Build Daily

Wiring

August 12, 2017 18:06

Alternative energy with their hands : a review of the best sources of renewable electricity

Today everyone knows that the hydrocarbon reserves in the world have their limits.With each passing year it becomes increasingly difficult to extract oil and gas from the subsoil.In addition, their combustion causes irreparable damage to the ecology of our planet.Despite the fact that renewable energy technologies are very effective, states have been slow to abandon the burning of fuel.At the same time, energy prices are rising every year, making ordinary people more and more shell.

In this regard, the production of alternative energy today is not just eccentricity of individual fans, and the occupation is quite utilitarian and even necessary in some cases.Hundreds of thousands of owners of country houses, not only in the world, but in our country, now happy to use "green" power generation technology.As alternative energy produced by their hands: a review of the best sources of renewable electricity can be seen below.

Available to extract their own hands renewable energy sources

Man has long been used in its home appliances and arrangements that have been able to transform the movement of natural elements into mechanical energy.Examples are wind and water mills.With the invention of electricity became possible to transform mechanical energy into electric generator by setting the moving parts of the mechanism.Over time, these designs have been improved, and today's hydropower plants and wind complexes large amount of electricity produced in the world.

In addition to water and wind mankind available sunlight, the energy of the Earth's interior, biological fuel.In this connection, at home the following devices are used for the production of renewable energy:

  • batteries for solar energy.
  • Heat pump stations.
  • Wind generators.
  • settings on biogas fuel.

Industry feels good wishes of the people and already produces many models of each of these devices.However, prices are now such that a quick return can be no question.In this regard, the craftsmen of the people have developed a number of schemes and projects, which can make such units.Consider some of them.

Solar - a gift of space technologies

Solar panels have become known in the beginning of the space age.They are still used as power sources for spacecraft and interplanetary probes.Washer, plowing the sands of Mars are equipped with these simple devices.The Sun itself gives them their energy.The principle of operation is based on solar panels ability photons in passing through the semiconductor layer to create a potential difference therein which, when the closure in an electrical circuit, creates an electrical current.

amazing, but do yourself a solar panel is not so difficult.There are two ways to create it.The first method is simple, and anyone can handle it.You just need to buy ready-made solar cells on polycrystalline or single-crystal, tie them into one circuit and close the transparent body.These crystals can capture photons of light of the sun and convert it into electricity.They are very fragile, so in the process of manufacturing the device, you need to take precautions.Each element marked, so its current-voltage characteristics are known.You only need to collect the right amount of elements necessary for the construction of power battery.To do this:

  • Make transparent the framework of plastic, Plexiglas or polycarbonate.
  • carved from plywood or plastic housing on the size of the frame.
  • all crystal elements consistently solder in circuit.Only the voltage increase is achieved in the circuit in series connection.It simply is added to all items.
  • solar cells placed in a cage and gently closed, do not forget to output wires.

When selecting solar cells must take into account the fact that the single crystals are more durable and effective (13% efficiency) and polycrystalline often break down and less effective (efficiency 9%).This first requires standing outdoor sunlight, and the second content with a cloudy weather.Install the finished panel is most often on the roof or on the ground illuminated by the sun.The angle should be regulated, as the winter is better to set the panel vertically to avoid falling asleep snow.

Solar panel installed on the roof of the building .

solar panels installed on the roof of the building.

second method of manufacturing solar cells is much more complicated.It has required some electrical skills.Instead of prefabricated elements necessary to make a diode circuit.To do this, you need to purchase or gather some of the old machinery diodes.It is best suited for this purpose D223B.They have a high voltage 350mV in direct sunlight.That is, to produce 1B will need all 3 of the diode.Voltage 12V to 36 are able to create diodes.The number of significant, but the cost of them is small, about 130 rubles per one hundred, so the main problem is the duration of the installation.Diodes

soaked in acetone, after which they are removed from the paint.Then the required number of holes drilled into the plastic preform is inserted therein and diodes.Spike produce consistently through the ranks.The finished panel is closed, and the transparent material is placed in a casing.

Driving the manufacture of solar batteries of the diodes .

scheme manufacture of solar diodes.

As you can see, gratuitous use of the Sun energy is not so difficult.Suffice it to pay a little effort and money.

heat pumps produce heat from all

Their operating principle is based on the Carnot cycle.In more simple terms, this is a big refrigerator, which on cooling the environment, takes her low-potential energy and converts it into heat with high potential.The environment can be any land, water, air.At any time, they contain a small fraction of the heat.The device has a fairly complex device consists of several main components:

  • outer loop filled with natural coolant.
  • Inner loop water.
  • evaporator.
  • Compressor.
  • capacitor.

The system, as used in the refrigerator freon.The outer loop may be placed in a water hole or an open reservoir.Sometimes even just buried in the ground this circuit, but it is costly.

Consider the process of self-production of the heat pump.The first thing you need to get the compressor.You can remove it from the air conditioner.power will be enough to heat 9,7kVt.

The compressor of the air conditioner with a capacity of 9.7 kW is perfect for creating a heat pump .

compressor of the air conditioner with a capacity of 9.7 kW is perfect for creating a heat pump.

second important detail - a capacitor.It can be made from a conventional tank of 120 liters.The main thing that he was not subject to corrosion.The tank is cut into two pieces and inserted into the coil of copper.On the coil outputs are fixed two-inch connection to the circuit assembly.Buck welded using the welding machine.The area of ​​the coil should be calculated in advance by the formula: PP = MT / 0,8RT where: PP - the area in the coil;MT - Power of thermal energy, which gives the system in kW;0.8 - thermal conductivity coefficient of the flow of water around the copper;RT - the difference between the water temperatures at the inlet and outlet in degrees Celsius.The coil can be made independently by the winding tube on any cylinder.Inside it will circulate freon and water tank of the heating system.It will be hot during refrigerant condensation.

The serpentine condenser of the heat pump .

coil for heat pump condenser.

For the manufacture of the evaporator require plastic containers having a volume of at least 130 liters.The neck of the tank must be broad.It also placed a coil, which is connected with the previous in a single circuit through the compressor.Exit and entrance of the evaporator do with a conventional sewer pipe.Through it will leak water out of the cistern or a well that has sufficient energy to evaporate the refrigerant.

It looks like the heat pump evaporator

Here is the evaporator of the heat pump

this system works as follows: the evaporator is placed in a pond or a well.Water, rounding it causes the evaporation of the refrigerant which rises through the tubes of the evaporator to the condenser.There it condenses, giving heat to the surrounding water coil.The water circulates through the heating pipes with the help of a centrifugal pump, heating.The refrigerant compressor is sent back to the evaporator and the cycle is repeated again and again.

The circuit of the heat pump " water-water " .

diagram of the heat pump "water-water".

we reviewed the unit is able to heat a room of 60 m2, at any time of the year.The energy is taken from the environment.

Descendants windmills that produce kilowatts

The device is nothing complicated windmills there.No wonder our ancestors used wind energy as ordinary.Fundamentally, nothing has changed.Instead of the mill was set grindstone drive a generator that converts rotational energy of the blades into electricity.

So look , most modern wind turbines .

So look, most modern wind turbines.

need to manufacture wind turbine: high tower, blade, generator and accumulator battery.Come up with a simple and necessary power management and distribution system.Consider one of the ways of self-construction of the windmill.
We will not focus on the device the tower and blades, there is no big deal for someone who at least something in the mechanics understands.Let the generator.You can certainly buy a ready generator with the required parameters, but our task is to create your own wind turbine.If you have a motor from an old washing machine, and it works, the matter decided.We will need to convert it into a generator.To acquire this neodymium magnets.

generator rotor bore on a lathe, making recesses for magnets.They superglue to glue the magnets.Rotor paper wrap, and the distance between the magnets is filled in an epoxy resin.When it dries - remove the paper, and the rotor grind sandpaper.Attention!To magnets still jammed, they must be installed with a slight inclination.Now, during the rotation of the rotor, the magnets will form a potential difference, which is removed via terminals.

As the magnets are attracted to the rotor of the washing machine motor .

So stick magnets on the rotor of the motor of the washing machine.

biogas generator creates energy from waste

man throughout his life generates a huge amount of organic waste.This is especially true near the big cities or livestock complexes.If these wastes are placed in an anaerobic environment, the process of decomposition to release a mixture of combustible gases begins, methane, hydrogen sulfide impurities from carbon dioxide.All but the last are the perfect fuel, though, and have an unpleasant odor.

To make a generator for biofuels will need a sealed tank.It is mounted auger, which waste will be periodically mixed, pipe through which the exhaust waste will be unloaded and the neck to be retrieved.Furthermore, in the upper part of the tank are welded to nozzle selection and removal of biogas emitted it to the user.

Best of all this construction dig into the ground and make an absolutely airtight.This will contribute to the efficient selection of gas without leaking.Since the sealed container, the gas flow should be constant, otherwise, it is recommended to do a safety valve that will open when the pressure exceeds the permissible norm.Recycled waste is an excellent fertilizer for the garden.

biogas generator design .

biogas generator design.

simplest design of this unit allows you to create it from almost any scrap materials.This is very common in China.However, it is necessary to observe safety measures, as biogas is very combustible and toxic.Most biogas formed from a mixture of animal waste and silage.The tank is poured warm water, which starts the process of substrate decomposition.
review of the best renewable power sources has shown that alternative energy with their hands not such a freak.It can get out of nothing and in sufficient quantities for household consumption.