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Equipment And Tools

August 12, 2017 18:08

Electronic theodolite - master the classification of the measurement optics

Electronic theodolite - appointment

to successful application of this technique is necessary to have knowledge and understanding of the rules and general principles of geodetic measurements on the ground.And since there are different types of theodolites, then this knowledge will help to quickly learn all of them.

Being a multi-purpose device (in comparison with leveling) theodolites can not only produce precise measurements of horizontal angles and technical leveling, but also to determine with accuracy the value of the guaranteed vertical angles.

To measure the vertical angle is used as a simplified theodolite goniometer called yet.His patterns can be seen on the school learning platform for the study of natural history, etc.But, oddly enough, such a simplified device still retains its practical value and can be used to approximate the elevation angle of the selected object.

Structure and working principle of a theodolite

Modern theodolites provide measuring angles horizontal and vertical not only for geodetic works, but in the surveying area, surveying and mining operations in mines, tunnels, etc., Work on the construction,azimuthal definitions and other tasks related to the need for accurate measurement and stakeout.

At the heart of the construction of a theodolite (in particular, optical, as the most traditional version), providing his work, are the horizontal and vertical circles (limbs) with grading in degrees and minutes, the system of optical (for the targeting and removal of the measurement values), andmechanical (for installing, turning and fixing limbs and optical) devices.

In general, the principle is pointing the telescope at the target, locking indications of horizontal and vertical limbs, the projection of values ​​through which the system of prisms and mirrors can be seen by using the dial microscope.

To improve measurement accuracy are made repeatedly.Methods of working with theodolites, there are many, for example, the measurement of angles face observations, the results of which are displayed values ​​of measuring a full reception, etc.

Modern classification theodolites

commercially available devices have different accuracy.In its largest different classification theodolites .Since the technical variations allow for measurement error up to thirty minutes on both sides, their designation includes the letters and numbers T30.

lower value of errors (two and five minutes in both directions) give the exact theodolites, designated T2 and T5, respectively.The smallest mistake can provide high precision measurements (up to one minute in both directions) and T1 T05 theodolites.

models of some species may be provided with the plate level alidade or compensators.This is also reflected in their notation (K - compensator).Construction equipment and repeater may have nepovtoritelnuyu system axes.As a rule, the latter is used in high-precision model.In designs repeater models required the presence of locking screws and suggestive.

But apart from these traditional models of theodolites, there are other varieties.This high-precision theodolites, such as the gyro and kinoteodolity (phototheodolites), total stations (as a kind of electronic device models with optical and laser-guided).

Modern theodolites types and models are often equipped with electronics that allows to calculate and memorize the coordinates of points on location, automatically translate the results of the measurements in the appropriate system of coordinates or percentages, eliminate errors, and off the value of their records.All these functions are assumed by the microprocessor control system.

Additional amenities (such as the screen scale illumination) allow to work in low light conditions.Such an electronic theodolite can be equipped with a laser pointer and a plumb line, which greatly improves the accuracy of the measurement and converts it into the instrument (or a laser theodolite).

Here, as in the case of traditional theodolites, many models.A distinctive feature of Total Station - high precision.The angle can be measured with an accuracy of half a second, and the distance - with an accuracy of up to ½ of a millimeter per one thousand meters.

way, and conventional optical theodolite building can be applied in a complex with a laser tape measure or range finders and laser line lasers, which undoubtedly increases the accuracy of the work performed.