Build Daily

Furnaces And Heating Systems

August 12, 2017 18:06

Clay masonry of furnaces

quality clay for masonry stoves - one of the most important conditions for the reliability and durability of the future of the heating plants, clay can be purchased in a specialty store or extracted himself.But in any case it is necessary not only to know how to choose the right, but also properly prepare for the masonry work.

Clay masonry of furnaces

Clay masonry stoves

There is a considerable number of different varieties of clay, and not all of them are suitable for masonry oven.Therefore, it helps to understand that what is in this stuff, what qualities it should have, so it can be applied to the construction works of this kind.

What is the clay?

Article Contents

  • 1 What is the clay?
    • 1.1 clay composition
    • 1.2 basic properties of clay
  • 2 Clay masonry oven
    • 2.1 How to find and pick up the clay?
      • 2.1.1 Video: Experienced setter shares the secrets of production quality clay
    • 2.2 Determination of fat clay empirically
    • 2.3 Cleaning clay
    • 2.4 Soak clay
  • 3 Chamotteclay
  • 4 What solutions are needed for the furnace?
  • 5 Manufacturing solutions using clay
    • 5.1 clay-sand mortar
      • 5.1.1 Video: example of the preparation of a clay solution oven
    • 5.2 clay-fireclay solution

it would seem a ridiculous question - each of us is a natural fossil known since childhood.However, not everyone knows clay component composition and its specific properties, used in building practice.

clay composition

clay mineral component may, at their percentage composition vary considerably, but in all its types are always present substance from groups such as montmorillonite and kaolinite or other layered aluminosilicates.This type of natural material contains various impurities in the form of sand particles and carbonate, but its basic structure - is aluminum oxide - 39%, kaolinite - 47% and about 14% water.

largely clay composition depends on the method and place of its creation.So, stand out residual and sedimentary clays.

  • residual clay formed by the weathering of rocks and non-plastic converting them into plastic kaolin.
  • sedimentary clay formed by the transfer of weathered natural products and settling them in a certain place.This clay can be formed on the ocean, sea or river bed and on the mainland.Marine rocks are divided, in turn, on the coastal, lagoon and offshore.

Clay is not a rare mineral substance, and is widely distributed across the planet.Find it practically everywhere, so the clay can not be called expensive material.

Open pit mining of clays

open pit mining of clays

basic properties of clay

Clay is a fine-grained material, and irrespective of the place of its formation, it has its own characteristics of other natural resources.Due to its properties, it can be used not only in construction but also in other fields of human activity.

  • Clay quickly absorbs moisture and swells under its influence, while getting water resistance, ie the ability to hold water.
  • second, no less important positive quality of the mineral is its plasticity, due to which he can take any form.
  • After drying the clay acquires high strength.Due to this quality and water resistance, it is often used for arrangement of floors in basements or device "locks" around, for example, wells or house foundation.
  • In addition, very small importance qualities of this material are high adhesion of the solution and its gas tightness.

Depending on the proportions of ingredients in the composition of the clay, it may have a different degree of fat.A more precise - it is lean, normal, oily and very oily.

Clay furnace masonry

The easiest way , of course , buy ready-made clay in their original packaging , but it is not always justified

The easiest way, of course, buy ready-made clay in their original packaging, but it is not always justified

clay furnace masonry, already purified and powdered form can be purchased at a specialty storeand used for preparation of the solution.It should be borne in mind that for laying bricks all hundred, with a standard size of 250 × 120 × 65 mm and laid flat, or "B", it will be necessary 20 liters of solution, which is placed in two buckets.

Standard brick masonry oven

Standard brick masonry oven

On the construction of the entire furnace, depending on its size and model, it may take from 550 to 2500 pieces of bricks, without considering the masonry chimney and foundation devices.Therefore, calculating the cost of the necessary amount of all materials, it is possible to think about how to save at least on clay and sand for mortar, especially since they can be found literally under your feet, riding the countryside.

If it is decided to carry out this simple process of preparation of such materials on their own, then certainly there will be some questions:

  • Where can I find and dig up the clay sand, thereby saving quite a significant amount?
  • How can you determine the quality of the material and its suitability for heating the solution?
  • How to create a solution based on the fat content of the clay, which was able to find it?
  • How to prepare the ingredients for a solution?
  • How to make the right batch?
  • What components are necessary for a solution other than clay?

these questions is quite possible to find simple answers.And the start is in order.

How to find and pick up the clay?

Clay is usually easy to find near any suburban area.The layers of minerals deposited are not too deep, but each of them can have a different composition.These layers can be considered good on the steep banks of rivers or the sea, as well as career development.It is there that it can be seen that numerous layers have different colors and density.

Clay layered blades on the waterfront

Clay layered blades on the waterfront

It should be noted that even in the same place each of the layers, depending on the composition, may have a different fat content, so choosing the right material, it is recommended to take samples of several layers.It should be borne in mind that the higher the formation occurs to the surface, the clay fattier.Therefore, it makes sense to immediately inspect the middle strata, as they must have a mineral most optimal fat.

In the lower layers usually occurs thin clay, and if dig it, the solution will have to "zazhirnyat", adding a very fat clay.It is much easier to adjust the composition of the very fat - it can be brought to the normal state by adding sand.

Normal solution of clay

Normal solution of clay

solutions using the normal fat content for clay has good plasticity, since it complied with the balance of its constituent materials.When dry masonry, these compounds do not crack and virtually do not shrink.And yet, it is also very important - they are much easier to work with.

Bold solution will necessarily large cracks

Bold solution will necessarily large cracks

Fatty solutions in the wet form are very plastic, and with them also convenient to work, but the evaporation of moisture from them, they begin to crack and crumble large fragments.Therefore, this does not give a clay masonry reliability and durability.

Skinny compositions are neither strength nor durability

Skinny compositions are neither strength nor durability

Skinny breed clay oven used for solutions are not recommended, they are flexible and do not allow laying of the fortress.

Video: Experienced setter shares the secrets of production quality clay

Determination of fat clay empirically

If clay is mined on their own, it is possible to determine the fat content immediately on the site of the excavation.To do this, take in hand a handful of mineral, slightly moisten it with water and knead until smooth.Organoleptic, the touch can be felt as far as fat content of clay is high.If it becomes sticky and plastic, like plasticine, it is greasy rock.Skinny same clay, crumpled into a ball and moistened with water, will still fall apart.This option would have the material "zazhirnyat".

There are a number of more accurate screening test fat content of the material, and they need to be sure to take advantage of in order to select the optimal variant of clay.

first method

It should take about 0.5 kg of clay, which is diluted with 100 ÷ 130 ml.water.The mass is mixed until smooth.It is better to carry out this procedure manually to, as they say, tangibly feel the uniformity of composition, which is the completion of mixing should not stick to your hands and have the consistency of modeling clay.

From the resulting mass necessary to roll two balls with a diameter of 40 ÷ 50 mm.One of them remains intact, the other - crushed into a pancake.These prototypes allowed to dry for two ÷ three days at room temperature.

If after drying on the prepared detail will crack - this indicates that the clay is very oily, and it is necessary when mixing the solution add a little more sand than specified in the recipe.

If the cracks are small, and the ball thrown on the table from a height of 800 ÷ 1000 mm, split into pieces, the clay has a normal fat content, this grade is excellent for masonry mortar.

second way

To check the second method of clay required 2 ÷ 2,5 kg of clay, which is kneaded using Veselka, adding water.Bring a lot of need to the consistency of modeling clay, and if it still continues to adhere to the wooden Veselka, then the clay is very oily.When mixing the solution in it add more sand than is required by the recipe.

clay having a normal fat content remains at Veselka individual bunches, but does not adhere to it fully.

The third way

this way to check on the fat content of clay is considered the most accurate.To carry out the test, 0.5 kg of clay taken, which is kneaded with water to dough dense state.Then, from the resulting mass of rolls a ball with a diameter of 40 ÷ 50 mm.Then, the ball is compressed between two smooth planks until the clay cracks.In this case, the fat content is determined by the thickness and type of cake appeared cracks.

  • If the clay has a low fat or skinny, even at low compression ball to fall apart.
  • If clay is very oily, then the compression half the original diameter, narrow cracks are formed.
  • If the compression of the ball on ⅓ of its original diameter, on clay will crack, then it has a normal fat content, and is well suited for masonry work.
Several methods of testing solutions clay

few ways of testing solutions clay

In this picture you can see ways to check on the fat content of clay:

1 - Determination of mineral plasticity:

a) sandy clay with low plasticity;

b) normal clay has a high plasticity;

c) fatty clay, high plasticity.

2 - Determination of plasticity by the process "ball»:

a) ball of clay shrinks skinny 1/5 ÷ 1/4 diameter;

b) ball of clay normal fat content is compressed to ½ of its original size.

3 - Determination of fat content means "flagellum»:

left the method of stretching rupture -

a) thin;

b) normal;

c) fat.

4 - Right - way to bend around the rolling pin:

a) thin;

b) normal;

c) fat.

During the test, you can immediately get a lot adjust by adding a solution of skinny fat clay, and in a fat blend - sand.If the adjustment will take place on the small portions, the proportion is immediately recorded, and then, selecting the best option, to use the data for mixing large amounts of material for masonry work.

Cleaning clay

Experimental activities and leaving the clay elements to dry, you can begin to clean up from the clay pebbles, roots of plants, and other inclusions, which would interfere with the normal operation and reduce the quality of the masonry joints.

Cleaning clay can take place in two ways:

1. grinding and sieving the clay through a metal sieve, which must have a cell size of less than 3 mm.Dry clay badly crushed, so the whole process takes a lot of time.

Wiping the clay through a metal sieve

Wiping clay through a metal sieve

2. If you choose another method of purification - "wet", before carrying out his clay to soak and wait until it swells and becomes soft.Then, the resulting solution is rubbed through a sieve with a volume mesh-netting with a mesh of 3 mm, through which the user-friendly solution to wipe the clay of medium thickness.

Soak clay

Before cleaning the "wet" method, you need to soak the clay.It should immediately be noted that the dry method, and purified clay is soaked in the same way to the solution of kneading.

Pre- soaking of clay

Pre-soaking clay

Dry treated or untreated clay is poured into a container.Usually this is done using the old baths or make wooden boxes, then obbivaya their metal roofing sheets.To clay dabbing well, and it was easier to mix, it is filled in layers 120 ÷ 150 mm, each of which water is poured and mixed.The top layer is filled with water so that it covers the kneaded clay.

soaked clay is left in such a swell for a period of 14 hours to a day.During this time, it is possible to periodically agitate using shovels, adding water if necessary.

Then, the entire mass is mixed, it is added to water, and it is again left to the 14 ÷ 24 hours.After this period, the composition is mixed again, and if it is made from mashed clay, it can be used immediately for the preparation of masonry mortar.If it was to soak untreated clay, it is passed through a sieve into the prepared for this capacity.


For some furnace department, which will be discussed below, is used for masonry fireclay clay.This ready-made clay hardly be able to find on their own, since it is made by special technology, consisting of several stages:

  • Regular soaked clay enriched with various additives, formed into pellets and dried.
  • Next, comes the firing stage - this process takes place at 1200 ÷ 1500˚S.
  • The fired briquettes are ground to a flour status for chamotte clay, and to a coarse fraction - for sand.

Because fireclay material is subjected to high-temperature calcination, it is fire-resistant and able to withstand temperatures in excess of 1800˚S.

Fireclay clay will have to buy in the store

fireclay clay will have to buy in the store

Chamotte clay is composed of highly-hydroaluminosilicates.During manufacture, this material is due to sintering and firing, becomes the following characteristics:

  • Hygroscopicity averages no more than 7.8% of the total clay.
  • moisture content - not more than 5%.
  • Refractoriness comes to 1530 ÷ 1830˚S.
  • fraction size from 0,005 ÷ 0,01 mm.

Special quality chamotte give a solution on the basis of its high plasticity and dries it acquires the strength of stone.Production

solution of this material will not be difficult, since it is in the dry state, in fact, the usual clay, but crushed and purified.