Build Daily

August 12, 2017 18:08

Mounting the switch box


  • 1 General questions about the electrical boards
  • 2 Installation and device
  • 3 shield start domestic installation
    • 3.1 Assembly instructions
    • 3.2 What else you need to know?
Installation of electrical switchboard photo Wiring own hands.Mount the switch box on their own.

Electrical panel in the apartment, its importance in the power supply system at home is extremely high.Posting can not efficiently and properly function without the proper distribution of electricity consumers, and fire and electrical safety will be minimized in the absence of the necessary elements of protection.Of course, it would be better if the wire laying and installation of the equipment will be handled by experts, but for some the study of this question (this will help this article), you will be able to mount the switch box with his hands without much effort and expense, brought together a simple diagram.The main thing to understand what are the power supply circuit, what kind of equipment you need to choose how to calculate the electrical

load is properly and evenly.

General questions about the electrical boards

At the moment, there are two types of electrical panels.The first - an old and fading into oblivion - a shield with a fuse (or plugs) that are disposable, and it was necessary to replace the twist and modern devices equipped with the packet switch systems (machine guns).Of course, use the best modern technology, as they surpass legacy systems in terms of reliability, safety and durability, and take up less space, but they can not be repaired.In stores you can buy plates as already with vstoroennymi breakers and empty "boxes" and have to install the necessary equipment.

Electrical panel in the apartment, the power supply circuit which can be varied, and the number of consumers and their power over time can grow to be selected with extra beds under the breakers.

Introductory machine, usually capable of simultaneously disable and "phase" and "zero", must be selected on the basis of the total load of the apartment.The value of its current and protective characteristics higher than those of the auxiliary machines.As a rule, for 2 and 3-bedroom apartments suitable machine at 32-40 amperes (about 7kW) if the load is less, the machine can take 25 or 16 amperes.

What about auxiliary machines mounted on "phase", then they are necessary for the protection of the individual premises or devices.Experts advise to put a machine on every consumer, whose power exceeds 1.5kW (heating tanks, washing machines and so on).Table of the approximate electrical load is lower.

Table 1 - approximate power household devices.

power distribution RCD























RCD (residual current device), the device is extremely useful if you need to raise the level of electrical protection at times.React to the slightest leakage of currents and voltages, instantly de-energizing the circuit.In the presence of the house bathrooms and children's rooms, equipped with appliances, choice of RCD will play a particularly important role.

Installation and device shield

Flap electrical housing or abb legrand is of two types: closed (in-wall) and outdoor (billboard attached directly to the vertical surface).Selecting the type of installation is mainly dependent on the type of wiring - if the open-wiring the ideal mounting position plated shield, such a shield does not require special training place, fixed to the wall using conventional dowel-nails or screws, "screws" (all depend on the wall material).If the wiring is concealed type (ie, built into the wall), then the best option is to install built-in shield.Everything is more difficult, as will have to batter the wall, most importantly do not forget to make sure that the thickness of the wall allows you to set a guard.After creating a niche, it is greased securing plaster or plaster solution, and in a box built "box".A guard is more convenient to use plastic.The upper part must contain an introductory machine for which the meter is located.It is secured with screws.Installation of the meter is carried out after completion of the work related to the device wiring.This is due to oplombirovkoy.

Installation electrical panel must be carried out on a hard surface, where it is easy to reach and maintain.

Location panel is determined by the norms and away from water and gas pipelines.It must be located on a flat wall surface with a maximum slope of 1.5 degrees at a height of about 1.5 meters from the floor.If it is impossible to arrange the meter far from potential damage seats, it can be put into the cabinet, equipped with a viewing window.Fixing wires may be using a bandage knit.

for wiring in the attic is necessary to leave a small length of wire, because wire twisting is not allowed into the bay.If you do the electrical wiring in the attic, the cable is placed in a metal pipe with grounding.

What about materials of construction for the panels, it may be either a metal or heat resistant plastic.The second option is more convenient to install and use, more secure, and its attractive appearance.

So, with the installation of the box itself was dismantled, and now look at how the electric circuit board is arranged.

In principle, all the same type of electrical circuit boards, but there are basic factors on which they are going, these include:

  • number of electricity consumers;
  • total power consumption of electrical energy;
  • power of each customer;
  • place the electrical installation;
  • number of phases;
  • presence of the grounding conductor;
  • node availability of electric energy.

voltage is applied to the lead-Machine (better if two-pole) and is on a single-phase electricity metering unit, where it comes to the RCD.Next phase is split and direct distribution of loads by means of circuit breakers and other RCD.For example, the machines will be separately for lighting, on the outlet and the powerful consumers.

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device switch box with three-phase power system is similar, only the opening machine, the RCD and the electric meter will be three-phase, and the whole system will be more in terms of both size and in the number of machines and the connectionconductors.

start domestic installation

now look at how to properly assemble the electrical panel.First and foremost, in the panel by means of screws, DIN rail mounted.Of itself it is a metal plate, to which will be attached later all switching devices.To create the required length can be easily sawn hacksaw.

addition Din rails are attached to the shield enclosure terminal blocks (different distribution tires).Their role is null connection conductors.If the apartment or house of the old model and the system is made only phase (phase 3) and working zero (blue wire runs), only one terminal block.If the system is implemented by the rules and there is an additional green-yellow conductor (protective zero or ground), you need to put another bus.At this point in time are commercially available tires, the design of which allows you to mount them on a DIN-rail, as well as machines.

After mounting DIN-rails are starting to mount circuit breakers.The modern design will make it very quickly enough on the upper side of a flat screwdriver machine pull latching device, put the machine on the DIN-rail and remove the screwdriver.Removal is carried out similarly.

Assembly instructions

Next is a step by step description of how to build a single-phase electrical panel

  1. strictly observe safety precautions!
  2. produce the required number of fastening DIN rails to the panel.
  3. After attaching them, according to the selected scheme set the required number of machines, RCD, Zero tires.It should be remembered that according to the rules, the opening machine should be placed on the top left.
  4. Install electric meter (if space allows).This particular equipment that requires special knowledge, so it is easy to bring to it the wire and cause the controller from power sales, which will make a proper connection, and at the same time be an act and seal counter.
  5. Connect introductory machine.It would be better if the phase to bring it to the bottom.In the future, it will simplify the task of installation of bridges between machines.
  6. Merge all rifles and RCD special jumpers.The question: "How to build an electric shield" at this point it is worth paying attention to.

    Assembling distribution panel

The connection can be made in three ways:

- With stranded copper wire with a core tips NSHVI type.

- Personally produce jumper U-shaped pieces of copper wire.

- With special insulated bars, called dies.Such a tire is convenient in terms of assembly and does not occupy much space, plus several times reduces the number of connecting wires.


Once completed all the necessary steps for the assembly of the electrical panel, start cutting and connecting wires.

1. With bunching simple - clean off the excess with a knife isolation.2. After the removal, it is desirable to solder the bare ends or provided with special crimping, which is also better to solder.

3. We make the connection wires to the machine - the terminals must be well tightened with a screwdriver, then poor connection will result in the destruction of heat and current-carrying parts.

4. The grounding conductor always misses the machine directly to the ground bus.

5. Ground wire connected to the neutral bus.If the protection is used a conventional machine (except induction) - Zero goes directly unless protection is designed RCD - zero goes through to the connected line.

What else you need to know?

Installing the switch box and its assembly - is not only the ability to assemble the circuit properly.It is also necessary to know some nuances, so that later do not regret the time spent and the best.

  1. on buying board in any case can not save!Shield cheapness clearly indicates substandard materials from which it is made.Cheap plastic eventually become yellow and brittle.Fire resistance may be too low.
  2. Buy shield better reserve modules.It must be able to maneuver in a big way.
  3. necessary sign installed machines!After a while you can not remember what the machine for what is.Often, complete with electric board is adhesive paper, which serves as a time for these purposes.
  4. Six months later, after assembly, it is necessary to make broach contacts.
  5. periodically tested RCD by pressing the corresponding button.
  6. better to buy equipment well-known brands.In these panels everything is ready for a comfortable, high-quality and safe cabling and installation of safety devices.For example, the assembly of the electric panel legrand or abb, less time consuming due to the availability of the necessary component parts.
  7. For convenience have distribution bars on either side.The PE - below zero - at the top.
  8. If you have children in the house, you need to buy a shield with a castle or equip such.

should be remembered that for assembly and installation of the electrical panel Legrand, ABB or of another company in the equipment must be strictly off power lines, after checking the absence of voltage.

To attach the assembled panel to the current system, it is necessary to involve employees of the organizations concerned.For apartment buildings are representatives of condominiums or housing office.

As a result, after the entire assembly and connection process, you must close or fasten the lid and check your work, by applying voltage to the conductive part of your shield.

Installation diagram with three-phase input

Single phase wiring diagram

wiring diagram in the apartment

Especially for apartment renovation site on their own.