Build Daily


August 12, 2017 18:06

Internal drainage in a private home : the rules of design and installation + analysis of common mistakes

the design and installation of domestic sewage for private homes no one is immune from mistakes, which can lead to unpredictable consequences, from the appearance of an unpleasant smell to the complete failure of the system.Consider this article the concept of interior drainage in a private home: the rules of design and installation + analysis of common errors that occur in the process of it all.

general characteristic of modern internal

sewerage system today construction of a private suburban housing is booming.Therefore, it became necessary to create a comfortable and modern sewerage system that would be able to mount an ordinary person who does not have a building form.Such a system should have a good performance, as the number of plumbing fixtures that produce domestic waste water has increased significantly.After all, with the advent of automatic washing machines, dishwashers, whirlpool and showers water use ordinary households has increased to 200 liters per person per day.

Increasing the number of plumbing fixtures leads to considerable complication of pipeline networks themselves.Fortunately, today, for the installation of sewer use PVC pipe that supplies auxiliary shaped parts by means of which the pipeline installation becomes complicated manufacturing articles from children's designer.All these details are provided with O-rings, which can be easily replaced if necessary.

Internal sewerage scheme two-storey cottage

Scheme domestic sewage two-storey cottage

Domestic sewage is a collection of plastic pipes and fittings to connect them serving sewage from sanitary devices.The devices themselves are equipped with siphons necessary to prevent odor penetration into the premises.Pipe laying is subject to strict rules, if ignored, may violate the whole system.

rules laying pipes at a construction

domestic sewage in a central outlet channel throughout the sewer system is a riser at home.He may be one for the entire house.If the house is too big or bathrooms are located at a considerable distance from each other, the risers are doing two or more.They are vertically installed pipes that start in the basement, and ends on the roof.The lower part of the riser pipe is connected to the sloping of the same or a larger diameter, which comes out into a container for storing waste water or sewage treatment plant.The upper part of the riser rises above the roof not less than 0.5 meters. It is open and is provided with a check valve.What is it - look at next.All inlets leading from plumbing devices are connected to the risers.

Location sewer riser in the house

Location sewer riser in the house

hydrodynamics of liquids in pipes

pipe is a cylinder, inside which the water moves.When full, the water pipes there is an effect of the piston.This means that the top water plugs pressure drops sharply, and at the bottom on the contrary increased.In a situation where there is explosive drain from the tank of the toilet, the vacuum is able to suck all the water out of the siphon.It is fraught with the appearance of the smell in the rooms.In contrast, during the motion of the fluid creates pressure to push the sewage which is capable of being below the toilet device.

Ignoring the laws of hydrodynamics leads to two common mistakes when designing and installing sanitation.The first mistake is the failure of the ventilation device.Background pipe coming from the riser to the roof, not only removes unpleasant smell, but also serves as a pressure compensator in the system.After all, if it is available at low pressure water piston does not suck the water from the siphon and ensure the flow of air in the atmosphere, which again leveled pressure.

second common mistake is that all sanitary devices connected via supply pipe to the riser below the toilet.This is unacceptable, because it certainly will cause sewage pouring into the sink or shower when flushed.Similar problems arise when podvodok tubes have a length greater than the permissible for them.In order not to arise such troubles need to formulate some important rules for the installation of sewerage intrahouse.

Terms devices intrahouse sewage, the violation of which is unacceptable

Attention!Violation of the rules outlined below can result in serious breakdown of the internal sewer system or an emergency.

  • connection to the toilet riser must be carried out separately from other sanitary devices.
  • All other elements include plumbing system above the toilet connection.At one feed pipe may be several devices permitting their performance.
  • Any feed pipe diameter should be no less than the largest diameter hoses from the unit.
  • drain bowl has a diameter of 100 mm, hence the riser must not be thinner than it.
  • toilet set at a distance of not more than 1 m from the riser, and the other devices within 3 m.
  • If the house has a feed pipe is longer than 3 m, it must not be thinner than 70 mm.Liner, which is longer than 5 m doing already from 100 mm pipe.

If the increase in the diameter of the connecting pipes, for whatever reason, is not possible, then there is a way to circumvent this rule.To do this, the end of a pipe to bring to the roof and provide a vacuum valve or looped it on risers above all other instruments.

quantitative characteristics parameters laying sewer pipes

there are important nuances, compliance with which will provide sewerage operation in the optimal mode:

  • slope of all horizontal pipes depends on the diameter of the section.Standards suggest that a 50 mm diameter pipe must fall on each of 3 cm per meter length, having a diameter of 100 mm to 110 cm 2 per meter.Pipes having a diameter of 160 mm can be rotated no more than 0.8 cm per meter.
  • indicators such as the height difference to the toilet should be 1 m and the other devices of 3 m. The excess of these parameters should be accompanied by the organization of ventilation at the ends of the respective inlets.

Another common mistake is the wrong design of the corners.If we make angles of 90 degrees, resulting in a rebound at this point the blockage will be formed from the waste pipe and quickly clogged.For this reason, the corners need to create a smooth flow of water.For this purpose fittings are used which have angle of 135 degrees.

Regulations laying sewer pipes

Regulations laying sewer pipes

fourth mistake - this conclusion is not the sewer pipe on the roof, and into the general ventilation of houses.Such an arrangement will create an unforgettable "flavor" of the house, get rid of which can only be to remake the entire system.

To not hear the sounds of moving water pipes, you must make a noise insulation.For this purpose mineral wool pipe wrapped and placed in a box of the drywall sheets.For timely and convenient maintenance work pipe equipped with hatches revision every 15 m. The same applies to all the turns.

fifth error.In the pipe connecting the in-house sewage system and septic tank, not a check valve.In this case, the overflow of external devices for recycling the water can rise up through the pipes and fill the basement.

errors associated with connecting siphons

connect any device to the sanitary sewer is through a siphon, having a form of letter U. This curved shape allows water to reside in it.It forms gidrobarer smell and does not penetrate into the room.However, the system stops working when making some mistakes.The main mistake - lack of ventilation.In this case, a vacuum sucks the water from the siphon, allowing smells to walk freely around the house.Another cause of bad breath - banal evaporation of water from the siphon.This occurs when a rare use of the device.You just need to plug the device redkoispolzuemoe cloth.

Appearance sewer siphon

Appearance sewer siphon

What calculations are made in the planning of domestic sewage

Work on designing domestic sewage should be carried out strictly in accordance with the above rules.In addition, to meet their need to conduct certain calculations:

  • In the overall scheme indicate the place where will be located one or the other device.Its distance from the riser, the diameter of the inlet pipe, the option of fastening and connection to the sewage think through in advance.At the same time calculate the required amount of materials.
  • are defined with the type of sewer system itself.They are self-flowing and pressure.Typically, because of its simplicity the system is used in which the water flows under the force of Earth's gravity.The main thing here, calculate the slope of the pipes according to the rules set out above.
  • According to the technical characteristics of each health unit, calculate its one-stage flow.From this figure depends on the thickness of the feed pipe.In most cases, all devices except the toilet, fits 50 millimeter pipe
  • calculates the optimal location for the installation of the riser.Most often it is the toilets.If two of them in the building in different vertical planes, the better to make the riser and two.
  • count sewerage scheme is necessary so as to minimize the number of available angles of rotation.This will significantly reduce the risk of blockages.

above calculations performed correctly, will make the drains most workable and effective, even when congestion occurs.

What is needed for the construction of sewerage systems intrahouse

As mentioned above, the main device in the sewage inside the house is a compilation of her detailed drawing showing all the devices and sizes of elements.For mounting use pipes made of polyvinylchloride.The device ends thereof such that the two tubes can be connected by putting an end to one another in the socket.To use the riser pipe diameter of 100 mm, and for the rest of devices 50 mm.To connect to the outside sewer use corrugated pipe, because of its better resistance to shifting of the ground.

From instrument usually used: a saw for cutting plastic pipes, a sharp knife and rubber mounting gaskets.Saw cut pipe, knife cuts are aligned and make chamfer.Rubber gaskets are inserted into the sockets.To connect pipes used in a variety of fittings:

  • knees or elbows, which are necessary for clearance angles.They are made with a bend of 45 and 90 degrees.Their ends are also equipped with sockets with seals for the creation of tight junctions.
  • If necessary, the compound of scraps of pipes of the same diameter, apply transitional outlets.
  • tees of different types of fittings are to organize branching pipes.
  • Transition joints need to create transitions between pipes of different thickness.

common mistake when installing plastic sewer pipes - a disregard for their heating.To the pipe is lighter and fits snugly into each other and connecting fittings, sockets must be heated in hot water.

Pipes and fittings for sewerage

Pipes and fittings for sewer

sequence of work when installing internal drainage

mounting sewer system inside the house in the following order:

First, install the risers, taking them to the ends of the roof and in the basement.They should take place in the immediate vicinity of the toilets.The basement of the inclined pipe is connected to the exiting outward in septic tank, and the upper ends left open, or is provided with a check valve.

Second, is fed to the riser carts from toilets.They must be separate.

Third, connected to the risers liner from other devices above the toilet entrances.

Fourth, all mounted on a siphon devices.

Fifth, siphons connect with eyeliner.

This can be considered the installation of internal sewerage system consummated.It is important that all joints are tight, and all the pipes are rigidly fixed to the wall or ceiling, and their divergence would be excluded.

In conclusion, we say that a properly designed and collected sewage will work all put it for a long time without serious problems.