Build Daily


August 12, 2017 18:06

Autonomous sewerage own hands

During the construction of a country house, sooner or later there is a question about the need for construction of the sewer system.Since centralized sewage is present only in the city, the suburban real estate owner always thinks about the construction of an autonomous system.Of course, you can hire professionals to carry out all the calculations and install a septic tank, but it will cost quite expensive.To save money, everyone can get acquainted with how the constructed autonomous sewer with your hands.

Our article aims to break it down from start to finish, beginning with the settlement and ending with commissioning.After reading it, you will not have a bad understanding of the principles and methods of device autonomous sewer systems in the suburban area.If you have the desire and ability to handle the tools you will be able to mount an autonomous sewer system of one of the species.

Driving a private house sewage

sewerage scheme private house

Stage design

When being built country house, the more often it is done on an individual project.Accordingly, there is no typical sewerage scheme of the device for it, and have to do the calculations yourself.To do this, you must know the basic rules of design of sewer systems and their device.First, draw a diagram of the internal sewer showing all plumbing fixtures and parameters of pipes between them.

for external sewage main parameter is the performance of septic tanks, which depends on the number of people living in the house and the number of plumbing fixtures.In addition, considerable importance is the depth of the pipeline bookmarks and septic tanks in the ground, or the degree of warming in the case of outdoor installation.These parameters depend on the climatic conditions.The main condition here is to maintain the temperature in the septic tank sufficient for the life of the bacteria that break down sewage.The optimum temperature is 50 degrees.Selectable type of septic tank depends on the geological structure of the soil layers and depth of the groundwater at the site.

Everyone who is going to design an autonomous country house sewer, must understand that it consists of several interrelated parts:

  • internal sewerage system consists of a number of pipes, which are connected to the general network by connecting shaped parts.It has a total yield of the house and is connected to the external sewage system through the so-called non-return valve, which is designed to prevent the rise of water in the house overflow tanks outside.Domestic sewage networks sometimes are present not only in the home but also in other buildings located on the site.In this case, each of them has its output connected to a septic tank.
  • Outdoor sewerage system is of several types: Cesspool (suitable for rarely visited places, such as giving or bath), storage tank (suitable for a small amount of water), septic tank or biological treatment plant (the most suitable options for a full-fledged country house with a permanentaccommodation).
  • Storm sewer system is arranged on poorly drained soils around the house.It can be independent, but sometimes it is integrated into the overall system.

For proper installation, any of these systems must be carefully designed.

Conducting the necessary calculations

There is plenty of raw data from which will depend on the parameters of a given system.The calculation is performed for each of the separate sewerage.This design domestic sewage is to produce at the stage of creating the overall design of the building.

internal network

To the internal sewage system is operating normally and did not allow failure, it is necessary to make it competent calculation according to the existing regulations:

  • The optimum installation location of plumbing devices inside the building in full compliance with the regulations and existingrules.Immediately designed and the type of connection of these devices to the system.
  • selects the most suitable method of removing waste from the system.Known pressure and gravity domestic sewerage.In private homes mainly mounted a rudimentary second option.However, in this case produce the correct calculation of angle tubes.
  • any tilt angle depends on the sewer pipe diameter and its length.According to the standards prescribed by tilting the tube diameter of 50 mm to 3 cm for each meter, the pipe diameter of 100 - 110 mm 2 cm / mp.More than 160-millimeter pipe 0.8 cm / mp.
  • To calculate the required diameter sewer pipes calculated capacity of the sanitary device to which it is brought.
  • finds the optimal valid location for the sewage pipes and risers.
    They are necessary to equalize the pressure in the entire sewer system.

important condition for designing domestic sewage is a problem of information, the number of corners to a minimum.This is because it is most often in the corners formed blockages.

Driving home drainage House,

Scheme domestic sewage House,

External device

When designing outdoor sewerage system takes into account the environmental requirements for the implementation of activities on the plot.For example, too close water intake well or wells to supply drinking water to households makes it impossible to build a septic tank without the presence of these multi-stage cleaning.It is important way to drain waste water.In rare cases, a central outlet, but much more autonomous sewer system is used.The volume of storage tanks and their performance depends on the number of persons living in the house, and the total volume of water consumption.

outdoor drainage is integral with the internal network of sewer pipes.The connection is made through the outlet pipe, which deepened below the level at which the soil stops freezing.If this is not possible or reasonable need to consider ways of heating and insulation of the pipe section.

biological treatment plant

biological treatment plant

placement rules for the disposal of sewage capacity following:

  • usual not protected cesspool must be located at least 15 meters away from the house foundation.
  • overflow well open the second vessel - 12 meters
  • Septic any kind - 5 m.
  • modern high-tech biological treatment plant -.. 3 m

If the reservoir is at a great distance from home, regardless of the depth of hisbedding, drain pipe needs to be warmed by heat-insulating materials.It is also possible to use an electric heating cable.


construction of the entire sewer system is carried out in several phases, which alternate with a certain sequence.During the design scheme is to be performed all communications with an indication of the length of the pipes and their diameters.The riser pipe and which horizontally out of the house to the outside sewers are made of plastic pipe with a diameter 100 - 110 mm.All other hoses made of 50-mm pipes.The diameter of the pipe is equal to the diameter of the background of the riser.It may even be its continuation.Internal and external sewage system can be connected to a corrugated pipe.This gives greater assurance of reliability in the ground motions.However, its inner surface must be smooth.

preparatory stage

At this stage, prepare tools for production work.For internal systems need:

  • Saw for plastic products, which is called scoring.It is used for cutting pipes according to the required size.
  • sharp knife, designed for cutting barbs on various sections and forming a chamfer on the cut end of the pipe.
  • kits rubber mounting gaskets.

outdoor installation system will require: shovels and earth moving machinery, and building materials such as gravel, sand, cement, insulation.

For mounting sanitation is not enough just to get the pipes.It would take another and shaped parts to them:

  • taps, which are necessary for the formation of different angles.There are 45 or 90 degree detail.At the ends they have sockets with sealing rings for a tight connection between the pipes themselves.
  • Transitional bends need to create normal connections between two pipes of the same diameter.
  • triple or quadruple fittings are designed for organizations manifold.
  • nipples equipped place of transition between pipes of different diameters.

For ease of installation of pipes, the ends must be heated in hot water.It softens the plastic and allows it to be mounted freely in a single network.

main stage

domestic sewage installation First you want to install the vertical risers in the required quantity.usually they are paving from the plinth to the roof.The upper part of the role played by the sewer vent pipe.The place for the installation of risers selected as close as possible to the toilet.This is due to the fact that they should be located no further than 1 m from the risers.If all toilets are located in a vertical projection, and the house is a small area, it will be enough to put only one riser.Allowed to the farthest device defended him a maximum of 5 m.

K riser connected all the underwater pipe.First connect the pipes from the toilet.They must be located below the other.Then connect all the other side branches.Valid for one admission to mount several different plumbing fixtures.However, the thickness of the connecting pipe have to be taken according to their overall performance.Connect all plumbing fixtures through the siphon is the final stage of installation internal sewer system.


outdoor sewerage consider the option of external device septic tank of three containers:

  • need three metal or plastic containers, each with capacity of 1.5 m3 to manufacture a full septic tank.This will be enough to ensure the processing of waste from the household in which the person resides 4.These containers can be bought, but you can do it yourself in the presence of welding skills.
  • finished container waste must be buried in the ground.For this purpose it is necessary to dig a pit not less than 2.5 m and a depth of 4 - 5 m in length and to place the container.All they need to interconnect the tubes at the top.Last container should not be sealed.Well, if it is simply in place of the bottom grate.The wall must also have holes.This is to ensure that the water from the last tank left free in the ground on the final stage treatment.For this to happen efficiently, a capacity to be arranged a drainage layer of crushed stone and gravel.

Such a septic tank will operate as follows.Ka, only the first barrel is filled with water, it starts to overflow into a second barrel.This solid waste fraction will settle to the bottom.A similar process will begin to occur in the second container.It is still possible to add the substrate to the bacteria that are actively begin to process sewage.As a result, in the third tank overflows already sufficiently clear fluid that goes into the ground, in which there is its complete cleaning.

The device septic tank with filtration fields

device septic tank with filtration fields

There are other variants of the device external sewage.In particular, you can buy ready-made septic tank or biological treatment plant.Sometimes a small amount of wastewater it is advisable to simply bury the collecting tank.It is necessary from time to time to pump.

Ready septic industrial production

Ready septic industrial production

In conclusion, I want to say that not only the right to build the sewer system, it is also necessary to operate correctly.If a septic tank designed for receiving waste water from 4 people, then certainly not in any way in the building can not accommodate 10 people for a long time and enjoy all the plumbing fixtures.It will certainly sooner or later lead to an emergency situation.