Build Daily

Plumbing And Sewage

August 12, 2017 18:06

Sewerage system in the country with their own hands

To hut is not inferior to a city apartment for the level of comfort, a minimum set of utilities should be to build on the site, one of which is the sewer system.The latter can be equipped with their own hands.

Sewerage system in the country with their own hands

Sewerage in the country with their own hands

sewer Features of the villa

Article Contents

  • 1 sewer Features of the villa
  • 2 Step 1: Project
  • 3 Stage 2. Town sewage elements
  • 4 Step 3. Cleaning device
    • 4.1 How does a septic tank
    • 4.2 Construction septic
    • 4.3 Video - septic from the F / B rings
  • 5 Stage4. Laying of sewer pipes
  • 6 Step 5: Internal sewerage
  • 7 alternative.Toilets
    • 7.1 Video - Dry closets to give

Individual sewerage system can be equipped only with the availability of the central water supply.In the absence of such better dig cesspool and put cottage toilet.



If the site is connected to the water supply, the house is possible to equip all the facilities - sink, shower and toilet.Wastewater from these devices need to display outside of the house.To this end, you can put the drive to be cleaned periodically assenizatorskaya machine, or a septic tank - a special cleaning device, providing reuse of wastewater.Moreover, to the main sewage system can be connected to the storm, which will collect and display of the border area precipitation and the water formed when snow melts.

Septic cottage

Septic cottage

So, sewerage in the country with their own hands must include: sanitary equipment

  • ;
  • domestic sewage, which combines effluents from all devices;
  • external drains to remove water;
  • cleaning device.

Phase 1 Project

Initially, the project is made.Drawing can be done in a simple graph paper, but it is better to use a special utility - it's faster and more convenient.The draft specifies the location of sanitary equipment, pipelines and treatment plants.

Note!Often, for the villa is enough sewage a cleaning unit and a tail pipes.

Advance provides the ability to connect to the system of other buildings on the site - for example, a bath.When calculating the size of the sewage network in the first place the number of residents is taken into account.It is believed that by the average person generates approximately 200 liters of wastewater per day.

In addition, taking into account the climatic features.When it comes to the northern regions of the country, the tail pipes laid below the soil freezing and insulated.Otherwise there is a risk of freezing in winter system.

Step 2: Location of elements sewer

The circuit arrangement of the septic tank

location scheme septic

to the location of the network elements, in particular, are on the street, should be taken very seriously.

Example slope sewer pipes

Example slope sewer pipes

First of all, take into account the terrain.Usually suburban areas settling the water drain, in which the waste water flows to the disposal site in a natural way.In such cases, the pipes are laid at a certain inclination (about 5 cm per meter) to avoid stagnant wastewater.

Slopes of sewer pipes

Slopes sewer

Equally important are sanitary norms.According to them, setting unacceptable treatment plants near the wells, wells and other water sources.

also where the unit is tested structures unimpeded entrance assenizatorskaya machine.

The circuit arrangement of a septic tank in the country

scheme of arrangement of a septic tank in the country

Step 3. Cleaning device

ideal option for a suburban area septic tank - advanced analogue sump that requires minimal cost and effort during the operation.Moreover, if equipped with multi-chamber septic tank, the treated wastewater can be reused, for example, for watering the garden or vegetable garden.

septic SPROUT


There are a large number of septic tanks models produced by both domestic and foreign firms.Each has its own strengths and weaknesses.Most cottages are suitable for septic tanks "Sprout Summer" (cost - about 29 thousand rubles) or "Germ-600" (designed for three to four people, the cost - 15 thousand).But with little volume it is more expedient to build their own septic systems.

Note!Despite the fact a homemade septic or factory, the general rules remain unchanged installation.

How does a septic tank

Septic Rostock Holiday

Septic Rostock Holiday

Septic can be built both with finished parts, as well as "from scratch", but in any case competent installation provides at least minimal knowledge of the principle of workdevice.

Septic - two (at least - three) containers communicating bypass necks.The volume of the first vessel is greater when compared with the others.There fall output from the internal network drains.Characteristically, the liquid stored in each of the vessels a certain time, during which gradually cleared.

The device septic tank

device septic

During fluid filtration dissolved gases rise and are ejected, while solids settle to the bottom and form the so-called activated sludge.This sludge anaerobic bacteria live which is cleaved into individual organic chemicals and do not require oxygen.

At the top of the first container set pipe through which treated wastewater overflow into the second.

two or three times, then the liquid enters the last tank cleaning procedure is repeated with the installed sand-stone filtration "cushion".Through this "cushion" the liquid gets into the soil.

Installation of a septic tank

installation septic

Note!To display the filtered sewage into the ground, you can also use a special drainage system.

Construction septic

Concrete septic tank with his hands

If you plan to self-manufacture septic tank, we advise you to opt for the major concrete structure.Below is a sequence of actions.

Step 1. first determines the desired cumulative capacity of the device.Ideally, it should be a 3-day volume of waste water of all tenants of the house.Thus, if the house lived three men, the storage tank must be 1.8 cubic meters.

Note!Septic tank is not installed closer than fifteen meters from residential buildings.

Step 2. followed by earthworks.Pulls out a septic pit - either manually or with the help of special equipment.



Step 3. bottom hiding 20-centimeter sand "cushion".

Step 4. formed formwork.Boards or chipboard sheets firmly strengthened, t. To. The weight of the structure is impressive.The formwork is done bypass hole, which is inserted between the walls of a small tube of metal or plastic.

Formwork for monolithic septic tank

Formwork for monolithic septic

Formwork for monolithic septic tank

Formwork for monolithic septic

Step 5. reinforcing frame is formed from iron fittings.Intersecting rods bound with steel wire.It is important that none of the valve element does not go beyond the brink of future construction.

Step 6. poured concrete formwork solution, and it should be done in one go.The solution was processed during the pouring vibratory drill - is necessary in order to fill the volume which is limited by the formwork, and remove air bubbles.

Concrete walls after the removal of the formwork

Concrete walls after the removal of the formwork

The steps of overlapping arrangement

Stages arrangement overlap

overlapping device septic tank

overlap device septic tank

Step 7. overlap formed from the boards and metal parts, packed in parallel.On top of stacked elements is laid PE film.Next is a metal mesh reinforcement.When the base is prepared, poured concrete layer.Also, the overlap can be formed from prefabricated concrete slabs laid on a septic tank wall with a gap of up to 2 cm.

Construction of manholes septic cameras

Construction necks chamber septic tank

Step 8. pit is filled with sand and soil layers.On the surface, leaving only the ventilation pipe (height above the ground up to 1.2 cm) and a cover protecting the mouth of septic cameras.

Waterproofing formwork before pouring the concrete

formwork waterproofing before pouring the concrete

On the neck of the finished concrete is necessary to put the plastic cover

on finished concrete neck, wear plastic cover

Note!For this design, you can also use ready-made F / B ring.They are installed directly into the pit.

Video - Septic from the F / B rings

Stage 4. Laying of sewer pipes

The output pipe from the building

output pipe from the building

As mentioned earlier, in most cases, the pipeIn suburban areas lay movement for gravity sewage.Therefore, the installation is carried out with a slight slope in the direction of the treatment plant.

Checking slope

slope Check

Installation of PVC sewer pipes

Installation of sewer pipes PVC

Laying of sewer pipes

Laying sewer pipes

Ideally, the pipeline should be flat and have no bends.If this is not possible, at the corners are equipped with inspection pits, through which will eliminate the possibility of error.

Warming of outdoor sewerage pipes

Warming of outdoor sewerage pipes

Note!At arrangement of the external sewage can be used as plastic and cast iron pipes.The main thing is that they are tightly connected together.

pipes must lie below the freezing of the soil.But if constant slope will be provided, such a recess may not be required.All simply explained: wastewater have a temperature of plus or stagnate therefore not freeze in winter.However, when laying a pipeline shallow insulation needs.

Driving position pipe in the ground ( backfilling with sand and soil )

Driving tube position in the ground (backfilling with sand and soil)

also pipes are protected against possible displacement of soil - they are surrounded by the trench 15 centimeters of sand "cushion".

Pipeline diameter, mm Slope, cm / m
40-50 3
85-100 2
150 0.8

Step 5: internal sewerage

wiring sewerage

Routing sewage

Driving inner lining sewer pipes

scheme inner lining sewer pipes

need to use free-flow principle in settling domestic sewage.Each sanitary device is connected to the pipe diameter concrete - you need to shell cross-section of 50 mm, and the toilet and tail pipes - 100 mm.For the bath and the sink is connected siphon, which prevents the penetration of sewer smell in the room.

Device Slope distance between the central drain and siphon without ventilation, mm diameter pipes for drainage system, mm
Bath 1:30 100-130 40
Shower 1:48 150-170 40
WC 1:20 600 100
Sink 1:12 0-80 40
wash 1:36 130-150 30-40
Combined drain (bath + sink + shower) 1:48 170-230 50
central riser 100


Dry closets


In the absence of a central water supply in the country, you can put a bio-toilet (preferably peat).These devices are compact and consist of two containers:

  • top, is intended for the storage of dry peat, and seat mounted on it;
  • bottom, in which excrement is composted.

Dry closets needs regular cleaning, but wastes peat extracted from the bottom of the container, in the future can be used as fertilizer.

Peat toilet

Peat toilet

Note!In addition to the peat mixture in the design of special bioaktivatory backfilled to accelerate the composting process.Packing activator 30 grams costs about 350 rubles.

Although the plastic housing, a bio-toilet is strong enough and can withstand the weight of up to 250 kg.It is worth noting that there are electric models of toilets - they are not less effective peat, but also stand respectively.Moreover, they need a connection to the uninterruptible power supply.

Video - Dry closets to give