Build Daily

Electrical And Lighting

August 12, 2017 18:06

How to choose an electric radiant floor

Systems « warm floor", intended for the primary or secondary residential heating in apartments or private homes, have ceased to be a certain "gimmick".They have fully proved their worth, firmly occupied certain position among the heating equipment, are all more supporters.

How to choose an electric radiant floor

How to choose electric floor heating

There are two main categories of « warm floor".The first of these, water, are the circuit pipes placed in the floor is thicker, which circulates coolant from the heating system.Such a scheme is quite effective, but it is quite complicated to implement, requires large-scale works, very accurate debugging, purchase expensive equipment, and in some cases - and the negotiation procedures with management companies.Therefore, many owners housing prefer an electric floor heating.The hassle of assembling it too much, but still volumes works and initial costs - incomparable with water.However, it should be remembered that the electric heating can be done in different ways.Therefore, if you want to install this type of heating homes, before you need to understand how to choose the electric

warm floor with skill.

Depending on the type of heating element may be divided electrically « warm floors" into two types - resistive and infrared.There is a more objective division, already on the design features of systems - this will be discussed more below.

But you first need to understand what is good like « warm floors", and how much power will be in demand for the electric heating of premises in this way.

Advantages of electrical systems « warm floors »

Article Contents

  • 1 Advantages of electrical systems "warm floor»
  • 2 Which heating power need
  • 3 Mainprinciples of laying electric "heat-insulated floors»
  • 4 electric "warm floor" resistive operating principle
    • 4.1 Cables "warm floor" system
      • 4.1.1 calculator to calculate the length of the heating cable and stacking step
    • 4.2 heating resistive mats
  • 5 «Underfloor Heating» infrared operating principle
    • 5.1 film infrared heaters
    • 5.2 Video: one of the varieties of the film "warm floor»
    • 5.3 stem infrared heaters
    • 5.4 Video: how to install the core "warm floor»
  • 6 What has become of "warm floor" system
    • 6.1 Video: What electric "warm floor" and its purpose

first , why floor heating creates the most comfortable conditions for living in an apartment?

thing is that it is during this energy transfer occurs most optimal heat distribution in the room volume.For example, compare how the process in the room with the usual radiators and heated floor surface:

Распределение тепла с конвекционным отоплением и с системой "теплый пол"

distribution of heat with convection heating, and the system "warm floor»

For starters take a look at the left side of the figure.The temperature distribution in the room is extremely uneven, and and height, and against established radiator.Directly from the radiator - the peak temperature, reaching values ​​of 60 degrees and above, there is even some representing dangerous in terms of probability of getting burned.Further, the air temperature is reduced expense convection currents in the ceiling but always remains elevated about 25 - 30 degrees, while at ground level, these values ​​are minimum - and even less than 18 degrees.If we add to all of this is very unpleasant horizontal air flow, which is similar to drafts, it becomes clear that a similar heat distribution scheme is far from optimal.

a different matter when the heated surface of the floor (on the right).thermal energy transfer takes place at the bottom, and then the heated air rises vertically, gradually cooling down with increasing altitude. That way, the temperature of the floor surface of about 25 - 27 degrees, and on the heads of standing human level - about 18. Such climate is considered to be the most comfortable for people - they do not remember the old wisdom of "Keep your feet warm and head incold. "The horizontal convection currents or not at all , or they are reduced to a minimum and do not cause any inconvenience.

Moreover, with the help of « warm floor" can be performed zoned heating, to focus it on certain areas, the so-called zones of increased comfort, for example, in traditional places of recreation or children's games.Conversely, in some areas, where the heat is not so important, it is possible the installation of the system to make it much less intense, creating a "vacuum" when laying the heating elements.Thus, the system has high flexibility.

So, the main advantage of the warm gender clarity is.Now more about why many people choose exactly the electrical system.

  • Wiring diagrams « warm floors» - universal, while installation of the water floor heating in the high-rise building can be simply prohibited.
  • No conciliation procedures, preparation of individual projects, the availability of equipment interfacing with existing communications - not required. calculation is made only for actual power consumed, as usual.
  • Water floor - it is always a massive concrete screed, which increases the load on the floors, and significantly reduces the height of the ceiling in the room.When electric heating systems screed is thinner, while some species « warm floor" screed and does not need.
  • Installation electrical « warm floor" is much easier, takes less time.
  • Electric floor heating with proper installation and debugging in - much safer water.The likelihood of accidents with stormwater and drenched downstairs neighbor is not in principle.
При водяном подогреве пола, увы, никто не застрахован от вот таких "трагичных" казусов

When the water is heated floor, alas, no one is immune from here such "tragic" incidents

  • Electric warm floor easily gives the most accurate, up to one degree, regulations.He can be included the system of "smart house», can be programmed on the most economical use electricity considering preferential night or Sunday tariffs, with minimum energy consumption during the daily lack hosts with access on optimal the time of their joining the heating mode and etc .
  • Electric "warm floor" has been criticized for not economical in terms of energy consumption and the high cost of payment of utility bills.With this, you can argue - if the system is designed, installed and adjusted properly operated "with the mind", and in the apartment of the hosts was paid serious attention to insulation problems, the payments for consumed energy for the optimal microclimate of the house will always bewithin a reasonable.

Which heating power need

Whatever type of electric floor heating surface is chosen, before purchasing the complete set of required elements and supplies a mandatory payment created system.Algorithms calculate specific models may be slightly different, but still the same for all parameter - the minimum required heating power.

this figure depends on a number of criteria:

  • To this affect the climatic features of a particular region, that is, the average winter low temperatures.
  • is important orientation of the building and room layout on the sides of light, as well as on the current in the area "wind rose".
  • of building design - material, applied for walls, their thickness, degree termoizolirovannosti , roofing material, floors etc and .
  • completeness and quality conducted insulating works, including on the walls, the basement of the building floors.It is taken into account, which are installed windows and doors, and how great their insulating qualities.
  • important criterion is the specific purpose of the room in which you plan to install a floor heating system.
  • Finally, taken into account and the final temperature, which want to see property owners by setting "warm floor" as an additional or main heating type.

system calculation - rather complicated and cumbersome, and it is usually the lot of Heating Specialists.However, experts are services - enough expensive, and therefore it is possible to try to calculate the parameters of « warm floor" and independently, using special programs that are available on the Internet.

It is possible to calculate to try to find the specialized software

is possible to calculate to try to find specialized software

They usually - quite friendly intuitive interface, and will only have to enter the number of requests for data on the characteristics of the dwelling, the program has made the necessary calculations .

But for those who do not like to download your head detailed calculations , can lead averaged values ​​that are relevant for central Russia, with the proviso that in the house or apartment made qualitative insulation works, installed double glazing.(By the way, non-compliance with these requirements can not even think about installing an electric warm floor, as the money will be guaranteed to fly in the literal sense of the word - to the wind).

type and purpose of the premises Specific power electric floor heating (W / m ²) optimum power per unit length of the heating cable (W / m)
nominal maximum
sanitary purpose rooms (bathrooms, Dashev, bathrooms) 130 - 140 200 10 - 18
Additional heating in kitchens, living rooms, hallways, etc. 100 - 150 170 10 - 18
rooms apartments raspodlozhennyh on the first floor or above unheated spaces 130 - 180 200 10 - 18
Electric underfloor mountedin wooden floors on joists 60 - 80 80 8 - 10
Electric underfloor heating without ties (including IR flooring, film or rod) 100 - 120 150 8- 10
floor heating in closed and thermally insulated balconies and loggias 130 - 180 200 10 - 18
use in electric floor heating as the main source of home heating in the floors with large thermal storage concretetie 150 - 200 200 10 - 18

Another important point - the need for thermal insulation layer under the heating elements "warm floor".There is an opinion that such a measure is obligatory only for the floors on the first floors of buildings under which no heated space.To a certain extent - it may seem fair, but if you look more, the need for such insulation becomes apparent.

Driving heat loss through the floor decks

scheme of heat loss through the floor decks

The diagram depicts two premises: a №1 - the one in which the system is installed electric underfloor heating, and under №2 - that is located on the floor below.Between them is necessarily a powerful overlap №3.

electric heating system (№4) transmits the heat energy is not only up on the front floor covering (№5) but down.If we imagine that the insulating layer (№6) are not laid, the huge amount of power bude reflux ratitsya wasted, on on heating of the concrete slab. Heat capacity at this massive structure is huge, and plus to this it relies on the main walls, which are also "pulled» grated over.This is not even so important to have that, what temperature the air in the lower indoor as the temperature of the slab in any case will be less, and the amount of heat loss (shown by red arrows) will be very significant.

task of insulation layer (№6) - not so much to protect the floor from the floor as to reduce absolutely unnecessary heat loss on on heating of the concrete array down.Thickness can also be different - that it depends on and type of electric heating, and extent of Insulated premises.For example, for some types of « warm floor" definitely need a thick enough layer of expanded polystyrene and other - quite a substrate made of polyethylene foam with a layer necessarily reflect foiled.

The following diagram shows the dependence of the amount of heat loss from the thickness of the insulation layer.The ordinate is in percentage of the total losses given the thermal power generated by the heating systems.Abscissa - a thick insulating layer (in millimeters) on the basis of conventional polystyrene foam.

Diagram of the dependence of the heat loss of the thickness of the waterproofing layer

Diagram dependence of the heat loss from the thickness of the insulation layer

Calculations were made for areas with quality performance thermal insulation of walls, windows, doors, ceiling.But even in this case the lack of insulation in the floor leads to the loss of nearly a third of the total amount of heat energy!But even a small layer of insulation immediately reduces unnecessary expense.

interesting feature - increasing the insulation layer thickness reduces heat loss nearly tripled.But completely eliminate this negative effe ct Sun e do not work.And the value of polystyrene thickness or foam in 35 - 40 mm becomes, in fact, the best - further its capacity, in principle, not gives visible result (loss stabilizes at 8 - 9 %).This means that a thicker layer will only ceases to be justifiable decrease in height of the room.

Basic Principles laying electrical « warm floors »

When planning the electrical system « warm floor" and the preparation of preliminary schemes and drawings it mounting necessarily take into account some important rules: In particular,, laying the heating elements are never given « a solid ».

  • They should not be placed under fixed furnishings.Heating floor surface necessarily involves continuous heat exchange with the air in the room.If this effect is not present, then the inevitable overheating of the cable to the quite probable yield it down.Furthermore, excessive heating of in in Reden and furniture - wood or composite parts will crack and burst.And from an economic point of view - why waste energy on on the heating of the floor areas are not in any way take part in the overall heat transfer?
Примерная схема укладки электрического "теплого пола"

approximate scheme of laying electric "warm floor»

  • Spacing to wall or stationary pieces of furniture should be planned at about 50 mm.Sex on the ground or above unheated rooms main source of heating.Downstairs is located a heated room additional heating source.Sex on the ground or above unheated spaces Additional heating source.