Build Daily


August 12, 2017 18:06

Concrete septic tank with his hands

construction of a septic tank for a country house or villa is an absolute must in today's realities.The industry produces ready-made water treatment devices, which need only be installed in the selected location.However, many people prefer to do their own sewer stock unit.For this purpose often use concrete well ring, which need to purchase, but you can do without it, arranging a fully monolithic concrete septic tank.To build a concrete septic tank will need to purchase their own hands just sand and cement reinforcement.At the same time the advantages of this design are obvious: no seams, which provides complete sealing, the ability of erection on the heaving and the swampy ground, and much more.

Pit Formwork for monolithic concrete septic tank

pit formwork for monolithic concrete septic

advantages of monolithic concrete septic

Like any monolithic construction of a concrete septic tank has many advantages, which should list:

  • If it wisely to design and build somethingconstruction is very strong and durable.Repair it does not need over several decades with proper care.
  • owner can choose his future volume of the septic tank, based on their real needs.There is no need to adapt to the standard dimensions, on the market today and of cubic concrete rings.
  • absence of joints, such as in concrete rings, guarantees leak into the ground.This makes it possible to arrange a monolithic septic even near water bodies or in areas where the groundwater level is very high.
  • Monolithic concrete septic tank very heavy, so no flooding is not able to provide its ascent.Do not be able to raise to the surface and even a very strong ground heave.
  • all used in the construction of such a construction materials are quite feasible on the cost and employ heavy lifting equipment is also not necessary to further reduce spending on device septic tank.

Among the few drawbacks is worth noting only that the monolithic structure is quite difficult to build.This process is long and laborious.After complete solidification of the concrete occurs within 3 - 4 weeks.

process of construction of monolithic concrete septic

As with any construction work, construction of a septic tank is carried out in several stages:

  • Design.
  • Site selection for construction.
  • Carrying earthworks.
  • Waterproofing floor and walls, strengthening the construction of the armature and formwork.
  • pouring concrete.
  • slab construction.

All work is carried out precisely in the order that is presented here.Let us consider each step in more detail.

Design and calculations

at the design stage calculates the required capacity of a septic tank, that is, the first volume of its receiving chamber.Determined by the sheer number of cameras, as well as the place where all the waste water treatment system is installed.

To properly calculate what volume of the septic tank should be done, you need to know what is the maximum flow per day of home ownership.The first chamber should have a volume-to-fit the whole stock of the house for 3 days.The volume of waste water depends on the number of people living in the home and the presence of those or other plumbing fixtures.It is generally accepted that for one person per day consumed 200 liters of water.That is, for a family of 5 persons will require at least 3 m 3 volume of the first chamber septic tank.It is the largest.It is desirable to further increase by 20 - 30%, as the guests can come and installation can not cope with the task.

general for sewage treatment require the construction of a private home not one, but two or even better three cameras.You can see the characteristics of each of these species:

  • Single-chamber septic tanks are in fact only settlers, in which the decomposition of sewage into fractions: solid, liquid and gaseous.The hard part is just a waste settles to the bottom of the tank, where bacteria are actively processed.The gaseous component is discharged through the vent stack into the atmosphere.But poorly purified liquid part flows into the filter well or filtration fields and goes into the ground.The second option - all the contents of the septic tank are taken to help assenizatorskaya machine, but it is not economically justified for large loads on the sewers.
  • Two-design exercise upholding drains in the two chambers, before sending them into the ground.This allows for cleaner and more environmentally friendly wastewater.Chambers are interconnected at the top, allowing flow to the second compartment spaced more upper layers of water.
  • Three-chamber construction is sometimes provided with a compressor and pumping equipment.The first chamber of the septic tank is the same as described above.But in the second set compressor that pumps air into it.This makes it possible to reproduce it and carry out the activity of aerobic bacteria.They are much better, better and faster to degrade organic matter.the compressor is regulated by a special timer to turn on the exposed intervals.This increases the life of the compressor and reduces energy costs.Thus it enters the third chamber is almost purified of harmful components of water.There is even advocated by a pump and sent to the draining system.

three-chamber septic tank for its work requires a stable supply of electricity.Therefore, it can be satisfied only where this is no problem.

chief in the selection of a location of a septic tank is the account of the direction of movement of groundwater.It is logical that the treatment plant should not be done upstream, than a house.Do not pour in a septic tank right outside the house, but also to remove it too far not to be, as this would require additional spending on pipes and their insulation.Adopted by installing a septic tank at a distance of 4 - 6 meters from the house foundation.In this well, well, pond or other place of water intake must be removed from the sewage treatment plants is not less than 50 m in the case of sandy soils and 30 m in the case of clay soil.

The circuit arrangement of the septic tank on site

scheme septic tank location on

site Consider further the process of building their own hands the most popular two-chamber septic tank.

Implementation of earthworks

Like any capital construction, construction of a septic tank begins with the digging of the pit.To do this it is possible by hand, if you want to save money.However, it will greatly increase the construction time and the complexity of the process.Therefore it is better possible to rent an excavator, which will cope with the task of maximum one hour.As the wall and bottom of the pit are aligned and well compacted, since it affects not only the quality of the future construction and material consumption.In the process of digging the pit and are preparing trenches for laying pipes.One trench dug from the house to the septic tank, and the second in the field of filtration or in the soil filter.It is advisable to bury the pipe below the frost line.If this is impractical, then they can be warmed using a heater or use a heating cable.

is worth noting that if you suddenly decide to build a septic tank is not completely sealed, it is sometimes possible, you must first carry out geological surveys to determine the level of groundwater.With their high occurrence this possibility is excluded.Moreover, the same survey should show how permeable the soil in your yard.If there is sufficient massive layer of sand, it is possible to build a septic tank leaking.In case this should not be made of clay.

Waterproofing, strengthening the construction of formwork and reinforcement

To exclude the possibility of penetration of contaminated water into the ground, you need to the bottom and walls of the excavation carefully lay a waterproofing material with sizing joints.Its edges should extend beyond the edge of the pit at 30 - 40 cm. Then, make the filling the bottom of the pit with sand 20 - 25 cm and ram this layer as tightly as possible.On it set rebar, which is made from a rod thickness 8 - 12 mm.To do this, you can use the old pipes, metal cutting, wire or other hard metal objects on the bend.On the prepared sandy base and fittings poured concrete screed thickness not less than 5 cm. It should completely hide the valves.The solution should be added a plasticizer, such as water glass.This will reduce the water permeability of concrete to a minimum.

waited until the concrete screed, forming the bottom of the tank, completely hardens, you can begin to construct the formwork for pouring the walls around the perimeter of the pit.It can be made from virtually any material at hand: sheets of OSB boards, plywood.To save material, it is possible to make the sliding formwork.This involves the construction of low buildings first, and after the concrete has set, move it higher.To tide the partition between the two chambers is necessary to build the formwork on both sides.However, both parts need to be fixed very firmly struts so the concrete has a very high density and creates high pressure on the formwork wall.

Implementation fill

solution to make this work very quickly you can order a ready solution and pour it all at once.However, in practice most often the solution we used to do on their own.To this was mixed in a concrete mixer the sand and cement in a ratio of 3 to 1, and as a small fraction of the filler added rubble.It is necessary not to forget and pour into a solution of water glass.Fill the formwork better layers, which greatly reduces the formation of air voids in the thickness of the concrete monolith.The optimum thickness of the layers should not be more than 50 cm. Can be used for building a vibrator sealing solution.The partition between the compartments is to fill in the 10 - 15 cm lower than the rest of the wall.

formwork Analysis is carried out only after the concrete has set.Thus it is necessary to examine closely the entire inner surface of the resulting container.If there are some bumps and potholes, they should cover up with a solution.The inner surface of the septic tank, it is desirable to cover the surface waterproofing.This will further reduce the likelihood of sewage leakage and increase the concrete resistance to aggressive media.

Finished wall of concrete septic tank

Finished wall of concrete septic tank

construction of the upper floors

important role played by the top cover to the septic tank.After all, it has to be robust and reliable, so as not to fall under the influence of the soil.Do this overlap as follows:

  • The entire perimeter of the concrete walls are placed metal corner and sealed it in a single frame by welding.Or in the middle of the partition area is welded channel or another area for rigidity.Both cameras also need to weld frames for manholes device for periodic removal of sediment.At this stage, do not forget to install the pipe for discharging gas from the septic tank.It can rise above the earth's surface at 30 - 50 cm.
  • Over corners flooring planks that covered roll waterproofing material.For this purpose, suitable roofing material.Boards reinforced top and pour the solution, leaving openings for the hatches, which can be made of boards set on edge or weld metal is not less than 3 mm thick.
  • Boxes for hatches need to impose bricks.This will prevent their deformation under the influence of the soil.Top boxes provided with covers that can be made of boards covered with roofing material.
  • remaining slab surface can be covered with soil.It is best to mix concrete block, which will greatly facilitate the impact on the ceiling.
Ready concrete septic tank , built with his own hands before backfilling

Ready septic tank made of concrete, built with his own hands before backfilling

In the process of pouring the walls, you need to provide holes in them for input and output supply pipe to the filtration field.To this can be built into the formwork intervals slightly larger diameter pipes.After casting, these pipes are inserted supply and discharge pipes.They need to be well insulated how anything material.

Thus, monolithic concrete septic tank, made by hand, is a fairly robust design, with proper construction will last for many years without the need of costly repairs.You will need only periodically removed from the vessels the solid precipitate.