Build Daily

Plumbing And Sewage

August 12, 2017 18:06

How to choose a pump for well

Drilling hole itself does still does not mean a complete solution to water problems at home.Even if you are very lucky, and good-quality borehole has certain water pressure, lifting her on the surface, it obviously will not be enough for the functioning of an autonomous water supply system.In addition, that water pressure should provide a fluid passage for all vertical and horizontal communication sites, you must create a legal reserve not less than 2.5 atmospheres to all appliances (water heaters, boilers, washing machines, dishwashers and so on .n .) to work correctly.Whatever it was, can not do without the pump.

How to choose a pump for well

How to choose a pump for the well

Before choose pump for the well, to get certain idea of ​​the diversity of such equipment, its structural and operational features, criteria offered evaluation selling models.It's a shame to purchase a pump that is simply not cope with assigned duties.Probably not less unpleasant situation is when the sold absolutely unnecessary

«heaped up" model, features that are simply unnecessary.And in fact, and in another case it - wasted money.In short, the need to go to the store to clear representation, which pump is the best in a particular situation.

To get started is to figure out what are borehole pumps. First , they can be divided into two large groups - the surface and drowned.

Surface pumps

Article Contents

  • 1 Surface pumps
    • 1.1 Hand pumps
    • 1.2 priming surface pump
    • 1.3 Domestic pumping stations
    • 1.4 Pumpstation with an ejector (injector)
    • 1.5 Video: structure and operation of the pumping station
  • 2 Submersible
    • 2.1 vibration submersible pumps
    • 2.2 Videos: characteristics of the vibration of the pump
    • 2.3 centrifugal submersible pumps
    • 2.4 Video: modern borehole centrifugal pumps
    • 2.5 Screw pumps
    • 2.6 Vortex pumps
  • 3 What criteria when choosing a pump
    • 3.1 calculator for calculating the required pressurepump system with a storage tank
    • 3.2 calculator for calculating the required pump head for the direct supply of water to the consumption points
    • 3.3 Calculator pump performance peak load
    • 3.4 Video: how to approach the selection of pumping equipment

The name speaks for itself - this setting is set to pump water out of the well at the surface and connected to the water horizon pipes or flexible hoses.

It would seem that such a scheme benefits a lot more - the mechanisms are always in sight, it is easy to control and periodic maintenance, there is no need to stretch the long power cables to the place of water intake, worrying about the quality of the wire insulation.Installations - supervision or located in locked premises, ie significantly reduced the probability of theft by hackers.

However, surface installation scheme and carries a lot of shortcomings.First of all, it is much more modest figures for the created pressure of water - they just are not comparable with the same parameters of submersible pumps.In addition, we can not rule out the noise factor - Installation of pumping equipment in the home is likely to require a separate room.

What types of pumps can be categorized as superficial:

Hand pumps

mention of friends all from the childhood of hand pumps, columns, probably, many will cause a smile, and yet they are still actively used and, certainly , they still has a future.Not in all situations, a constant flow of water is needed - it is enough possibilities its single set (eg, in terms of collective use - in human settlements, horticultural associations, garages, etc .).For such cases, hand pumps are characterized by extreme simplicity and reliability .

Manual column - such pumps still have not lost relevance

Manual column - such pumps still have not lost relevance

Their work scheme is simple - the piston, cylinder and two valve, air and water, working in opposition.Muscular force is transmitted through the lever on the suction mechanism that allows you to collect the right amount of water.

The scheme and work the hand pump

scheme and work the hand pump

No depending on the source of energy - is often the only possible variation nt to I irrigation organization at suburban garden plots, where has not conducted electricity.It is only necessary to drill is not particularly deep and laborious Abyssinian well.Set a column - and the issue will be resolved .Often, such a pump installed in the general electrical system through a tee, with the possibility of switching as necessary - there will always be a backup source of water in case of problems with power supply.

Manual column can be mounted directly on the hole (in the case of the Abyssinian well) , or have pipe is lowered into the thickness of the aquifer.

surface priming pumps

All others covered in this publication pumps are electric.In fairness it should be noted that there are widely used, and pumps with the power plant based on combustion engines, called pumps, but they have not, often expressed by domestic use.

So, consideration family surface electric pumps , which intended for the abstraction of water from the well, it is worth start with the simplest self-priming systems.

Simple superficial self-priming pump

Simple superficial self-priming pump

housing such pump never comes into contact with the external water and does not need special protection, which greatly simplifies their design.With the source of the water they are connected sleeves or permanently laid pipes, thus you must provide a check valve - with « airing » they simply can not cope with the task.

cooling systems to drive them is not provided, and this is their weak spot - when careless likely overheating.The design is not too much difficulty, control and management mechanisms - only inclusion and engine shutdown.Thus, inevitably require additional equipment for the organization of automatic control system for water system operation.

These pumps do not have high espluatatsionnymi indicators.The average level of water pressure created by them does not usually exceed 8 ÷ 10 meters, which for the organization of domestic water supply will be insufficient.At best, they can be applied to a simple system household water supply - with the filling of funded capacity installed in the top of the building, from which the water comes to the distribution of non-pressure points, gravity .

In short, although it is inexpensive, but not the best variation nt to I ensure residential water at home.Scope of pumps in a private home ownership, rather, the organization of a temporary site irrigation system from a well or a natural body of water .

Domestic pumping stations

This technique has much more serious , since it is adapted for the organization of the tasks of autonomous water supply in a building.In addition to self-priming pump, station necessarily equipped giroakkumulyatorom - membrane tank certain capacity, which will constantly maintain the required pressure in the domestic water supply.

The pumping station is accumulation tank

pumping station has accumulation tank

Accordingly, in the overall construction of such plants include monitoring and control mechanisms devices, including the drive in the fall of pressure in the system to replenish the water reserve, and turn off the power when achieve required level pressure.

main problems still remain unresolved - high noise and insufficient pumping capacity of the station, which does not allow to lift water from considerable depths - use is limited by a fence from the Abyssinian or sand wells up to 10 meters.

Modern pumping stations can be digitally controlled and soundproof

Modern pumping stations can be digitally controlled and soundproof

Available in more advanced models, with fully electronically controlled and programmable certain operational parameters.These pumping stations may be incorporated into a polymer casing that partly solves the problem of excessive noise and vibration.

Pumping station with an ejector (injector )

What to do if you still need to install a surface pump, but the depth of the water intake is 10 to 25 meters?There is a way - in this case, to help self-priming pump stations, equipped ejector (external) or injection (built-in) mechanism.

Pumping station with external ejector

pumping station with external ejector

In this case, an additional water circuit is formed with a smaller cross-section pipe, through which a high velocity fluid is pumped into the intake system.It creates a vacuum in the ejector creates additional pressure in the main suction pipe.

This leads to increased pressure - such installations can be operated already at considerable depths.However, this leads to an overall reduction of the pump performance, as part of the water is sent back to the circulation on the ejector circuit. But the "golden mean", arranged and created water column and productivity is still often possible to pick up.

Wiring pumping station with an ejector

Wiring pumping station with an ejector

More one big disadvantage - such pumping stations even more noisy than conventional self-priming, ie necessarily require soundproofed room.

If this option is not acceptable, nothing else remains , but to select a pump for the well submersible.

Video: structure and operation of the pumping station


The main feature of these pumps is stipulated already in their name - they are always located in the water (in the well or in the well) and are connected to water pumping system of pipes and hoses.Power fed to them through a long well insulated cable.

A variety of submersible pumps

Variety submersible pumps

scheme predetermines their installation and their characteristic the constructive features.They always reliable waterproof metal housing, brass or stainless steel corrosion-resistant alloys, with an effective waterproofing detachable parts and assemblies.Be sure to have the engagement device, for tether anchorage, on which the pump is lowered to the water intake.

vast majority of pumps is equipped with built-in filters (screens) exclusive getting into the mechanism and the pipe solid suspensions unacceptable for this size model.Many pumps, in addition, also have built-in check valve, which greatly simplifies its installation in home plumbing.If it is not, it is usually provided by the threaded connection for the installation of the valve device

Standard wiring diagram of the submersible pump

Standard wiring diagram of the submersible pump

The advantages of submersible pumps a lot.These include:

  • Quiet operation - sound waves are absorbed water layer.
  • Such mechanisms are not afraid of thermal gradients or freezing - in the aquifer wells are almost always maintained the same temperature.
  • However , they are not afraid and overheating - water pumped through them efficiently cools the operating units.
  • Such pumps are much higher and performance, and created pressure.Some models submersible pumps (deep) can raise the water to a height of 100 meters or more.

Disadvantages same as follows:

  • Certain difficulties with the installation of such equipment, often requiring specialized expertise.
  • necessity of laying a high-quality safe power line, sometimes for quite long distances.
  • Difficulties in monitoring the equipment work with carrying out maintenance or repair work requiring each time the pump removed from the wells.

vast majority of submersible pump has a characteristic cylindrical shape, presenting a metal column height from half a meter up to 2, 5m . but on the principle of action they can vary significantly.

Vibration submersible pumps

Simple in its design, reliable , inexpensive, these pumps have gained very wide popularity among the owners of country houses.they are not a great performance, "boast", but for home and garden needs it often enough.

Compact and robust vibration pump

Compact and robust vibration pump

operating principle is as follows.The electric current passing through the coil winding, causing intermittent, with certain frequency, the attraction of the armature, which is connected through the rod membrane (diaphragm) and the piston.Quick this arrangement reciprocating movements create negative pressure in the working cylinder, and the water is sucked through the valve system of the well and in the pump itself transferred through the outlet to the consumption points.The absence of rotating parts predetermines high mechanical reliability pump and ease of wiring, completely drenched waterproof compound, it guarantees long trouble-free and safe operation.

Schematic diagram of a device vibration pumps

Schematic diagram of a device vibration pumps

Some models of vibratory pump capable of creating a water column of 20 meters or even more.The pump is easy , it is quite possible to drop into the well even on nylon cord.Power them is minimal. All is - expressed advantages of such devices

disadvantages of such mechanisms are available, and very significant.Such pumps are quite noisy, but the main thing , that vibrating waves generated by them can eventually lead to the destruction of the wellbore or the erosion of the clay floor and walls, enough rapid silting of the aquifer.Use these pumps are recommended only in sandy wells with certain precautions to prevent excessive turbidity water and sand ingress in the intake holes.Ideally, the more they are suitable for all the wells, wearing concrete rings, and the well is wiser to choose a different pump operating principle.

Video: pump vibration characteristics

centrifugal submersible pumps

The most common downhole pumps are centrifugal.They are placed inside the cylinder with electric drive.