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Construction Of Wells And Wells On The Site

August 12, 2017 18:06

How to drill a hole with their hands

water at their summer cottage or in a private home - a necessary resource, without which it is impossible to do.However, the organization of the general water supply system is often impractical.Due to the remoteness of land holdings from each other centralized water supply - very expensive.Individual water source to use easier and cheaper.However, first you need to organize it.Private wells will provide its owner with confidence that the economic needs of the site and housing are met.In this case the owners do not have to pay for water, counting each cubic meter of water spent.Well digging difficult and expensive, but the self-drill the well - really, if you are familiar with the technology and the type of drilling wells of the device.

Different types of wells and particular

Different types of wells and their features

Types of wells and their features

Before drilling the territory of the site is necessary to investigate, identifying the level of groundwater.This parameter will depend on the volume of work that will need to perform well to become the aquifer.Borehole type is selected, it is given the depth of the water-containing layer of bedding.

If water is found at a depth of 3-12 m, choose the type of "Abyssinian well".At a depth of up to 50 m using a sand wells and artesian if the water lies in the ground not less than 200 m. The first two types can manually perform almost every summer visitor, but will require a borehole rig and professional drillers.

The internal arrangement of the well

Inside the well

Burime manually sand well

This type of source involves pumping water from depths of up to 50 m. Sandy hole is called so because it "gives the water" of the water-containing sandy soil layer, whose occurrenceusually - just fifty meters.This depth does not guarantee the purity of the water, so it is recommended periodically to check the contents of the wells in the sanitary station for the presence of organic and chemical compounds.

To arrange a sand well used classical scheme with a pump.And to purify water from sediment and debris, use a filter installed at a depth.The filter requires regular brushing.The service life of a sand hole about 15 years.

Driving drilling a sand hole

organization well "Abyssinian well»

It is easy to design a well-needle.It is shallow, so you need to take care of the careful selection of the place for her.

nearby should not be septic tanks, garbage heaps, pit and waste pits.Due to the small depth of harmful substances can leak into the source, contaminating it.

If in the ground there is no gravel or other hard rock, drilling can be carried out on the territory of okolodomovoy or in the basement of the house.Wells in the basement is convenient to use, even in cold weather.Equip your home well manual column and pump, so that you can enjoy the water, regardless of the availability of electricity.

drilling artesian wells

Given that in neighboring areas is already well of this type, the probability of occurrence in the area of ​​water in the limestone formation.In other cases, drillers bought an experimental well, to determine the depth of water abundance.Artesian well water can provide multiple sites.Most drilling bought a purse to save and get the desired result.

Selection of the hole depends on the type of soil and the planned amount of water consumed.Abyssinian wells and sand wells provide good low consumption.And if the flow rate is 10 cubic meters per hour, you will need to arrange artesian well.Any drill hole better away from potential contaminants, and not far from the house, so no problems with the water pipe laying.

drilling artesian well tool

instrment for drilling artesian wells

Boring equipment and tools

During the drilling of artesian wells used by professionals rigs.For smaller wells suitable conventional tripod with a winch.It will lower and raise the drilling tool consisting of a core barrel, drill rods, columns for drilling, drill.

Special equipment, without which it is difficult to do well, - drill tool that will help delve into the soil (auger), tripod and winch.To drill a well with your hands need a metal screw.As the screw can act ice screws, which is used when ice fishing.The main thing was to drill from high-strength steel.This is the cheapest option of drilling a well.Besides the tripod need pipes of different diameters (water pipes, tubing, casing), valves, caisson, filters, pumps for wells.

The process of drilling artesian wells

process of drilling artesian well

Concrete works: stages

1. You first need to dig a pit or a pit with dimensions of 150 by 150 cm To deepen not crumbled, its wall is lined with plywood boards.pieces of chipboard.Another option -. Dig a conventional drill stem with a diameter of 15-20 cm and a depth of 1 m deep This is to ensure that the pipe is kept stable in an upright position.

2. Directly above the deepening put a solid metal or wooden tripod (it is called the drill tower), fixing at the junction of her legs winch.More common tower of logs.On a tripod hanging drill column with half meter (for self drilling) rods.Fasten thread rods in one tube, fix the collar.This design is used for lifting, lowering equipment.

pump is selected in advance, in order to determine the future of the well diameter and the core barrel.The pump must pass freely into the pipe.That is why the difference between the diameter of the pump tube and the inner diameter should be at least 5 mm.

descent-lifting drilling equipment - and there is drilling.Stange crank while hitting her on top of the bit.Together make it much more convenient: the first gas turns the key, and the second hitting the bar top, punching breed.Using the winch simplifies the process: it ascent and descent equipment into the well to carry out much easier.The boom in drilling is marked.The marks required for orientation.Labeling helps determine when it's time to pull the drill stem and clean.Usually recommended to do this about every two feet.

3. To make it easier to overcome the different layers of soil, special drills are used.

  • spiral drill (otherwise, serpentine) - to clay soils;
  • drill-bit for razryhreniya hard soil;
  • drill-spoon for the sandy soil;
  • bailer helps to raise the ground to the surface.

4. sandy layer is easier to pass a drill, a spoon, adding water during drilling.If the soil solid, use a chisel.Boers-bit are cross head and flat.In any case, their purpose - to help loosen the hard rocks.Shock method overcomes sand-quicksands.

In clay soil required coil and drill-bailer spoon.The coils or spiral augers well tested clay soils, because they have a structure similar to a spiral, the pitch of the helix is ​​equal to the diameter of the drill.The size of the lower base of the drill 45 to 85 mm, the blade of 258-290 mm.Pebble layers containing gravel, punch, alternating Bailer and chisel, with the casing.Sometimes it can not do without water in the Gulf of the hole.This can greatly simplify the task of drilling wells.Worthy of consideration and the option of drilling a well using a pump.

how to drill a hole

drilling process soil

5. If species are delivered to the surface has become an important means aquifer is near.It takes a little deeper, to go to the aquifer.Drilling will dramatically noticeably lighter, but you can not stop.Need to find a brown waterproof layer.

Well Construction and buildup

Once the desired depth is reached, the next stage - equipping.In well drained finished The filter column, consisting of a pipe and filter sump.It can be made with his own hands from the filter mesh and perforated casing, or use ready-made, bought in a store-Control filter for submersible pump.

Process well everything

process everything well

To strengthen the pipe space behind it poured gravel 5 mm fraction or coarse sand.Filling should be above the level of the filter.Filter - the most important element of any well.Main filter function - protection from sand and larger impurities.In parallel with the water injection backfilling carried out in a sealed tube with the upper end.This manipulation helps to wash the filter and the annulus.After washing, it formed a natural barrier for large impurities.Zhelonirovanie well packed-bailer or a screw pump means that the fresh water is pumped out of the well until then, until the water is clean and clear.This stage is called the buildup.For her, the use of electric centrifugal pump more often.The advantage of this mechanism is that it can pump the liquid medium of higher density.Common household pump is also admissible, but it will require more effort and time.If you have problems with the supply of electricity, possibility to use the hand pump.

the well pipe

Pipe for wells

After pumping in the tether is lowered to a depth of the pump (see. The picture above).To this is connected a hose or water pipe, with a diameter of 25 or 50 mm.The choice depends on the diameter of the well capacity - the amount of water that can pump out of the well for a certain period of time.

If you use a metal pipe, the pump is not fixed.Instead, the tube attached to the waterproof cable coming from the pump.

The sample pump for well

pump Sample wells

pump wells.Features

To find the correct pump power, be sure to take into account parameters such as:

  1. wells debit indicators of its depth;
  2. diameter of the casing;
  3. distance well away from home.

required pump capacity depends on these parameters.At shallow depths (up to 9 m) suitable priming surface pump, in other cases, will serve in good stead submersible borehole pump.

After immersing the pump in the well equipped caisson output pipe privarivayas to its end walls.It is installed the valve, which will open the way to the water up and regulate the flow.Excessive water intake rate of unproductive wells will dry up quickly, and the pump working on empty, goes down.The caisson is connected pipes, which are water pipeline in the room.They need to provide waterproofed and insulated trench.Read about how to select a pump for the well here, but about how to select a pump for the well here.

wells Operation

Timely cleaning needs of all types of wells.Signs that aquifer the well is required service could be: the jerks in the water outlet, the presence of a stream of air pockets, admixtures (silt, sand).If you miss the point of service, well productivity may not recover more.To restore normal function, well spend purge water or air compressor.A more radical methods of cleaning - acid or electricity.However, these methods are risky and best left to professionals.

Tips for those who are doing well on their own

Before starting work, it would be good to ask the neighbors, what is the level of occurrence of water in your area.If nearby wells have well - check it out.

water level above 5 m - Good news, because of the tools for drilling only need a drill yard.

small-sized drilling rig or drilling unit mechanical - "handbrake", can be rented.So you will be able to enjoy comfortable facilities and not pay for it a lot of money.

can not omit the pipe-water conduit into the hole to the bottom.It does not have to reach the deepest point of about half a meter.So water will be better to go upstairs.

pipe leading into the well, have to be on the surface of the air vents, otherwise, the water will become stale quickly without air access.Well-equipped with a hinged cover on the tube that there was continuous access to the well.

most convenient for the well equipment - one-piece plastic tube.

After a well earned, necessarily give their water to the examination.Drinking water is recognized, if transparency is not less than 30 cm, the nitrate content - not more than 10 mg / l, the first liter of coliform least 10 and the maximum score odor and taste - 3 points.

Construction and finish well

Construction and finishing well

Disadvantages and advantages of a manual drilling

Advantages: cheap;no need for cumbersome arrival on site of specialized equipment;due to the relatively small depth, makeshift wells are pumped faster, less tightened;if there is no electricity, water can get a manual suction pump.

main drawback of self-drilling - limited depth, the shortage of specialists who can help to maintain a self-made wells.So after reading this article, we hope that you will not have issues like drill a well with their hands.

Video - drilling process step 1

Video - drilling step 2

Video - drilling step 3