First of all, it should be recalled that the construction of any residential or industrial buildings and facilities is conducted strictly according to the agreed and approved project.All documentation, which relates to the building structure, developed by engineers-designers of building specialties.Including estimates made foundation. However, in everyday life often have to build something myself, not "monumental", but very necessary.For example, a garage, sauna, garden house on the plot.And here, of course, should take care of high-quality foundation.Experience shows that the cost of construction of the foundation can be up to ΒΌ of the total cost of construction of the facility.And if the foundation is faulty calculation, the alteration would cost immeasurably greater amount.Plus wasted time, effort and nerves.Therefore, before starting the construction work necessary to know how to calculate the foundation of the house foundation.What is the foundation?His task is, first, to withstand the weight of the entire structure and to distribute the load evenly on the ground.Second, to protect the building from the underground flooding, melt water.

## What must be considered when calculating the foundations

### Features of soil and the type of foundation do

foundation is of several types: slab, strip, pile on poles.Occasionally apply a few design changes that are the "modifications" of the main types.Often, however, measures are being taken to change the soil.For example, if the terrain is swampy, it is a partial excavation and poured more durable material.Often used granshlak, which gradually turns into the concrete;

### Depth of laying the foundation

This option depends on two factors.It is necessary to determine how deep the lie in that place underground (underground) water.Also taken into account and that, at what depth the soil freezes in the winter;

### What a load must withstand the foundation

have to understand that on the foundation (base) holds the whole structure, which has a certain weight.Weight has walls, roof, ceiling, floor.Plus, the weight and have doors, window frames, and so on. N. How to calculate the weight?Known material known area is known for the proportion of each type of material (on the Internet a lot of look-up tables on the subject).Therefore, the total weight of the entire structure can be calculated.We must not forget that something is in the building: furniture, appliances, etc.All this will also be added to the total weight, including even people in home environments.

### trench for the foundation

Naturally, before making the foundation should be prepared trench.Roughly you can specify the maximum depth for some soils:

- sandy or gravelly 1m
- sandy loam 1.25 m
- clay loam 1.5 m

But there is a certain minimum Bookmarks:

- dry ground 07 m
- wet ground 1.2 m

If the basement is provided a building, the minimum depth - 0.4 m (from the level of the basement floor) in the individual construction is most commonly used foundation belt type.It has the advantage of a rigid bunch of elements in any direction (lengthwise, transverse).

### Limit load

clear that "general" structures must not exceed the strains that can withstand ground.Here some data from the maximum load, depending on the type of soil (in kg / cm2).

- coarse sand, gravelly 3,5 - 4,5
- fine wet sand 2 - 3
- solid clay 3 - 6
- gravel, crushed stone 5 - 6

It should take into account the weight of the foundation.In any case, it should be understood that these calculations are made individually for each building.