Build Daily


August 12, 2017 18:06

The engine of the washing machine: the engine wiring diagram to the network as connecting the motor to the new and old washing machines

The engine from the washing machine and the scheme of its connection to the network
  • Types
    • Asynchronous
    • collector
    • Inverter (brushless)
  • Driving motor connected to the network
    • Modern washing machine
    • Washer old model

The engine - the heart of the washing machine.This device rotates the drum during washing.The first models of the drum machines fastens a seat belt, which acts as a drive and ensure the movement of containers filled with linens.Since developers are markedly improved this unit is responsible for the conversion of electric energy into mechanical work.

washing machine motor

Currently, three types of engines used in the production of washing equipment.


Asynchronous Motors of this type consist of two parts - a fixed part (the stator), which acts as a load-bearing structure, and serves as a magnetic core, and a rotating rotor, which drives the drum.Motor rotates by the interaction of the alternating magnetic field of the stator and rotor.Asynchronous this type of device is named because he was not able to reach the synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field, and follows him, as if catching up.

Induction motor on the washing machine

Induction motors are found in two forms: they may be two- or three-phase.Two-phase models today are rare, because at the threshold of the third millennium, their production practically stopped.

Vulnerability of the engine - the weakening of torque.It is manifested in violation of the trajectory of movement of the drum - he sways, without making a complete revolution.

Induction motor on the washing machine

definite plus asynchronous type devices are the plainness of design and ease of maintenance, which is timely lubrication of the motor and replace the failed bearing.Powered induction motor quietly and is quite cheap.

The disadvantages of the device include a large size and low efficiency.

Typically, these engines are equipped with a simple and low-cost models, which do not differ much power.


collector engines replaced the two-phase asynchronous devices.Three-quarters of household appliances are equipped with engines of this type.Their feature is the ability to work and the AC and DC.

The collector of the washing machine motor

To understand the principle of operation of such an engine, a brief description of its structure.The collector is a copper cylinder divided into even rows (sections) isolating "partitions."These contact points with external circuits sections (refer to such sites in electrical uses the term "terminals") are arranged diametrically on opposite sides of the circumference.With both brush contact pin - sliding contacts that provide interaction with the motor rotor, one on each side.As soon as a section is energized to receive the magnetic field coil.

When Live stator and rotor magnetic field starts to rotate the motor shaft clockwise.This is due to the interaction of charges: the same charges repel each other, different - attracted (for greater clarity, remember the "behavior" of conventional magnets).Brushes gradually move from one section to another - and the movement continues.This process will not be interrupted until the network has a voltage.

to send the shaft counterclockwise, you must change the charge distribution on the rotor.For this purpose, the brush comprise the opposite direction - toward the stator.This typically involve miniature electromagnetic actuators (power relays).

The collector motor from a washing machine

kollektoronogo Among the advantages of the engine - a high rotational speed, a smooth change in engine speed, which depends on the changes in the voltage independent of mains frequency fluctuations, high starting torque and compact device.Among its shortcomings it noted a relatively short service life due to rapid wear of the brushes and collector.Friction causes a significant increase in temperature, resulting in destruction of the layer, the collector isolating contacts.For the same reason, the winding interturn fault may occur that can cause the weakening of the magnetic field.The external manifestation of this problem would be the full stop of the drum.

Inverter (brushless)

inverter motor - a motor with a direct drive.This invention is a little over 10 years.Designed by the renowned Korean concern, it quickly gained popularity thanks to the long life, reliability, durability, and its modest dimensions.

components of this type of engine also act as a rotor and a stator, but a fundamental difference lies in the fact that the motor is secured to the drum directly, without the use of connecting members which fail first.

Inverter motor of the washing machine

Among the undoubted advantages of inverter motors - simplicity, lack of parts subject to rapid wear, comfortable accommodation in the machine casing, low noise and vibrations, compactness.

disadvantage of this engine is the complexity of - its production requires a lot of cost and effort, which is reflected significantly on the price of inverter machines.

Inverter ( stepping ) motor on the washing machine

Wiring motor network

Modern washing machine

When connecting the engine of modern devices for the washing to the network with a voltage of 220V is necessary to consider its main features:

  • it works without startingwinding;
  • to start the motor start capacitor is not needed.

To start the engine, it should be a certain way to connect to the network from reaching his lead.Below are the connection diagrams of the collector and brushless motors.

Wiring commutator motor of the washing machine
Wiring brushless ( stepping ) motor of the washing machine

First of all, define the "scope of work", excluding contacts that come from the tachometer and do not participate in the connection.They are recognized by the tester, working in an ohmmeter mode.Fixing the tool on one of the contacts, look for another probe pair he concluded.The value of the tacho wire resistance is about 70 ohms.To find a pair of the remaining contacts, rang them the same way.

Now on to the most important stage of the work.Connect the 220V wire to one of the winding outputs.Her second outlet is required to connect with the first brush.The second brush is connected to the remaining 220-volt wire.Turn the motor to the network to check his work *.If you do not make any mistakes, the rotor begins to rotate.Keep in mind that when such a connection it will only move in one direction.If the test run went without pads, the device is ready for use.

To change the direction of movement of the motor is reversed, connection brushes should be reversed: now the first to be included in the network, and the other connected to the output winding.Check the motor ready for operation in the manner described above.

Connection to a network of the washing machine

Visually process connection, you can see in the following video.

Washer old model

With connecting the motor in the old-style machines is more complicated.

First define two related to each other a pair of pins.To do this, use a tester (aka - meter).Fixing the tool on one of the terminals of the winding, look for another probe concluded it doubles.The remaining contacts will automatically form the second pair.

then need to determine where the start-up, and where - operating winding.Measure their resistance;higher resistance will indicate the starting coil (PO), which creates an initial torque, the lower is characteristic of the excitation coil (RH), which creates a magnetic field rotation.

Wiring engine old-fashioned washing machine

Here are the possible connection diagrams of three-phase induction motor, and a detailed video tutorial to them.

Wiring diagrams of three-phase asynchronous motor of the washing machine