monthly air temperature of the coldest month, ° С:

from 0 to minus 5

15

15

15

-

»minus 5 to minus 15

25

25

25

15

» »15» »30

50

50

50

25

below minus 30

75

75

75

50

Table 44

Characteristics of stone materials

For coatings

For bases

Category of road

IV

V

I, II

III

IV, V

Mark for crush strength in a cylinder in a water-saturated state, not lower than:

of igneous and metamorphic rocks

800

600

800

600

600

sedimentary rocks

600

400

600

400

200

gravel and crushed stone from gravel

dr12

dr16

dr12

dr16

dr24

phosphoric, black and nonferrous metallurgy slags

600

400

600

400

200

mark of abrasability not lower than

IIII

IIII

IIII

IIII

IIV

Brand frost resistance for areas with the average monthly air temperature of the coldest month, ° C:

from 0 to minus 5

15

15

15

-

-

»minus 5 to minus 15

25

25

25

15

-

» »15» »30

50

50

50

25

15

below minus 30

75

75

75

50

25

Quantity in crushed gravel of crushed grains,% by mass, not less than

70

50

80

70

25

Table 45


number of

mixture Total residue,% by weight, on sieves with hole size, mm

70

40

20

10

5

2.5

0.63

0.16

0.05

1

0

10-20

20-40

25-65

40-75

60-85

70-90

90-95

97-100

2

0

0-5

0-10

10-40

30-70

45-80

60-85

75-92

97-100

Table 46

Traffic conditions

Characteristics of road sections

Coefficient of adhesion

Light

Areas straight or on curves with radii of 1000 m or more, horizontal or with longitudinal slopes of not more than 30 ° /th profile relevant rules table.4, with reinforced sides, without intersections in one level, at loading level not more than 0,3

0,45

Difficult

Sections on curves in plan with radii from 250 to 1000 m, on descents and ascents with slopes from 30 to 60 о/ °°, areas in the constriction areas of the roadway( during reconstruction), and road sections classified under light traffic conditions, with loading levels in the range 0.3-0.5

0.5

Dangerous

Areas with visibility less than estimated;ups and downs with slopes exceeding the estimated ones;zones of intersections in one level, as well as areas assigned to light and difficult conditions, with load levels above 0.5

0.6

Note. Coefficients of adhesion are established by the dynamometric trailing device PKRS-2 without taking into account their decrease in the process of road operation. When using other instruments( in particular, portable), their readings should be taken to the readings of the PCRS-2 device.

7.52.For roads of III and IV categories on sections with easy traffic conditions( according to Table 46), it is allowed to cover the asphalt mixtures of types B and D.

Such coatings are also recommended foreseen on bicycle and pedestrian paths, pavilions at bus stops, on the territory of busespetrol stations, recreation areas, etc.

Coarse-grained surfaces with a height of protrusions of 10 - 12 mm obtained by surface treatment using crushed stone in the size of 25-35 mm are recommended to provide for the arrangement of transverse( "noise") strips on approaches( at a distance of 250-300 m) to dangerous road sections. The width of the transverse bands should be 5-7 m, the distance between the bands - from 30 m at the beginning to 10-15 m at the end. In the intervals between the stripes, the coating must have a rough surface with parameters corresponding to dangerous traffic conditions( according to Table 46).

7.53 *.When designing bases from phospho-hemihydrate of calcium sulphate as a material of a layer or a proppant when using crushed stone, the material should be applied directly from the technological lines of the plant. According to the chemical composition, the material must contain calcium sulfate( CaSO4) in terms of dry matter not less than 90%, phosphorus pentoxide( P2O5) - no more than 5%, chemically bound water - no more than 7%.

Strength limits of samples of calcium sulfate phospho-hemihydrate prepared and tested in accordance with GOST 23558-94 at the age of 28 days, should be characterized by the following indicators: compression - 2;4;6;7,5 MPa, for splitting - 0,3;0.6;1.0;1.3 MPa, bending strain is 0.6;1.2;2;2.5 MPa respectively.

Water resistance of compacted material at the age of 28 days.must meet the requirements of GOST 25607-94.The coefficient of softening, defined as the quotient of the strength of the specimen on compression, tested in the water-saturated state, to the strength of the sample in a dry state should be at least 0.7.According to the frost resistance, determined in accordance with GOST 23558-94, the material must have the grade Мрз 15 or Мрз 25.

The base of calcium sulfate phosphorus hemihydrate should be set at an air temperature of not lower than 5 ° С.

The scope of calcium sulfate phospho-hemihydrate, depending on its strength and frost resistance, should be assigned in accordance with clause 7.36 and table.34, as well as in accordance with No. 7.45 and Table.42.

Calcium sulfosulphosphate hemihydrate for maximum strength of the substrate should be laid and compacted at optimum humidity( 20 - 25%) within 24 hours after release from the chemical plant.

When using a material with a moisture content above the optimum( 25 - 35%), it must be distributed, loosened to a moisture content close to the optimum, and then sealed. At the same time, all work should be completed no later than three days after the production of phosphorus hemihydrate of calcium sulfate from the plant.

The strength of the base in this case is reduced by 20 - 30%, depending on the end date of all works.

When calculating the material requirement, the compaction factor should be taken equal to 1.5 - 2.5 and specified by a test seal. To improve the adhesion of layers of pavement in the surface layer of the foundation, gravel fractions of 10 - 20 or 20 - 40 mm( 1 m3 per 100 m2 of surface) should be inundated. In the 2nd and 3rd types of terrain, under the conditions of moistening, the base from below and from above should be protected with waterproofing layers.

9.
ROAD FACILITIES AND

PROTECTIVE ROAD CONSTRUCTIONS 9.1.Road construction includes technical means of organizing traffic( fences, signs, marking, guiding devices, lighting networks, traffic lights, automated traffic control systems), gardening, small architectural forms.

9.2.Road barriers for the conditions of use are divided into two groups.

The barriers of the first group include barrier structures( not less than 0.75 m high) and parapets( at least 0.6 m high) designed to prevent forced vehicle exits on dangerous road sections, bridges, overpasses, and collisions withcounter vehicles and raids on massive obstacles and structures.

The fences of the second group include grids, perimeter-type structures, etc.( 0.8-1.5 m high) designed to regulate the movement of pedestrians and prevent animals from escaping to the roadway.

9.3 *.Fencing of the first group should be installed on the roadsides of sections of highways of I-IV categories:

passing along the embankments steep slope 1: 3 and more in accordance with the requirements given in Table.47;

located parallel to railway lines, marsh type III and water streams of 2 m and more depth, ravines and mountain gorges at a distance of up to 25 m from the edge of the roadway with a prospective traffic intensity of at least 4000 bells.unit / day and up to 15 m with a prospective intensity of less than 4000 pref.unit / day;

slopes of slopes greater than 1: 3( from the side of the slope) with a prospective traffic intensity of at least 4000 pref.unit / day;

with complex intersections and junctions in different levels;

with insufficient visibility when changing the direction of the road in the plan.

It is necessary to provide fencing of supports of overpasses, cantilever and frame supports of information and indication road signs, illumination and communication supports located at a distance of less than 4 m from the edge of the carriageway.

Table 47

Road sections

Longitudinal
grade,

Perspective traffic intensity, pref.unit / day, at least

Minimum embankment height, m ​​

Straight lines, curves in plan with radius of more than 600 m and from the inside of the curves in the plan with radius less than 600 m on the descent or after it

Up to 40

2000

3,0

1000

4,0

Same

40 or more

2000

2,5

1000

3,5

From the outside of the curves in the plan with a radius of less than 600 m on the descent or after it

Up to 40

2000

2,5

1000

3,5

On the concave curves in the longitudinal profile matchingcounter slopes with an algebraic difference of 50% or more

-

2000

2.5

1000

3.5

On the outside, the curvex in terms of a radius of less than 600 m on descent or after it

40 or more

2000

2.0

1000

3.0

On the roadside, the fences of the first group shall be located at a distance of at least 0.5 m and not more than 0.85 m fromThe edges of the roadbed, depending on the rigidity of the construction of road barriers.

It is advisable to install fences on roadsides:

single-sided metal barrier energy absorbing in 1 m steps - from the outside of the curves in terms of radius of less than 600 m of roads of I and II categories;

barrier single-sided metal energy-absorbing in 2 m steps - on roads of I and II categories, except for the inner side of the curves in terms of a radius of less than 600 m;

barrier single-sided metal energy-absorbing in 3 m steps - on roads of I and II categories, except for curves in plan with radius less than 600 m;

barrier single-sided metal energy-absorbing in steps of 4 m - on the inside of the curves in terms of radius of less than 600 m of roads of I and II categories;

barrier single-sided metal rigid - on roads of I and II categories, except for the inner side of the curves in terms of radius of less than 600 m, and on straight sections and curves in plan with radius of more than 600 m of roads of III category;

barrier one-sided with a metal bar on reinforced concrete racks - from the inside of the curves in terms of radius of less than 600 m of roads of I and II categories and on roads of III category;

barrier single-sided reinforced concrete with a spacing of 1,25 m - on the inside of the curves in terms of radius of less than 600 m of roads of the IV category;

barrier single-sided reinforced concrete with a spacing of racks of 2.5 m - on straight sections and curves in terms of radius of more than 600 m of road III category and on the roads of IV category;

barrier single-sided rope - on the inside of the curves in terms of a radius of less than 600 m of road III category and on the roads of the IV category;

parapet type - in the mountainous terrain on sections of roads I-IV categories, and with a feasibility study - and on sections of roads V category.

9.4.On the dividing strips of roads of the first category, fences of the first group should be installed taking into account the conditions indicated in Table.48.

On the dividing strip the fences of the first group should be located along its axis, and in the presence of dangerous obstacles - along the axis of the dividing strip at a distance of not less than 1 m from the edge of the roadway.

With a width of the dividing strip more than 3 m, it is recommended to use barrier double-sided metal fences, and for a width of 3 m or less - ferro-concrete fences of a parapet type, including a special profile of the side surfaces.

Table 48

Number of lanes in both directions

Dangerous obstacles on the separation strip

Perspective traffic intensity, pref.unit / day, with the width of the separation strip, m, not less

3-4

5-6

4

None

30 000

40 000

Available

20 000

30 000

6

None

40 000

60 000

There are

30 000

50 000

9.5.When installing road barriers, the estimated traffic intensity for a 5-year perspective is assumed.

9.6.It is not allowed to use barriers of barrier type with the use of cables on the roads of I and II categories.

It is not allowed to install parapet-type fences in the form of free-standing blocks.

9.7.When connecting the road barrier metal energy-absorbing fences with bridge fences, it should be provided that the step of the racks of the road fences is gradually adjusted to 1 m. The length of the sections with the same step of the racks should be equal to 8 m.

Notes: 1. Within the transition plates at the junction points of the span structuresbridges and overpasses with a roadbed should be used fences of the same design as on the span structures.

2. In the places of the expansion joints, the joints of the guard rails should be made with a telescoping device.

Coupling of two one-sided metal fences of the barrier type located in parallel on the dividing strip of the road or on the roadside at intersections and junctions should be made with a radius of at least 1 m.

9.8.If it is necessary to deflect the fence line in plan, it should be carried out with a stretch of at least 10: 1.

9.9.Enclosures of the second group should:

be installed on the dividing strip of the first category roads in front of bus stops with pedestrian crossings( including underground and overground ones) within the entire length of the stop and for at least 20 m to either side beyond its borders;

is located along the axis of the dividing strip, and in the presence of support rails, lighting, console and frame supports information-

indicative road signs - along the axis of the dividing strip at a distance of at least 1 m from the edge of the carriageway for grids and at least 0.5 m forfences of the perimeter type.

9.10.Roads of the 1st category, as well as dangerous sections of roads of II-V categories, when artificial lighting and installation of first group fencing are not required, should be equipped with guiding devices in the form of stand-alone signal posts 0.75-0.8 m high.

9.11.The signal posts on the roadsides of II-V categories should be installed:

within the curves in the longitudinal profile and on the approaches to them( three posts on each side) with a mound height of at least 2 m and a traffic intensity of at least 2000 bells.units / day at distances indicated in Table.49;

within the curves in the plan and on the approaches to them( three posts on each side) with a mound height of at least 1 m at distances indicated in Table.50;

Table 49

Radius of the curve in the longitudinal profile, m

Distance between the bars, m

within the

curve on the approaches to the

curve from the beginning of the
to the first

from the first
to the second

from the second
to the third

200

7

12

23

47

300

9

15

30

50

400

11

17

33

50

500

12

19

37

50

1000

17

27

50

50

2000

25

40

50

50

3000

31

47

50

50

4000

35

50

50

50

5000

40

50

50

50

6000

45

50

50

50

8000

50

50

50

50

Table 50

Radius of the curve in the plan, m

Distance between the bars, m

within the

curve on the approaches to the

curve on the outside of the

on the inside of the

from the beginning to the first

from the first to the second

from the second to the third

20

3

6

6

10

20

30

3

6

7

11

21

40

4

8

9

15

31

50

5

10

12

20

40

100

10

20

25

42

50

200

15

30

30

45

50

300

20

40

36

50

50

400

30

50

50

50

50

500

40

50

50

50

50

600

50

50

50

50

50

on the straight sections of the roadsat an embankment height of at least 2 m and a traffic intensity of at least 2000 bells.unit / day after 50 m;

within curves at intersections and junctions of roads in the same level at distances indicated in Table.50 for the outside of the curve;

on roads located at a distance of less than 15 m from swamps and watercourses with a depth of 1 to 2 m, after 10 m;

near bridges and overpasses three posts before and after construction on both sides of the road after 10 m;

at the culverts one column on each side of the road along the pipe axis.

9.12.On Category I roads, signal posts should be installed:

between junctions throughout the sections of roads that do not have roadway enclosures, after 50 m;

within the rounds from both sides of the ramps at distances indicated in Table.50.

Signal posts should be installed within an unfortified part of the roadside at a distance of 0.35 m from the edge of the roadbed.

9.13.The use of traffic signs must comply with the requirements of GOST 23457-86.Road signs must comply with the requirements of GOST 10807-78, road sign supports - the requirements of GOST 25458-82 and GOST 25459-82, as well as existing standard solutions.

9.14.The use of road marking must comply with the requirements of GOST 23457-86, road marking elements - the requirements of GOST 13508-74.

9.15.Roads of all categories should include the design and landscaping, taking into account the principles of landscape design, nature protection, ensuring natural airing of roads, protection of roadside areas from noise, natural, economic, historical and cultural features of the roads.

9.16.The project should provide for measures that reliably protect sections of the road that run through the open area from snowdrifts during snowstorms.

Protection against snowdrifts is not provided:

with an estimated annual snowfall of less than 25 m3 per 1 m of road located on irrigated or drained land, plowed land, land occupied by perennial fruit plantations and vineyards;

when laying roads in embankments with an elevation of the edge of the roadbed above the estimated level of the snow cover by the amount specified in clause 6.24 in the recesses, if the snowfall capacity of the slope is greater than the volume of snowfall to the road;

for the construction of roads in forest tracts in the absence of tears and glades.

9.17.On the protected road sections, protection against snowdrifts should be provided for:

on roads I - III categories - with snow-covered stands, portable shields or grids, or permanent fences;

on roads IV and V categories - snow-covered stands or temporary protective devices( snow shafts, trenches).

The width of snow-covered stands on each side of the road, as well as the distance from the edge of the roadbed to these plantations should be taken according to the standards given in Table.51.

Table 51

Estimated annual snowfall,
m3 / m

Snow cover,
m

Distance from the edge of the road to the stands,
m

10 to 25

4

15-25

25 »50

9

30

» 50 »75

12

40

» 75»100

14

50

» 100 »125

17

60

» 125 »150

19

65

» 150 »200

22

70

» 200 »250

28

50

Notes: 1. The width of snow protection stands and their construction with snowfall more than 250 m3 / m is determined by an individual project approved in the established order.

2. Smaller values ​​of distances from the edge of the roadbed to planted forests with an estimated annual snowfall of 10-25 m3 / m are accepted for roads of IV and V categories, higher values ​​for roads of I-III categories.

3. With a snowfall of 200 to 250 m3 / m, a two-lane afforestation system with a gap between the strips of 50 m is adopted.

9.18.Protection of the roads from snowdrifts on the plots located on the lands of the state forest fund, covered with forest, in the event of planned cutting is ensured by maintaining on both sides of the road forest strips with a width of 250 m each( counting from the axis of the road).

9.19.Permanent snow protection fences should be designed in one or several rows with a height of 3 to 5 m in order to retain the maximum estimated annual snow volume once every 15 years, and in heavily-contaminated areas of sparsely populated areas - once every 20 years.

Permanent fence is located at a distance equal to 15 - 25 times the height of the fence from the edge of the slope of the depression in the place of its greatest depth, and when the road is located on the mound - from the edge of the roadbed. If necessary( justified by calculation), additional rows of fences are arranged with distances between them equal to a 30-fold height of the fence.

Permanent fences should be constructed with discontinuities for the passage of vehicles and agricultural machinery in places agreed with land users.

9.20.Protection of roads and road structures from the impact of adjacent ravines, landslides, erosion by water flows, as well as from sandstorms should be carried out with the help of special plantations, combined with a set of geotechnical engineering measures, provided for the design of the roadbed, taking into account local experience.

9.21.To protect mountain roads from snow avalanches and landslides, it is necessary to provide:

the arrangement of galleries and canopies, avalanche, piercing and avalanche control dams;

keeping snow on the slope with the help of various devices preventing its movement and displacement;

installation of snow shields, retaining fences or walls in front of the avalanche to reduce the accumulation of snow in them;

collapse of snow in avalanche areas during the operation of the road, etc.

10. BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES OF ROAD
AND MOTOR VEHICLES

10.1.For the organization of services for the maintenance and repair of highways, the maintenance of freight and passenger traffic and road users in road projects, it is necessary to provide for the construction of appropriate buildings and facilities:

for road service - complexes of buildings and structures for road management, complexes of buildings and structures of the main and lower levelsroad service, apartment houses for workers and employees, production bases, service and protection points for bridges, crossings, tunnels and galleries, device technologistscal ties;

for motor transport service - buildings and facilities for the maintenance of freight traffic( freight bus stations, control and dispatch centers), buildings and facilities for organized passenger transportation( bus stations and bus stations, bus stops and pavilions), buildings and facilities for servicing traffic participants en route -car service [motels, campgrounds, recreational areas, short-term car stops, food outlets, points of sale, gas stations( gas stations), road facilitiesntsii maintenance( SRT), car wash points at the entrances to the city, the devices for the technical inspection of vehicles, emergency calling communication device];

for the State Automobile Inspection Service( GAI) - linear structures for traffic control.

10.2.For the main link of the road service in projects, it is necessary to provide for the administrative-household building, the production building for repair and maintenance of road vehicles and cars, parking( cold and warm) for the list of cars, a workshop for the repair of technical means for organizing traffic,and storage of anti-ice chemical materials, warehouses;for the lower level of the road service subordinate to the main link - the production building for maintenance of road vehicles and cars with administrative and domestic premises, parking( cold and warm) for the list of vehicles, storage depots of anti-ice chemical materials, warehouses.

The names of the main and lower levels can be adopted in accordance with the current structure in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

10.3.Complexes of buildings and structures of the main and lower levels of the road service, as a rule, should be located near the settlements on the same for the whole complex or close to the sites directly adjacent to the roadway.

For buildings and structures, general energy supply, water supply, sewerage, heating, communications, repair facilities, etc. should be considered. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of cooperating with closely located enterprises in the organization of public catering, medical services, fire protection, improvement of adjacent territories.

10.4.Arrangement of storage facilities for industrial equipment, parking of road vehicles and cars should be provided taking into account natural and production conditions.

10.5.Buildings and structures of the road service should be designed on the basis of tasks that take into account the organizational structure of the repair and maintenance of roads( linear, territorial, linear-territorial), adopted in the subjects of the Russian Federation, depending on local conditions.

The length of road sections serviced by road service units, depending on the type of roads and types of road clothes, should be taken from Table.52.


Table 52

Division road service

Est length of road sections, km, at road category

I

II

III

IV

V

Preferred types of pavements

capital

lightweight

transient

lower

main link service road maintenance:

at

linear principle100-170

170-260

170-260

210-260

-

in the case of the territorial principle

250-300

250-300

250-300

250-300

250-300

The grass-roots link of the road maintenance service

30-40

40-55

55-70

70-90

80-100

Point of holding and guarding large bridges

On bridges over 300 m long

Point of maintenance, maintenance and guarding of drawbridges

On all bridges without limit of length

Ferry service point

On the floating bridges, ferries

Notes: 1. Smaller values ​​of indicators should be taken, for road sections with traffic intensity close to the upper limits set for the relevant road categories;in the highlands;in areas with snow or sand drifts, as well as in places prone to erosion, landslides or subsidence, with complex engineering structures( tunnels, galleries, retaining and dressing walls, bank protection, landslide and other structures).

2. The length of road sections of the 1st category is given for roads with 4 lanes. In the case of 6 or 8 lanes, the length of the sections should be calculated with decreasing coefficients of 0.7 or 0.5, respectively.

3. On national roads, if necessary, security points can be organized on bridges with a length of less than 300 m.

4. The scheme of road maintenance service is determined by the requirements of operation of the projected section of the highway taking into account the use of existing facilities.


10.6.The capacity, dimensions and other parameters of the structures of the motor transport service are taken for a 10-year prospective traffic intensity, taking into account the possibility of their further development.

10.7.The capacity of bus stations and passenger bus stations, the average daily volume of departure of goods from freight bus stations and the placement of these facilities on the roads should be taken according to the schemes for the development of road transport or the tasks of the relevant organizations. The size of the land plots of buildings and structures of the motor transport service should be taken for passenger bus stations and bus stations according to the design standards for bus terminals and passenger bus stations, and for freight bus stations - according to technical and economic indicators of road transport.

10.8.Stop and landing areas and pavilions for passengers should be provided in the places of bus stops.

The width of the stopping areas should be taken equal to the width of the main lanes of the carriageway, and the length - depending on the number of buses that stop at the same time, but not less than 10 m.

Bus stops on the Ia category roads should be located outside the road surface, and for safety reasons they should beseparated from the roadway.

Stopping areas on roads I-b-III of categories should be separated from the roadway by a dividing strip.

Landing areas at bus stops should be raised by 0.2 m above the surface of the stopping areas. The surface of the landing areas must have a covering on an area of ​​at least 10'2 m and on the way to the pavilion. The nearest edge of the pavilion for passengers should be located no closer than 3 m from the edge of the stopping area.

In the area of ​​bus stops, the border is installed without biasing from the edge of the stopping strip and the adjacent sections of the transfer-speed lanes.

From the landing areas in the direction of the main streams of passengers, pedestrian paths or sidewalks should be designed to existing sidewalks, streets or footpaths, and in their absence - at a distance not less than the lateral visibility distance( paragraph 4.20).

10.9.Bus stops outside populated areas should be located on straight sections of roads or on curves with radii of at least 1000 m for roads of I and II categories, 600 m for roads of III category and 400 m for roads of IV and V categories and for longitudinal slopes of not more than40 o / oo. At the same time, visibility standards should be provided for roads of the appropriate categories.

Bus stops on roads of the I category should be located one against the other, and on the II-V category roads they should be displaced along the road not less than 30 m between the nearest walls of the pavilions.

In the areas of intersections and road junctions, bus stops should be located from the intersections at a distance not less than the visibility distance for stopping according to Table.10.

On the roads of I-III categories, bus stops should not be assigned more than 3 km, and in resort areas and densely populated areas - 1.5 km.

10.10.When placing buildings and structures of the automobile service, it is necessary to take into account the availability of power supply, water supply and maintenance personnel, as well as the possibility of their further development.

10.11.Recreation areas should be provided in 15-20 km on the roads of I and II categories, 25-35 km on the roads of the III category and 45-55 km on the roads of the IV category.

On the territory of recreational areas there may be facilities for technical inspection of cars and points of trade.

The capacity of recreational areas should be counted on the simultaneous stop of at least 20 - 50 cars on the roads of the I category at the traffic intensity of up to 30 000 fiz.units / day, 10 - 15 - on the roads of II and III categories, 10 - on the roads of the IV category. With the bilateral placement of recreational areas on Category I roads, their capacity is reduced by half as compared to the above.

10.12.Placement of gas stations( gas stations) and road maintenance stations( SRTs) should be based on economic and statistical surveys.

The capacity of the gas station( the number of refueling per day) and the distance between them, depending on the traffic intensity, is recommended in accordance with Table.53.

10.13 *.The filling station should be located in roadside areas on road sections with a slope of no more than 40 ° / o, on curves in plan with a radius of more than 1000 m, on convex curves in a longitudinal profile with a radius of more than 10 000 m, in sections with embankments not exceeding 2.0 m in heighttaking into account fire, sanitary and environmental requirements.

Table 53

Intensity of movement, transp.unit / day

Capacity of gas stations, refueling per day

Distance between gas station, km

Location of gas station

St. 1000 to 2000

250

30-40

Single-sided

»2000» 3000

500

40-50

»

» 3000 »5000

750

40-50

»

» 5000 »7000

750

50-60

Two-way

» 7000 »20 000

1000

40-50

»

St 20 000

1000

20-25

»

Note. When the filling station is located in the crossing area, its capacity should be specified taking into account the length of all served adjacent roads, traffic intensity and other calculated indicators in these areas.

10.14.The number of posts in road maintenance stations, depending on the distance between them and traffic intensity, is recommended in accordance with Table.54.

For road maintenance stations, it is advisable to provide petrol stations.

10.15.The capacity( number of berths) of transit motels and camping sites should be taken taking into account the number of passing tourists and the traffic intensity of long distance and international transport.

The distance between motels and camping sites should be no more than 500 km.

Motels are advisable to design in a comprehensive way, including maintenance road stations, gas stations, food and trade points.

10.16.When objects of automobile service, if necessary, place food and trade points.

10.17.Special areas for short-term stopping of cars should be provided at food, trade, emergency, drinking water sources and in other places with systematic stops of cars. On the roads of I-III categories they should be placed outside the roadbed.

10.18.Technological communication for ensuring the work of the road service should be envisaged on the first category roads, and in the presence of special requirements - on the roads of II and III categories.

10.19.Emergency-calling communications should be provided for roads of the I category with the appropriate justification.



Table 54

Intensity of movement, transp.unit

Number of positions in the service station depending on the distance between them, km

Location of the workshop

80

100

150

200

250

1000

1

1

1

2

3

Single-sided

2000

1

2

2

3

3

»

3000

2

2

3

3

5

»

4000

3

3

-

-

-

»

2

2

2

2

3

Two-way

6000

2

2

3

3

3

»

8000

2

3

3

3

5

»

10 000

3

3

3

5

5

»

15 000

5

5

5

8

8

»

20 000

5

5

8

Special calculation

»

30 000

8

8

ANNEX 1

Mandatory

ROAD-CLIMATE ZONES OF THE USSR APPENDIX 2

Mandatory

CLASSIFICATION OF LOCALITY AND GROUND TYPES

Table 1

Terrain type

Characteristics depending on road and climatic zones

I

II

III

IV

V

1st

Surface runoff provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper thickness of soils;the thickness of the active layer is more than 2.5 m with non-shrinkage soils with a moisture content of less than 0.7 wl

Surface runoff is provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils weakly and medium podzolic or sod-podzolic without signs of swamping

Surface runoff is provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils gray, forest weakly podzolic, in the northern part of the zone - dark gray forest and chernozems podzolized and leached

Surface runoff is provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soil - chernozem fat or powerful, in the southern part of the zone - southern chernozems, dark chestnut and chestnut soils

Groundwater does not affect the hydration;soils in the northern part brown, in the southern - light brown and serozems

2nd

Surface runoff is not provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;Tundra soils with pronounced signs of bogging;thickness of the seasonally thawing layer from 1.0 to 2.5 m in the presence of clayey subsidence soils with a moisture content of more than 0.8 wl

Surface runoff is not provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils medium- and strongly podzolic and semi-bogged with signs of bogging

Surface runoff is not provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils podzolic or semi-gilded with signs of gleying, in the southern part - meadow chernozem, solonetzes and malts

Surface runoff is not provided;Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils - strongly solonetsous chernozems, chestnut, solonetzes and solods

Groundwater does not affect the humidification of the upper stratum;soils - solonetzes, takyrs, solonchakous solonetzes and less often solonchaks

3rd

Ground or long-term( more than 30 days) standing surface waters affect the moistening of the upper stratum of soils;Tundra and marsh soils, peat bogs;thickness of the seasonally thawing layer to 1 m in the presence of clay strongly sedimentary soils containing within the double thickness of seasonal thawing of ice lenses thicker than 10 cm

Groundwater or long-standing( more than 30 days) standing surface water affects the humidification of the upper layer;peat-bog soils or semi-bog soils

Same as for II zone

Groundwater or long-standing( more than 30 days) standing surface water affects the humidification of the upper layer;soils are semi-marshy or marshy, solonchaks and solonchakous solonetzes

Groundwater or long-standing( more than 30 days) standing surface waters affect the humidification of the upper layer;soils - solonchaks, solonchakous solonetzes;permanently irrigated areas

Notes: 1. Areas where sandy-gravel or sandy soils( with the exception of fine silty sands) are more than 5 m thick with a groundwater table at a depth of more than 3 m in the II, III zones and more than 2 m in the IV, V zones, refer to the 1 st type, regardless of the presence of surface runoff( in the absence of prolonged flooding).

2. Groundwater does not influence the moistening of the upper thickness of soils if their level during the pre-frost period lies below the freezing depth by no less than 2.0 m with clays, loamy heavy and dusty loams;at 1.5 m in loams of light pulverous and light, sandy loam of heavy silty and silty;at 1.0 m in sandy loam, light large and sands silty.

3. Surface runoff is assumed to be provided at slopes of the ground surface within the strip of a diversion more than 2 ° / °°.

Terrain types by nature and degree of humidification

Table 2

Types and subtypes of clayey soils

Soils

Parameters

types

subtypes

content of sand particles
% by mass

plasticity number lp

Sandy loam

Light large

St. 50

1-7

Light

»

Light

7-12

Lightly dusty

Less than 40

7-12

Heavy

St.40

12-17

Heavy Dusty

Less than 40

12-17

Clay

Sandy

St 40

17-27

Dusty

Less than 40

17-27

Greasy

Not standardized

St 27

Notes.1. For sandy loam large particles are taken into account the content of sand particles 2 - 0.25 mm in size, for other soils - 2 - 0.05 mm.

2. If the content in the soil is 25-50%( by mass) of particles larger than 2 mm, the word "gravelly"( in the case of pelletized particles) or "chippings"( with non-rolled particles) is added to the name of clayey soils.


Table 3

Classification of soils according to the degree of salinity

Soil variety

Total content of readily soluble
salts,% dry land mass

chloride, sulfate-chloride salinity

sulfate, chloride-sulfate salinity

Weakly saline

0,5-2,0
0,3-1,0

0,5-1.0
0.3-0.5

Average saline

2.0-5.0
1.0-5.0

1.0-3.0
0.5-2.0

Highly saline

5, 0-10.0
5.0-8.0

3.0-8.0
2.0-5.0

excessively saline

St. 10.0
St. 8.0

St. 8,0
SS 5.0

Note. Above the line are values ​​for the V road-climatic zone, below the line for the other zones.

Table 4

Soil classification by swelling degree

Soil types
( at 0.5 wo moisture)

Relative swelling strain,
% of humidification layer thickness

Swelling

Less than 2

Weak swelling

2 to 4

Medium-swelling

»5» 10

Strongly swelling

St 10

Table 5

Classification of pounds by degree of subsidence

Varieties
of soils


coefficient of subsidence

Relative deformation of the drawdown,
%Asphalt layers

Non-shrink

St 0.92

Less than 2

Weakly loose

From 0.85 to 0.91

From 2 to 7

Drawdown

From 0.80 to 0.84

From 8 to 12

Stronger

Less than0.79

St.12

Note. The classification does not apply to rocky waterproof soils and soils with the exception of water-insoluble cementing substances, the subsidence of which is estimated from laboratory tests.

Table 6

Classification of soils according to
degree of freezing

Groups
soils

degree
distending

relative frosty
sample swelling,%

I

Nepuchinisty

1 and less

II

Slabopuchinisty

St. 1 to 4

III

distending

»4" 7

IV

Silnopuchinisty

»7»10

V

Excessively rampant

» 10

Notes.1. The freezing test is carried out in the laboratory using a special technique with a flow of water. It is allowed to determine the group according to the sheaves by the table.7 of this annex.

2. When evaluating the value of frosted puddles, by testing the soils for the intensity of frost heaving, a special method is used.

3. In cases where the frost test is carried out, a group of sheaves may be installed according to Table 7 of this annex, and the average relative frost freezing point of the freezing zone is given in Table.8.

Table 7

Soil groups by degree of ripeness

Primer

Group

Sand gravelly, coarse and medium size with a fine particle content of 0.05 mm to 2%

I

Sand is coarse, coarse and medium size with a particle size of finer 0,05 mm to 15%, fine with a particle content of less than 0.05 mm to 15%;sandy loam light coarse

II

Sandy loam;loam light and heavy;clays

III

Sand silty;silty sandy loam;heavy dusty loam

IV

Sandy loam, heavy silty;light dusty loam

V

Note. The value of the frost freezing coefficient of chippings, gravel, and gritty sands with a content of particles finer than 0.05 mm in excess of 15% is approximately assumed for dusty sand and is checked in the laboratory.

Table 8

The amount of frost heaving

Working layer primer

Average value
of relative frost heaving when frosting 1.5 m,%

Sand gravelly, coarse and medium size with a particle content of smaller than 0.05 mm to 2%

1
1

Sand gravelly, coarse, medium size with smaller particles0.05 mm to 15% and fine with a fine particle content of 0.05 mm to 2%

1
1-2

Fine sand with a particle content of less than 0.05 mm to 15%;sandy loam light large

1-2
2-4

Sand silty;silty sandy loam;heavy dusty loam

2-4
7-10

Sandy loam

1-2
4-7

Sandy loam, heavy silty;light dusty loam

4-7
10

Loam is light and heavy;clay

2-4
4-7

Note. Above the dash - for the 1st type of terrain for moistening according to Table.1 of this appendix, below the line - in the 2 nd and 3 rd types.


Table 9

Type of terrain in I road and climatic zone according to
conditions of humidification and permafrost and soil characteristics

Terrain type

Soil humidification conditions


asphalt processes and phenomena

Soils

type

characteristic

1st

Dry places

None

Large clastic;sandy

Massive texture;non-solid or thawed

2nd

Raw locations. In summer, excessive moistening of the soils of the active layer by surface waters of

is possible.frosted whipping( seasonal knolls)

Sandy;clay

Massive and layered textures;low-salt and low-drop

3rd

Wet places. In the summer, the constant excessive moistening of the soils of the active layer by the surface and supra-permafrost waters

Dampness;frosted whipping( perennial hillocks);thermokarst relief;solifluction

Clayey;possible the presence of underground ice

Layered and mesh textures;icy and strong-bodied;subsidence, strongly subsidence and excessively subsidence

Table 10

Classification of soils by iciness and subsidence
in I road climate zone

variation of soil subsidence during thawing

Ldistost1
permafrost soil

total thickness of the active layer of soil humidity

fine sands

silty sands,

light sandy loam loam

peat

unsettled

Without ice inclusions( 0-0,01)

Less 0, 18

Less than 0.2

Less than 0.2

-

Slightly doughed

Low-density( 0.01-0.1)

From 0.18 to 0.25

From 0.2 to 0.4

From 0.2up to 0.4

Less than 2

Layered

Flocculent( 0.1-0.4)

Std 0.25

0.4

0.4 to 1.1

2 to 12

Strong-hole

Strongly solid( 0.4-0.6)

-

-

St. 1.1

St.12

Excessively subsidence

With large inclusions of subterranean ice( 0.6-1.0)

-

-

»1,1

» 12

1 Ratio of the volume of ice sheets to the volume of frozen ground( including inclusions of ice particles).


Table 11

Soil types according to the degree of humidification

Soil type

Moisture

Moistened

Less than 0.9w

Normal humidity

From 0,9 wо to wadm

High humidity

»wadm» wmax

Moistened

St. wmox

Note.wmax - the maximum possible soil moisture at a seal factor of 0.9.

Table 12

Permissible soil moisture during compaction

Primers

Permissible humidity wadm in fractions of the optimum at the required soil compaction factor Tb

Std 1.0

1.0-0.98

0.95

0.90

Silt dust;sandy loam lightweight large

1.30

1.35

1.60

1.60

Sandy loam light and dusty

1,20

1,25

1,35

1,60

Sandy loam super heavy;loams light and lightweight silty

1,10

1,15

1,30

1,50

Loams heavy and heavy silty, clay

1,0

1,05

1,20

1,30

Notes: 1.When erecting embankments from non-dusty sands in summer conditions, the permissible humidity is not limited.

2. These restrictions do not apply to embankments erected by hydraulic washer.

3. When erecting embankments in winter conditions, humidity should not, as a rule, be more than 1.3w for sandy and dusty sandy loams, 1.2wo for sandy silty and loamy loams and 1,1wo for other cohesive soils.

4. The amount of allowable soil moisture can be adjusted taking into account the technological capabilities of the available specific sealing means in accordance with the norms of SNiP 3.06.03-85.


Table 13

Calculated humidification schemes

Scheme of humidification of the working layer

Humidification sources

Conditions for referring to this
type of humidification

1st

Atmospheric precipitation

For embankments in the first type of terrain according to the humidification conditions( 6.3 and Table 1 of this annex).

For embankments in sections of terrain of the 2nd and 3rd types, under humidification conditions, when the surface of the coating is raised above the calculated level of groundwater and surface water or above the ground, more than 1.5 times higher than the requirements of Table.21.

For embankments in areas of type 2, with a distance from the surface of the surface water( not at least 2/3 of a summer period), more than 5-10 m in sandy conditions;2-5 m in light silty loams and 2 m in heavy silty loams and clays( lower values ​​should be taken for soils with a greater number of ductility, and when the various soils are laid, take the highest values).

In excavations in sandy and clayey soils with slopes of cuvettes more than 20%( in I-III road-climatic zones) and when the surface of the coating is raised above the calculated level of groundwater, more than 1.5 times higher than the requirements of Table.21.

When applying special methods for regulating the water-heat regime( capillary interrupting, waterproofing, heat-insulating and reinforcing layers, drainage, etc.), designated by special calculations

2nd

Short-term surface water( up to 30 days);atmospheric precipitation

For embankments in sections of the 2nd type of terrain according to the humidification conditions( cl. 6.3 and table 1 of this annex), when the surface of the coating is raised, not less than that required by table.21 and not more than 1.5 times higher than these requirements, and with steepness of slopes not less than 1: 1.5 and a simple( without berm) transverse profile of the embankment.

For embankments in areas of the 3rd type of terrain, when special groundwater protection measures are applied( capillary interrupting and waterproofing layers, drainage), designated by special calculations, the absence of long standing( more than 30 days) surface water and the conditions of the previous paragraph.

In excavations in sandy and clayey soils, with slopes of cuvettes less than 20 o / oo( in zones I and II) and elevation of the surface of the coating above the calculated groundwater table, more than 1.5 times higher than the requirements of Table.21.

3rd

Ground or long-term( more than 30 days) standing surface water;atmospheric precipitation

For embankments in sections of the 3rd type of terrain, according to the conditions of moistening( item 6.3 and table 1 of this annex), when the surface of the coating is raised, meeting the requirements of Table.21, but not exceeding more than 1.5 times.

The same, for excavations, at the base of which there is a level of groundwater, the location of which in depth does not exceed the requirements of Table.21 more than 1.5 times

Table 14

Values ​​of relative seal ratios

Required soil compaction factor

Values ​​of coefficients of relative compaction k1 for soils

sand, sandy loam, loamy loam

loam, clay

loess and loesslike soil

rocky developed soils at density, g / cm3

slag, waste processing industry

1,9-2.2

2.2-2.4

2.4-2.7

1.00

1.10

1.05

1.30

0.95

0.89

0.84

1,26-1.47

0.95

1.05

1.00

1.15

0.90

0.85

0.80

1.20-1.40

0.90

1,00

0,95

1,10

0,85

0,80

0,76

1,13-1,33


Table 15

Classification of the terrain by the mobility of sands

Degree of fixing the surface of the sands

Area,covered with vegetation,%

degree

sands mobility Nezarosshaya surface

Less than 5

Very movable

Slabozarosshaya »

5 to 15

movable

Poluzarosshaya»

St. 15 to 35

sedentary

Overgrown »

St. 35

Fixed

ANNEX 3

The Reference

ELEMENTS subgrade

upper part subgrade( working layer) - part webs, located within the roadbed of the pavement on the bottom 2/3 of the depth of freezing, but not less than 1.5 m from the surface coating of the carriageway.

The foundation of the embankment is an array of soil under natural occurrence, located below the bulk layer, and at low embankments - and below the boundary of the working layer.

The bottom of the excavation is an array of soil below the boundary of the working layer.

APPENDIX 4

Reference

SOIL SEAL FACTOR

The soil compaction factor is the ratio of the skeleton density of the structure in the structure to the maximum skeleton density of the same soil with the standard compaction according to GOST 22733-2002.

APPENDIX 5

ANNEX 5

Reference

TYPES OF SWIMMING POOLS

Three types of marshes should be distinguished:

I - filled with swamp soils, the strength of which in the natural state provides the possibility of erecting mounds up to 3 m high without the occurrence of a lateral extrusion process of weak ground;

II - containing at least one layer within the marshy layer which can be squeezed out at a certain intensity of erecting a mound up to 3 m in height, but not squeezed out with a lower mound buildup rate;

III - containing at least one layer within the marshy layer, which is squeezed out when the embankment is built up to a height of 3 m, regardless of the intensity of the embankment erection.

APPENDIX 6

Reference

STABLE AND INSTABILED

FACING LAYERS Stable layers of the mound are layers constructed from thawed or loose-grained soils, the density of which in the mound corresponds to the norms of Table.22.

Unstable layers of the mound - layers from frozen or thawed wetlands, which in the mound have a density that does not meet the standards of Table.22, so that deformation of the layer can occur during thawing or prolonged action of the loads.

APPENDIX 7

Reference

LAYOUT ROADS The pavement layers should be subdivided:

covering - the upper part of the pavement, perceiving the forces from the wheels of vehicles and directly exposed to atmospheric factors;the coating should provide the necessary operational qualities of the carriageway;The coating also includes a wear layer and layers with a rough surface;

base is part of the pavement providing, together with the coating, the redistribution and reduction of pressure to the additional layers or soil of the subgrade below;

additional layers of the base( frost protection, heat-insulating, draining, etc.) - layers between the base and the top of the working layer of the roadbed, ensuring frost resistance and draining of the pavement and the upper part of the roadbed.

SNiP 2.05.02-85 * - Highways

CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS AND RULES

ROADS

SNiP 2.05.02-85 *

Moscow

DEVELOPED by the Southeast Ministry of Transport( Candidate of Technical Sciences VM Yumashev - the head of the topic;N. Yakovlev, Candidates of Technical Sciences NA Ryabikov, NF Khoroshilov, Doctor of Technical Sciences VD Kazarnovsky, Candidate of Technical Sciences VA Chernigov, AE Merzlikin, Yu. L. Motylev, AM Sheinin, IA Plotnikova, BC Isaev, NS Bezubik) with the participation of the Soyuzdorproekt Mintransstroy( VR Silkov, Candidate of Technical Sciences VD Braslavsky;Zarifiants), Moscow Automobile(Institute of Technical Sciences VF Babkov, EM Lobanov, VV Silyanov), the USSR State Construction Committee( VI Polyakov, PI Zarubin, BC Porozhnyakov, Candidate of Technical Sciences AG Kolchanov), VNIIBD USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs( Candidate of Technical Sciences VV Novizentsev, V. Ya. Builenko), Giprodornii Minavtodor RSFSR( Doctor of Technical Sciences AP Vasiliev, candidates of technical sciences VD Belov, EM Okorokov), Goproavtotrans Minavtotrans of the RSFSR( V.A.Velyuga, Yu. A.Goldenberg), Gipronnefttrans Goskonefteproduct of the RSFSR( AV Shcherbin), Gruzgorgorgdornii Minavtodor GSSR( Candidate of Technical Sciences TA Shilakadze).The

was introduced by the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation.

PREPARED TO APPROVAL by Glavtekhnormirovaniem Gosstroya USSR( Yu. M. Zhukov).

For the attention of readers!

SNiP 2.05.02-85 * is a reissue of SNiP 2.05.02-85 with the change No. 2 approved by the USSR Gosstroy Decree No. 106 of June 9, 1988, No. 3, approved by the USSR Gosstroy Decree No. 61 of 13 July 1990, No. 4, approved by Resolution No. 18-57 of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation of June 8, 1995, and No. 5, approved by Gosstroy of Russia of June 30, 2003, No. 132.

Sections, paragraphs, tables, formulas to whichchanges are noted in these building codes and rules with an asterisk.

State Committee of the USSR
for construction

Building regulations

SNiP 2.05.02-85

Automobile roads

In exchange for
SNiP II-D.5-72 and SN 449-72
in part of the design standards
asphalt road

This regulation applies to the design of newly constructed and reconstructed public roads in the Russian Federation and access roads to industrial and agricultural enterprises.

These rules and regulations do not apply to the design of temporary highways for various purposes( built for a service life of less than 5 years), avtozimnikov, roads of logging enterprises, internal roads of industrial enterprises( test, in-site, career, etc.), on-farm roadsin collective farms, state farms and other agricultural enterprises and organizations.

8. BRIDGES, PIPES AND TUNNELS

8.1.Bridges, overpasses, viaducts, overpasses and pipes on highways should be designed in accordance with the requirements of SNiP 2.05.03-84 *.

8.2.Road tunnels should be designed in accordance with the requirements of GOST 24451-80 and SNIP 32-04-97.

8.3.The estimated traffic intensity for road tunnels is determined in accordance with Nos.1.6, 1.7.For road tunnels, the prospective period should be at least 30 years.

8.4.Bridges and tunnels on highways, as well as areas of approaches to them should be designed in compliance with the requirements of uniformity of traffic conditions on the roads.

8.5.On sections of approaches to tunnels, the carriageway should be marked out as a solid line with a distance of at least 250 m from their portals, performed along the edge of the roadway.