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August 12, 2017 18:07

The use of refractory bricks in the construction of

Brick - the most demanded building material in the construction of residential and industrial buildings.There are many varieties of brick, different physical parameters which depend on the area and their application.In this review we will focus on Firebrick.But let's start from the beginning.


  • Species brick
  • Types fireclay
  • Visual differences firebrick
  • What shape can be fireclay bricks?
  • Benefits firebrick
  • Disadvantages firebrick
  • Weight and dimensions firebrick
  • Signs of refractory bricks of good quality
  • Signs underfired bricks
  • Where is advisable to use a brick?
  • Features masonry
    • Preparation bonding solution for fireclay masonry
    • Preparation of mortar solution (per 100 pcs. Of bricks)
      • What is needed?
      • cooking technology
    • solution prepared with his own hands from the sand and refractory fireclay
      • What is needed?
      • technology create
    • Important!
    • Additives

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Species brick

  1. Brick (main component - clay).
  2. Brick silicate (sand + clay + various additives).
  3. Refractory brick (clay + sand + additives that improve the ability to resist high temperatures):
  • zhelsky;
  • refractory;
  • Borovichsky;
  • Novomoskovsk;
  • hearth;
  • fireclay.

Fireclay (alumina) bricks made from special fireclay powder and various clays, burning billets in special furnaces at very high temperatures.

Chamotte - refractory clay, lost chemically bound water and plasticity in the firing process, caked to a certain extent.Produce this raw material in blast furnaces by firing at 1300-1500 ° C.

Types fireclay

  1. Vysokozhzhenny (moisture absorption of 2-10%).
  2. Nizkozhzhenny (water absorption up to 25%).

Visual differences firebrick

  1. Yellow (camel) color.Deep and dark color indicates that the bricks for masonry oven.
  2. grainy texture.
  3. rough surface.
  4. Special marking ( "W").

What shape can be fireclay bricks?

  • rectangular;
  • wedge;
  • trapezoidal etc.

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Benefits firebrick

  1. refractory properties.Fireclay blocks are able to withstand up to 1600 ° C.
  2. plane, built of this material warms up quickly and holds heat longer than a similar ceramic (ie, to achieve the same effect you need less fuel).
  3. Easy installation.Each of the 6 sides firebrick can act as a front side.For comparison, a ceramic brick has only 3 such faces that are different from other visually.
  4. not emit harmful vapors when heated unlike other types of refractory bricks.
  5. resistance to aggressive alkaline and acidic environments.

Disadvantages firebrick

  1. Fewer frost-razmerzany who is able to make such a brick, ceramic compared to analog.To address this shortcoming, you can use a special varnish or liquid glass.
  2. Because of the special hardening bad cut.Trimming of this material can produce a grinder equipped with a diamond blade.

Weight and dimensions firebrick

  1. Weight = 3 kg.
  2. Dimensions most running types of this type of brick: 25h12h6,5sm 23h11,4h and 6.5 cm.

Signs of refractory bricks of good quality

  1. correct shape and flatness.
  2. lack of chips, white streaks, cracks, roughness.
  3. color saturation (the darker the better).
  4. When tapped brick produces a ringing sound.
  5. bumps does not crumble, and is divided into large chunks.

Signs underfired bricks

  • pale color is not pronounced.
  • forms a hollow sound when tapped.
  • fragility (is painted impact chisel).
  • too porous structure.

Excessive firing bricks is black, charred and melted to the center.The resulting product is called Zheleznyak.It is very resistant to the influence of various external factors.It is expedient to choose for laying foundations and sewer lines.But, this brick is not suitable for the construction of furnaces.

Where is advisable to use a brick?


  1. finishing the surfaces of outdoor furnaces, which account for direct contact with fire - firebox, chimney, etc.
  2. masonry fireplace or furnace, arranged in a house entirely of refractory bricks..
  3. Creation of production facilities for concentrating, metallurgy and chemical and others. Industries, such as blast furnaces, boilers and fuel cells, and so forth. Konica Minolta DIGITAL CAMERA

This building material is often preferred in the construction of the furnace or fireplace, but then we must remember,the price is much higher fireclay brick ceramic classic.


Features masonry

  1. Laying made without pre-soaking blocks.
  2. must first clean the surface from clogging with a brush.
  3. joint width during laying should not exceed 3 mm.

Preparation bonding solution for fireclay masonry

is ready to start laying, you can buy ready-made powder (fireclay mortar) for the manufacture of binder solution, and you can personally make a powder, mixing fireclay and fireclay sand.Consider both options.

preparing a solution of the mortar (per 100 pcs. Of bricks)


Mortar Fireclay

What is needed?

  • 40 kg of finished powder (yield - 3 buckets finished substance);
  • clean water (no additives, no salt);
  • portland - 6kg (15% by weight of the dry mortar);
  • electric drill (concrete mixer).

cooking technology

  1. The dry refractory powder just add water.This must be done before the time when the solution becomes creamy density.
  2. This solution does not interfere with less than 5 minutes using the blender, mixer or electric drill (for large quantities).
  3. Leave the resulting substance for an hour.
  4. mix again.
  5. Add portland cement to improve the strength properties.
  6. solution is ready to use.

application of mortar, of course, more comfortable and easiest option.However, the solution made basic components of his own, does not give such a strong shrinkage and has superior strength characteristics.Therefore it is better not to be lazy and to prepare a solution on their own.

solution prepared with his own hands from the sand and refractory fireclay

White kaolin clay

white kaolin clay

What is needed?

  • 1 package powdered clay (preferably white kaolin);
  • Fireclay sand (crushed fight fireclay blocks);
  • water (pure, no additives, no salt);
  • sieve (with a mesh size of 3h3mm).

    fireclay sand

    Sand fireclay

technology create

  1. Soak the clay so that the water covered her completely.
  2. Leave for some time (from 12 hours to 2-3 days).
  3. Periodically stir the substance.
  4. Carefully wipe the clay through a sieve.
  5. Add sifted through a sieve sand (its mass must be twice the weight of clay).
  6. Mix thoroughly.
  7. Proceed to the masonry.


  1. If not found white kaolin clay, replace the Cambrian blue.
  2. Pure clay is almost no smell.If there is a very strong smell, it is not cleaned up from the clay organic additives.
  3. only permissible replacement refractory sand - sand mining without inclusions.Do not attempt to replace it with a quartz analogue, marble or granite chips.
  4. The final solution should be the thickness, to freely slide with a trowel, without sticking and without dirtying it.It must be free of lumps and clots.

solution is made by all the rules, it does not require the use of additional additives.However, if there is any doubt about the quality of the mixture, you can use certain substances to improve certain qualities.


  1. To enhance the strength qualities: salt - 100-150g / bucket;cement 150 - 1/2 trowel / bucket.However, it should be understood that by adding cement, you will not be able to repair the masonry, and salt often leaves whitish stains.
  2. To enhance plasticity - water glass (1.3% by volume of the solution).

Fireclay brick has now become indispensable, its use ensures the safety of masonry in special environments, improves fire safety and gives a special visual effect domestic stoves and fireplaces.