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Furnaces And Heating Systems

August 12, 2017 18:06

The heating system from Leningrad

During the construction of any country house to the owner, anyway, necessarily gets problem - how to solve the problem of heating.Despite on presence on innovative ways of heating housing, it is considered the most convenient and remains the most popular approach to the organization of water heating, connection to gas, solid fuel or electric boiler.

The heating system from Leningrad

heating system from Leningrad

And here is what system to choose from available - the question is largely dependent on the size of the building, number of floors, the location of facilities and the extent of their insulation , other factors, including - and financial capacity ownershousing.But if the house is small, it is probably the most economical solution is the heating system from Leningrad , both in terms of material consumption, as well as from the standpoint of simplicity of design and installation speed.And , if the owner of the house has some skills in plumbing, it is likely to be able to handle the job on their own.

What is the heating system « from Leningrad »

Article Contents

  • 1 What is the heating system "from Leningrad»
  • 2 Advantages and disadvantages of heating "from Leningrad" system
  • 3 options "Leningradka" - from the simplest to the more complex
    • 3.1 Video: the theoretical foundations of pipe heating "from Leningrad" system
  • 4 few notes on mounting "Leningradka»

first , went from the name itself - "from Leningrad"?Rumor - is a consequence of the fact that such a system was first used in the construction organizations of Leningrad.However, it is very difficult to agree with such a peremptory statement - the heating system is so simple that it just could not be used in any other regions.Perhaps city on the Neva any technical regulations have been developed, which then spread to the whole country?But anyway, in the period of mass urban development, especially in homes and barracks in one - two-storey buildings of social purpose, this heating system has become prevalent.This was due to her marginal simplicity and maximum efficiency - to come up with something less, perhaps, impossible.

So "from Leningrad» - is one-pipe heating system in which the heat exchangers are arranged on a single line loopback series like "strung" on her .

Самое простое схематическое изображение "ленинградки"

most simple schematic representation of "Leningradka»

Thus, the heat transfer fluid on the way from the boiler (or central heating input) consistently passed all the radiators, from start to finish.It is understood that it is gradually lost heating temperature, therefore, in theory radiators arranged close to the boiler is always hotter than situated further in particular - in the last line.

Such a system can work as with natural circulation (as shown above), and with the creation of the forced displacement of coolant (diagram below).On the radiator layout is not particularly affected.

""Ленинградка" может быть организована и по закрытому типу

«Leningradka" can be arranged and closed type

Such wiring radiator is most often used in a one-story building - when all radiators at the same level.This main pipe, looped circuit of the boiler, always placed along the floor.By the way, it gives opportunity without much x x Lopota positioned its secretly decorate flooring.

Классическое размещение "ленинградки" - контур кольцом по периметру

classic accommodation "Leningradka" - circuit ring on the perimeter

However, "from Leningrad" can be fully justified in the two-story house (the Internet can be found even on the circuit wiring three floors).However, in this case, necessarily require heating forced circulation - a natural coolant rise to a considerable height to create - is problematic, since it takes high capacity boiler, a very accurate calculation pipe diameters on the vertical and horizontal sections.And in this case, the profitability of such an approach would be questionable - it is easier to cut into the contour of the circulation pump the desired performance.

In this case, by the way, will be of little value and that any expansion tank will be used."Leningradka" forced circulation and fits well into the closed and open heating system.If the circuit is arranged on the principle of a closed, sealed, then as coolant can be used and plain water, and special anti-freeze (more on this - in a separate article of the portal).

Figures, as an example, shows the most simplified scheme, which in practice are used very rarely.The reason for this is - it will become clear after reading the main advantages and disadvantages "Leningradka".

Advantages and disadvantages of the heating system « from Leningrad »

«from Leningrad" The system is a classic example of maximum savings on materials and labor costs.So, for its main advantages are:

  • flow pipe during installation Leningradka more, than 30% lower, than at other circuits wiring.
  • Based on the first - volume installation work also substantially lower.
  • system has a fairly high versatility - suitable for one- and two-level buildings.Change only some elements of its snap.
"Ленинградка" допускает и вертикальное размещение

«Leningradka" admits and vertical placement

  • system is reliable in operation - once properly configured, works without any glitches .
  • « Leningradka" does not require any expensive distribution or control equipment .
  • Lower position loop in the single-level building allows you easily hide the pipe in the thickness of the floor (of course, subject to the measures necessary thermal insulation and reliable sealing compounds).only short tubes suitable for radiators can be left in sight.
The lower header pipe closes finishing flooring .The supply pipes are already imbedded in the wall

lower header pipe closes finishing flooring.The supply pipes are already imbedded in the wall

  • Wiremap pipe radiator is simple, so installation work will be feasible even a layman.The average Russian man - the owner of his house must cope.

However, in its time thought "from Leningrad" with calculation the massive construction of high-speed, so it was decided to ignore some its drawbacks.And they, alas, quite substantial:

  • In "pure" form, this system does not allow to achieve the temperature uniformity on all radiators, included in the circuit.The very principle of operation assumes that the heating on near the battery will be significantly higher.Thus, in order to maintain smooth microclimate in all premises must be in the last along the coolant flow to increase the number of sections set.

However, this lack of "Leningradka" can still be resolved by the installation of additional adjusting and balancing tendons.This speech will below.

  • « Leningradka" with horizontal loop along the ceiling surface does not imply the possibility of connecting the water heating areas ( « warm floor") or towel .
  • in large area buildings (houses) pipes running along the floor surface is not easy to set a bias required for natural circulation of coolant - a circuit just starts «get out» of the interior decoration of the room.Exit - to create working pressure still account for circulation pump.However, this option seems the best of our time, perhaps, for any type of wiring of the heating system.

now worth a closer look at a few options "Leningradka", the use of which in certain degree reduces the value of the system deficiencies.

Options "Leningradka» - from the simplest to the more complex

Usually loop "Leningradka" runs along the outer walls of the house, almost completely repeating Perim mp rear anija (except, of course, entrance doors or, if any , special technical or auxiliary rooms, not require heating.

Контур "ленинградки" обычно проложен вдоль внешних стен здания

contour "Leningradka" usually laid along the outer walls of the building

But this looped circuitradiators can be arranged in different ways.

reader's attention will be offered several schemes. they all have a common "base", so that details all of the elements will be painted only on the first of these, the most simple. in order not to repeat the rest of the schemes,as new elements or design solutions, will be stipulated only those changes.

A. The easiest option "Leningradka» - radiators simply installed in series on the pipe, without any adjustment or locking device with a through passage of coolant.

A. The simplest scheme

A. The simplest scheme

1 - heating boiler.

2 - expansion tank open type.It is expedient to install it in this place - on the vertical riser pipe mounted on the feeding in the area out of the boiler.In addition, that it compensates for the thermal expansion of the heat transfer medium, such an arrangement is important for the possible release of air bubbles, that prevents them from getting into the radiators to form air pockets.

3 - heating radiators.Which will be installed - in terms of the heating system in this case does not matter. Choice radiators made by several other criteria - it on to shem portal published a separate article.

But the connection to the radiator pipe - this is a serious question .In are risen case, "through" the bottom position of the pipe, the heat loss will be around 12 ÷ 13 % on the real possibilities of the heat exchanger.

4 - bleed screw.They are used to release air from the radiator tubes cavities.Require mandatory "manual intervention", which is not always convenient.Therefore, it is important to provide for the automatic removal of air from the system (as discussed in our this case - the expansion tank open type ).

5 - circulation pump.It has been said that in some cases you can do and the natural circulation of coolant, but the performance and efficiency of the heating system at the same time - much worse.

Such equipment is not very expensive, energy consumption at it is small, so it's best not to skimp and immediately bring to mind the heating system.And the possibility of a natural circulation can leave in the event of an extended power failure.

This tie- pump allows you to quickly switch from the natural circulation of the forced

This tie-pump allows you to quickly switch from natural circulation to forced

6 - shut-off valve for the release of the coolant heating systems.

This diagram is provided in Box vodoprovo qq To recharge the system. At number 7 shown fil tr c slaughter cleaning ( "oblique filter"), which stands at the entrance , and numbered 8 - shut-off valve.

thick red arrow shows the direction of flow along the contour.

To some extent such a scheme, and can be considered a "classic Leningrader" but also all the typical defects more clearly here just expressed.Thus, the temperature control in the rooms is only possible using various amounts of radiator sections and varying the diameters of the pipes used.However, this approach requires serious thermal calculations, but in this case the system does not have the necessary flexibility.

In a word, the most primitive version, and better on this way not to go.

B. The second diagram shows a variant, which is, in fact, repeats all the shortcomings of the first.The only plus - applied principle diagonal radiator connection (circled).

B. Radiators are connected diagonally

B. Radiators are connected diagonally

Perhaps this affects the appearance of the battery (longer exposed areas of the pipe), but gives a considerable gain in heat transfer, since this setup unnecessary energy losses are reduced to already2%.

As for the rest - the scheme has not undergone changes .

Q. Just as an example - in any case, you can tee off from the main path, that is to put a second. Since contours clear, have a different length, a different number of sections of the radiator, then they will require balancing in that the heating medium is not went simply the path of least resistance.

B. Additional circuit with control valve

B. Supplementary circuit with control valve

Scheme number 9 shows second heating circuit and the position 10 - this adjustment, to be exact - balancing valve, through which ensured the necessary coolant flow distributiontwo "channel".

Normal operating conditions of such a scheme - the balancing valve is placed on the return pipe secondary circuit, and this very Box the return must be done before the general circulation pump.

G. the scheme "pass-through" of direct or diagonal, in most cases, have long been abandoned.Modern practice - installation of radiators through shut-off valves with a mandatory bridge - bypass.

G. Battery Box with jumpers ( bypass)

G. Box batteries with jumper (bypass)

Under 11 number show jumper-bypass.Number 12 - valves (ball valves) at the inlet and outlet of the radiator.

This approach gives a lot of advantages once :

- Firstly, it is easy to remove the radiator, for example, for the prevention, repair or replacement - it will not affect the rest of the system.The circulation of the coolant on the general outline of it will not cease.

- Secondly, there is a possibility of adjusting the level of the heating panels from the inlet valves therein.

- Third, some of the rooms, which are temporarily not in use, you can do disable away from opleniya, leaving only the main passage of the coolant through them.

radiator connection with bypass

radiator connection with bypass

Using such a "shunt» - bypass, does not exclude the possibility of the connection of radiators on a diagonal pattern that proves the following photo:

Diagonal battery connection with bypass

diagonal battery connection with bypass

D. Even more opportunities for fine debugging "Leningradka" on each individual its section provides installation to bypass control valve.The diagram are shown under number 13 .

D. balancing valves installed on bypass

D. to bypass installed balancing valves

fact that pick up the required bypass diameter, so that this does not negatively reflected on the overall operation of the system - a rather difficult task requiring specific knowledge in physics andin particular, in heat engineering.How else can "force" it to pass coolant flow through the radiator, contrary to the laws of gravity?